Santol Peelings as Potential Source for Ethanol

8 August 2016

Abstract – Today’s world poses an era where technology is both comfort and need. In the enjoyment of these benefits, energy has been harnessed mostly from non-renewable energy resources. While energy is surging in demand, by-products included pollution and other harmful effects. People need to shift their views to the alternative energy resources such as ethanol, alcohol extracted from fruits. Food consumption should never be sacrificed, therefore, using fruit wastes is wiser. Santol is locally abundant fruit with popularly eaten pulps and normally thrown peelings.

The study focuses on extracting ethanol from Santol peelings, using white and brown sugar, and comparing it to the commercial in flame propagation, duration, temperature difference, and heat content with varying concentrations. The study is an experiment divided into three phases, fermentation, distillation, and the flame testing. Gathered data has been tabulated and treated with Z test and Randomized Block Design. With the findings, Santol peelings can be a potential source of ethanol. Keywords – alternatives, concentrations, fermentation, distillation, duration, heat content, propagation

I. INTRODUCTION Energy is the prime requirement for us to enjoy the benefits of technology. Through the years, its demand has been surging while its supply experiences shakes. Energy sources spring from coal, natural gas, oils, and many other nonrenewable energy resources. The depletion of these sources is inevitable as their recovery rate is much slower than the consumption rate of the people. Apart from the depleting issue, nonrenewable energy resources have been giving pollutants and risks, responsible for the manmade calamities and tragedies worldwide.

There is a need to divert our views towards energy sources that do not sacrifice the quality of living that we long while promoting a much sustainable environment where all organisms thrive and prosper. Ethanol, a renewable energy resource, is combined with gasoline (gasohol) and used as automotive fuel. Though, ethanol is chiefly produced from raw materials fitter for human consumption. Ethanol is extracted from fruits, might as well, the fruit wastes such as peelings can generate ethanol. Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) is among the locally abundant fruit in the country. Its pulp is popularly eaten while its peelings are naturally thrown away.

Thus the project is called to explore the potential of ethanol from Santol peelings and comparing its ethanol to that of the commercial one. II. METHODOLOGY Extraction of the Santol ethanol had undergone three phases. First was the fermentation phase, then the distillation phase, and lastly, the testing phase. During the fermentation process, the santol peelings were chopped into fine pieces. For every two cups of the chopped peelings, one cup of distilled water was added. To produce the mash, the chopped peelings, together with the distilled water were blended. We used the cheese cloth in order to filter the juice from the mash.

For every four cups of juice, we added one cup of sugar. Since we had two set-ups, the first set-up was added with brown sugar while the other one was added with white sugar. The mixture was stirred in order to completely dissolve the sugar. The mixture was then pasteurized at 60°C in 30 minutes in order to eliminate bacteria that might alter the process. After pasteurizing the mixture, it was cooled to room temperature. When the temperature reached its steady state, we added the baker’s yeast. For every 1. 125liters of the pasteurized mixture, only 1/8 teaspoon of the baker’s yeast must be added.

The mixture was then placed in a sealed fermenting jar and kept in a dark place at room temperature in two weeks to complete the fermentation. The distillation process cannot be done if the mixture is not completely fermented. Necessary equipment is also needed in order to start distilling the fermented mixture. During this process, 100ml of the fermented mixture was poured into the distilling flask and was heated up to 78. 5°C in order to evaporate and condense the ethanol. Testing was done using the extracted ethanol from the distillation procedure and also with the commercial one.

The tests conducted were for the flame propagation, flame duration, temperature differences and heat content. In testing for the flame propagation, we used a 20-inch cotton strip. The cotton strip was fully dipped into the Erlenmeyer flask with the 3:2 ratio or 3ml of the santol ethanol and 2ml of unleaded gasoline mixture. The cotton absorbed all the liquid mixture. The wet cotton strip was then held on a flat surface and ignited from the tip using a match. The conduct of the flame duration and temperature differences was also done during the procedure.

The procedure for the heat content was done after gathering the necessary data for the temperature differences III. RESULTS TABLE 1 FLAME DURATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 40% CONCENTRATION Trial 40% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 53 51 2 47. 7 60 3 52. 83 52. 26 4 73. 17 57. 06 5 59. 63 58 Ave 57. 266 55. 664 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 40 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 2 FLAME DURATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 50% CONCENTRATION Trial 50% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 60. 57 50 2 66. 15 48 3 55. 57 60. 21 4 62 51. 34 5 60 52. 4 Ave 60. 858 52. 39 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 50 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 3 FLAME DURATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 60% CONCENTRATION Trial 60% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 67. 16 45 2 59 50 3 62. 05 54. 9 4 59. 67 49 5 54 48. 34 Ave 60. 376 49. 448 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 60 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 4 FLAME DURATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 100% CONCENTRATION Trial.

100% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 55. 71 59. 35 2 71. 05 71. 37 3 73. 21 57. 24 4 67. 32 50. 22 5 70. 02 81. 18 Ave 67. 462 63. 872 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 100 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 5 FLAME PROPAGATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 40% CONCENTRATION Trial 40% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 0. 508 2. 032 2 1. 27 2. 032 3 1. 016 1. 693 4 1. 639 1. 209 5 1. 411 1. 954 Ave 1. 1688 1. 784 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 40 % ethanol concentration.

TABLE 6 FLAME PROPAGATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 50% CONCENTRATION Trial 50% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 2. 309 2. 032 2 1. 129 1. 693 3 1. 037 1. 588 4 1. 058 1. 494 5 2. 032 2. 032 Ave 1. 513 1. 7678 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 50 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 7 FLAME PROPAGATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 60% CONCENTRATION Trial 60% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 1. 27 1. 881 2 1. 104 1. 5875 3 1. 155 1. 155 4 1. 129 1. 494 5 1. 303 2. 032 Ave 1. 1922 1. 6299

The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 60 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 8 FLAME PROPAGATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 100% CONCENTRATION Trial 100% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 0. 403 0. 598 2 0. 026 0. 541 3 0. 032 0. 706 4 0. 057 0. 806 5 0. 314 0. 876 Ave 0. 1664 0. 7054 The table shows the flame duration of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 100 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 9 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 40% CONCENTRATION Trial 40% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 13 9 2 20 12 3 14 16 4 15 26 5 19 21 Ave 16. 2 16. 8 The table shows the temperature difference of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 40 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 10 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 50% CONCENTRATION Trial 50% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 9 14 2 8 24 3 10 16 4 9 30 5 10 44 Ave 9. 2 25. 6 The table shows the temperature difference of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 50 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 11 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 60% CONCENTRATION Trial 60% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 110 21 2 10. 5 32. 5 3 9. 5 22 4 4. 5 20 5 10 30 Ave 8. 9 25. 1 The table shows the temperature difference of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 60 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 12 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 100% CONCENTRATION Trial 100% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 3 26 2 20 21 3 49. 5 15 4 7 21 5 11. 5 15 Ave 18. 2 19. 6 The table shows the temperature difference of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 100 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 13 HEAT CONTENT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 40% CONCENTRATION Trial 40% Ethanol Solution

Experimental Commercial 1 58. 3623 40. 4047 2 89. 7882 53. 8729 3 62. 8517 71. 8306 4 67. 3412 116. 7247 5 85. 2988 94. 2776 Ave 72. 7284 75. 4221 The table shows the heat content of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 40 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 14 HEAT CONTENT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 50% CONCENTRATION Trial 50% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 50. 5059 78. 5647 2 44. 8941 134. 6823 3 56. 1176 89. 7882 4 50. 5059 168. 3529 5 56. 1176 246. 9176 Ave 51. 6282 143. 6611 The table shows the heat content of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 50 % ethanol concentration.

TABLE 15 HEAT CONTENT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 60% CONCENTRATION Trial 60% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 67. 3411 141. 4164 2 70. 7082 218. 8587 3 63. 9741 148. 1505 4 30. 3035 134. 6823 5 67. 3412 202. 0235 Ave 59. 9336 169. 0263 The table shows the heat content of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 60 % ethanol concentration. TABLE 16 HEAT CONTENT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIAL ETHANOL FOR 100% CONCENTRATION Trial 100% Ethanol Solution Experimental Commercial 1 33. 6706 291. 8117 2 224. 4705 235. 694 3 555. 5645 168. 3529 4 78. 5647 235. 694 5 129. 0705 168. 3529

Ave 204. 2682 219. 9811 The table shows the heat content of the experimental and commercial ethanol for 100 % ethanol concentration. FIGURE 1 VOLUME OF THE ETHANOL YIELD OF THE WHITE SUGAR Figure 1 shows the amount of volume of the ethanol yield of the white sugar. To compute for the volume of ethanol per unit volume of the juice, Volume of ethanol extracted = 49 mL Volume of the juice= 750 mL Therefore the volume of ethanol that can be extracted from a milliliter of Santol juice is, 49 mL / 750 mL = 0. 0653 mL of ethanol A volume of 0. 0653 mL of ethanol can be extracted from a one milliliter of Santol juice.

The volume of juice necessary to obtain a one milliliter of ethanol is, 750 mL / 49 mL = 15. 30612mL of juice To obtain 1 mL of ethanol, 15. 30612 mL of Santol juice is needed. FIGURE 2 VOLUME OF THE ETHANOL YIELD OF THE BROWN SUGAR Fig. 2 shows the ethanol yield of the brown sugar. To compute for the volume of ethanol per unit volume of the juice, Volume of ethanol extracted = 50 mL Volume of the juice= 1125 mL Therefore the volume of ethanol that can be extracted from a milliliter of Santol juice is, 50 mL / 1125 mL = 0. 0444 mL of ethanol A volume of 0. 0444 mL of ethanol can be extracted from a one milliliter of Santol juice.

The volume of juice necessary to obtain a one milliliter of ethanol is, 1125 mL / 50 mL = 22. 5 mL of juice To obtain 1 mL of ethanol, 22. 5 mL of Santol juice is needed. TABLE 17 ETHANOL YIELD PER UNIT GRAM Mass of Peelings Ethanol Yield (volume) Brown Sugar 500 g 50 mL White Sugar 450 g 49 mL For the Brown Sugar Set-up To compute for the ethanol yield per gram is, Volume of ethanol Yield = 50 mLMass of the Peelings = 500 g 50 mL / 500 g = 0. 1mL per gram For every 1 gram of Santol peelings, 0. 1 mL of ethanol can be obtained. To compute for the mass of Santol peelings needed to obtain a 1 mL of ethanol,

For the 60 % concentration, there is statistical evidence of a difference between the flame duration of the experimental and the commercial ethanol. For the 100 % concentration, there is no significant difference between theflame duration of the experimental and the commercial ethanol. there is no statistical evidence to prove that there is a significant difference in the flame duration between the different ethanol concentrations of the experimental one. For the 40 % concentration, there is statistical evidence of a difference between the flame propagation of the experimental and the commercial ethanol.

For the 50 % concentration, there is no significant difference of the flame duration between the experimental and the commercial. For the 60 % concentration, there is significant difference of the flame propagation between the experimental and the commercial ethanol. For the 100 % concentration, there is statistical evidence in the flame propagation of the experimental and commercial ethanol. There is statistical evidence to prove that there is a significant difference in the flame propagation between the different ethanol concentrations of the experimental one.

For the 40 % concentration, there is no significant difference in the temperature difference of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one. For the 50 % concentration, there is statistical evidence of difference of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one. For the 60 % concentration, there is statistical evidence of difference of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one. For the 100 % concentration, there is no statistical evidence that there is difference in the temperature difference of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one.

There is no statistical evidence to prove that there is a significant difference in the temperature difference between the different ethanol concentrations of the experimental one. For the 40 % concentration, there is no statistical evidence that there is difference in the heat content of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one. For the 50 % concentration, there is significant evidence that there is difference in the heat content of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one.

For the 60 % concentration, there is significant evidence that there is difference in the heat content of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one. For the 100 % concentration, there is no statistical evidence that there is difference in the heat content of the experimental ethanol from the commercial one. There is no statistical evidence to prove that there is a significant difference in the heat content between the different ethanol concentrations of the experimental one. The set-up with brown sugar has ethanol yield of 0. 1089 mL per gram of the Santol peelings.

The weight of the Santol peelings needed to obtain a one mL ethanol is 9. 1836 grams. The set-up with the white sugar has ethanol yield of 0. 1 mL for every one gram of Santol peelings. Ten grams of Santol peelings is needed to obtain a one mL of ethanol. The set-up with the brown sugar with 1125 mL of Santol juice has produced 50 mL of ethanol. To produce an mL of ethanol using brown sugar, 22. 5 mL of Santol juice is needed. The set-up with the white sugar has 750 mL of Santol juice and has produced 49 mL of ethanol. To produce an mL of ethanol using white sugar, 15. 30612 mL of Santol juice must be prepared.

To produce 1 mL of ethanol from the Santol peelings, the total cost will amount to 0. 6638 pesos. V. CONCLUSION Santol peelings have the potential to be a source of ethanol. Considering the minimal acquisition cost of the experimental ethanol and the comparative performance it has showed for the flame duration, flame propagation, temperature difference, and the heat content in relation to the commercially available one, a latent source of ethanol can be the discarded peelings from this fruit and may serve as alternative for the traditional sources of ethanol, which currently spring from food sources such as corn, bananas, and others.

The concentration of the experimental ethanol does not affect the performance in flame duration, temperature difference, and heat content while effects in the flame propagation is observed. Then, the concentrations do not generally affect on the performance. For economical reasons, one can use the greater concentration of Santol ethanol to save resources without sacrificing the quality of the fuel. Concurrently, this study will significantly help in the research of finding better alternatives and greener choices towards a more sustainable environment. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researchers extend their deepest gratitude to research adviser, Engr. Kae Vines G. Tanudtanud for the guidance and support she has extended to us. To Engr. Norma B. Moreno and the faculty of the Chemistry Department whose knowledge and support have made us along our project testing, to Engr. Rosario Dangin, laboratory assistant of the Chemical Engineering Department for the unwavering support and encouragement in the pursuance of this study, and to Concordia C. Bacalso, head of the Networking and Linkages Office, for sharing her information on the field of study.

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