The discussion of Peregoy and Boyle on English Learner Instruction was centered on various models or paradigms, which are primary recommendations from TESOL that are directly implemented to facilitate Second Language or L2 Learners in various educational settings. These models of instruction – the Differentiated Instruction,
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Content-Based Instruction, Sheltered Instruction, Cooperative Group Development, and Thematic Instruction – are intended to address various learning situations, from the nature of the learners to the composition of the learner population, and such. In this case, the inquiry is based on determining how needs of L2 learners in a mainstream content area class is to be provided.
As a means to deal with this situation, the teaching-learning process should be injected with core concepts primarily from the fusion between Differentiated Instruction or DI and Sheltered Instruction or SI, and to a degree an application of Cooperative Group Development models.
The combination between DI and SI meets the diverse needs of native English speakers and L2 learners within a single learning situation or mainstream class since DI is directly focuses on facilitating learning with considerations of varied levels of English proficiency, while the SI utilizes the target language during instruction which does not neglect native English speakers, but consider the development of English language and literacy for both distinct populations through continued assessment as a means to make certain that learners are able to understand the content of lessons.
Moreover, Cooperative Group Development models will nurture collaborative or cooperative relationships between native speakers and L2 learners despite their distinct learning skills and capabilities, and gives way to enriched social learning as facilitated by helping and supportive interactions among them.
Diverting attention to specific activities and tasks that will suit the mainstream content area class, more specifically a primary science class, one particular technique is to implement scaffolding through daily routine tasks. Everyday, the teacher should begin the science class with relevant routine tasks such as asking students to complete a Weather Chart by filling in the weather for that particular day, the temperature, and identifying appropriate clothes to wear
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for particular weather patterns. Another routine activity would be singing a song or reciting a poem as a class that has something to do with months in a year or days in a week, and then doing two or three individual recitations of what month, day, and date is it, following a patterned statement.
For a science class, scaffolding is also important in the process of introducing the lesson for the day. If for instance the lesson is all about the four phases of matter, the teacher utilizes various pictures that show things in different states of matter, solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. The teacher then asks the learners what they see in each picture. Next comes asking which pictures have something in common and the categorization of each picture according to their similarities. From this point on, the teacher is able to label each category according to the phases of matter.
The next activity will include tangible objects presented in the class and each student will be asked to identify phase or state of each thing. This particular learning activity adheres to the concept of DI since the lesson is presented in various ways, and SI since there is continuous use of the target language through discussion and recitation, and questioning which forms the basic foundation of continued assessment.
Following the standards of Cooperative Group Developments of learning, heterogenous groups will be formed from the native English speakers and L2 learners. Each group will be asked to make a chart, a report, or any form of tangible material based on assigned phase or state of matter. Each member of the group will be asked to contribute one characteristics of assigned phase of matter, whether it is solid, liquid, gas, or plasma.
As a means to present the facts or data gathered, each member of the group will speak about his own contribution to the chart detailing why he observed such characteristics exhibited by identified phase of matter. In this way, the learners are able to display cooperation by being contributive, and by communicating with other students continually through frequent group activities, L2 learners are able to learn English words and concepts that are used appropriately by native English speakers.See More on Language, Learners