Schisms in Early Islam

4 April 2015
Examines factionalism, politics, struggles over successor to Muhammad, war, revolution, repression and corruption from 7th Cent.-9th Cent.

This research paper deals with the causes of the factional strife and schismatic movements which bedeviled efforts to forge and maintain the unity and authority of great Islamic empire which was created during the first two hundred years of the Islamic movement. During his lifetime, the Prophet Muhammad through his inspired leadership was able to forge a consensus in the cities of Medina and Mecca for the creation of an Islamic religious state which superseded family, clan and tribal ties. However, after his death in 632 A. D. under the rule of his Arabia-based successors and the Umayyad and early Abbasid Caliphates, fratricidal struggle and conflict based on a host of political, economic and religious factors undermined that unity, which led to its ultimate destruction.

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