Separation of Mixtures

10 October 2016

Magnetism is only effective in insoluble substances. Examples of magnetic separation include the extraction of iron ore from surrounding silicate. Magnetic separation is also used to separate magnetic substances from waste water. Filtration is a technique that will separate a solid that has not yet dissolved in a liquid. Take a mixture of a solid and liquid and run it through a filter, the liquid will pass through the filter and you will be left with the sold. The filter has little holes in it that are small enough to only let liquid through.

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Filtration is not a technique to separate solids, separating solids like that is called sifting. Example of filtration includes your kidney. Kidneys use the same principals but with blood. Another example of filtration is when you make coffee. Making coffee includes the use of a coffee filter. Not that you can do different things with different filters. Extremely fine filters will separate grains of sand from water. Evaporation is the method of separating a substance with heat.

Evaporation works when you take a substance, heat it up and let one of the components evaporate so you’re left with the residue which is the other component. In India, citizens would often boil saltwater to obtain salt. The problem with evaporation is that you can only get one component from the substance and it’s usually the one with the higher boiling point. Do not confuse evaporation with another separation method called distillation, distillation uses the same principals of evaporation, but it takes it to the next level and allows you to get multiple components.

An everyday example of evaporation would include the process of clothes drying on a line; the water gets heated up and evaporates, leaving the dry cloth. Distillation, as I previously mention follows the same principals of evaporation but it allows you to extract both components. In evaporation, a substance is heated up and evaporates, leaving you with one component. In distillation, the component that is evaporated is captured and transferred in its gaseous state to another area; here it is condensed and converted into its liquid form.

This procedure can be carried out with different temperatures and therefore you can extract different components. An example of distillation includes the extraction of different components of crude oil. For example kerosene, fuel oil, etc. Sifting follows the same principals of a filter, but it is used to separate solids from solids. A sifter is basically a filter but the holes are larger. The holes allow tiny solids like sand to pass and trap rock. Sifting is largely used in archeology.

Sorting is self-explanatory, sorting is when you physically separate mechanical substances by hand, it is used most frequently in the modern world with solid mechanical substances, as filtering it, and distilling it and evaporating solids from each other don’t work. You could sift it but it’s inconsistent and isn’t the ideal way of separating the components. An example of sorting is at a recycling plant where non-recyclable items are extracted from recyclable ones. By: Gaurav Ranganath Feel Free To Ask and Give Me Feedback

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