2.2.1 Definitions of Self Care Ability
According to WHO definition, self-care ability refers to “activities individuals, families, and communities undertake with the intention of enhancing health, preventing disease, limiting illness, and restoring health’’ (WHO, from answers.com). In some others prospects, self-care ability defined as self-care is some of individual behavior for a person maintaining health or having disease detection and treatment (from answers.com). In addition, self-care ability means a person is able to have self-care behavior without professional assistant. However, persons are knowledgeable at technical skills and knowledge, they are from professional and lay experience (answers.com).

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2.2.2 Dimensions of Self Care Ability
There is no particular definition of self-care ability. The definitions depend to who takes part in self-care behavior such as personal, family and community; the purpose of self-care ability behavior such as being healthy and preventing disease; and which health care professional participate (answers.com). People can understand self-care ability in many different ways. Firstly, self-care can be dimension as mind, body and spirit (By Dorothy M Neddermeyer PhD.).

Dorothy purposed that self-care is more related to take-care mental health. For example, human beings need to choose what they believe and have good living. Second, Second, self-care ability also refers to have self-care behavior without external assistant. Self-care is a behavior which refers to keep physical health, limited illness and preventing diseases. At last, Barthel Index is a professional tool which is widely used in measuring elderlies self-care ability. For example, self-care professionals (eg. Occupational Therapist) use Barthel Index to measure self-care behavior and ability. Barthel Index’s purpose of self-care ability is that a person can be function independently and continuous daily activities without assistant.

2.2.3 Overseas studies on Self Care Ability of Elderly
Self –care is the daily activities practice for maintain life, health and well-being. Orem purposed that there are many self-care requisites, such as the needs of food and drinks (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition). According to several reports, the elder people who are undernutrition are suffering high risk of low self-caring. The studies show the association with undernutrition and the low functional ability to have

Page 2 Self Care Ability Essay

daily life activities (Covinsky et al., 1999; Gazzotti et al., 2000). Moreover, another study has shown the association between improving energy intake and have ability to maintain daily activities (O ¨ dlund Olin et al., 2003). Therefore, some studies assumed that the nutritional status of elderlies have relevant to daily activities. As the result, the highest of nutritional status, it can improve the functional ability (readcude.com). In addition,

Orem (2001) stated that individuals have to know their self-care action and also as well as be within the capabilities of the person. Also, individuals who have to realize self-care activities are acquired to motivation and a certain level of self-care ability(readcude.com). Higher self-care ability is related to good health and satisfaction in life. Older persons feeling healthy depends on personal ability to alter and compensate to their real situations (Centre for caring research). Self-care ability require to ‘’good health, being frequency active, good mental health, not being at risk of undernutrition, and satisfaction with life were all positively related to self-care ability.’’ (Dovepress.com) Therefore, we assumed that self-care ability is related to self-esteem and physical health.

2.2.4 Variables Related to Self-Care Ability
Self-care ability is related to good physical health and mental health, it is not persons who are developing undernutrition. They are satisfaction to their living and have motivation in their life. Moreover, some studies have shown self-care ability is related to age. According a study by Callaghan, it has shown that the oldest group of people did not realize higher self-care ability, even they have been practicing a more healthy behavior and higher self-efficacy beliefs. Also, according to a study by Klainin and Ouannapiruk, people who have higher educational backgrounds and higher self-care ability can perform better self-care action and behavior (Centre for caring research). In generate, self-care ability depends on the conditions of physical health and mental health. In addition, self-care actions and behaviors depend on self-care ability and educational background.

3.2.1 Self Care Ability
In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) offered a general definition of self-care:

“Self Care in health refers to the activities individuals, families and communities undertake with the intention of enhancing health, preventing disease, limiting illness, and restoring health. These activities are derived from knowledge and skills from the pool of both professional and lay experience. They are undertaken by lay people on their own behalf, either separately or in participative collaboration with professionals.” (from ASMI.com)

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