Sex, Race, and Class Final Exam Study Guide
Having a hardcopy of the PowerPoint slides will be especially useful for studying (statistical) information presented in the charts and graphs. I would recommend that you focus most heavily on the places where the material from the assigned readings and lecture material overlap. There will be some questions drawn from the assigned readings that were not discussed in class. For that reason, in order to score in the A or B range, it is absolutely essential that you review the assigned readings by utilizing the Reading and Discussion Qs. Please review these specific readings. There is at least one question from each on the exam.
In other words, there is at least 12 points at stake. Page, Clarence Lamberth, John Harkness, Geoff Kimmel, Michael Larew, John If you don’t see one of the terms below in your notes, try to Google it to refresh your memory. I. KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS Socialization, “gender training”/gender bootcamp Media representation, media framing, media effects Media omnivores Macro-level, micro-level Prejudice Social distance (Bogardus) Confirmation bias Discrimination Audit study Racism Institutional racism (institutional discrimination) White privilege Colorism Index of dissimilarity II. KEY QUESTIONS Learning about Differences What kinds of lessons do children learn about gender while growing up? What kind of “gender training” do we receive from our parents? Please review this section of the class, paying attention to examples dealing with language, physical interaction, and toys/clothing/books, etc. What are the consequences of these kinds of interaction? [These Qs apply both to the essay and multiple-choice Qs] ·What kinds of gender lessons are learned in school? Especially, what differences did Sadker and Sadker uncover in their studies of gender in elementary school—especially in terms of how teachers interact with male and female students?
What are the differences in interaction, and what are their consequences? ·What are some of the differences in the way that working- and middle-class families socialize their children? In particular, recall examples dealing with differences in the use of language and social interaction across social classes, as discussed by Annette Lareau and Hart & Risley. Portraying Differences in Language and Media ·What can we learn about language differences between men and women from the research of Deborah Tannen? Who talks more? How do they use talk for different purposes? In general, how much television/media do Americans take in each day? How do these patterns vary by race, gender, age, etc.? ·What are studies of media representation? What do we learn from these studies? ·What are studies of media framing? What do we learn from these studies? ·What are studies of media effects and “cultivation analysis” (George Gerbner)? What do we learn from these studies, in terms of the impact of media exposure on issues related to sex/gender, race, and social class? Prejudice and Discrimination: Race and Ethnicity ·What are: prejudice and discrimination?
What is racism and how is it different from discrimination? ·How is prejudice defined in the Bogardus’s social distance scale? What do we learn from this measure in terms of how prejudice has changed over time? ·Looking at public opinion polls and surveys, to what extent do Americans think that racism and racial tensions are still a problem in society? How do these opinions differ across racial lines? ·What do we learn from the results of recent studies on discrimination in housing, employment, car buying, and “driving while black” (by Massey, Pager, Lamberth, Bertrand and Mullainathan, and others)?
In other words, to what extent do find that discrimination is occurring? ·What is “white privilege”? According to Peggy McIntosh, how does white privilege contribute to racial inequality? ·What is “institutional racism”? How is it different from “discrimination”? What are some examples of institutional racism (the G. I. Bill, funding for education)? ·If racial inequalities are to be reduced, how do the (a) micro- (Michael Scott) and (b) macro-level perspectives suggest different kinds of solutions? ·The legal system sometimes gets involved in cases of discrimination.
Please be aware of cases against Hooters, Abercrombie, etc. Further, on what grounds are organizations like the Augusta National Golf Club able to exclude women as members? ·Who is the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)? What is their job? How many cases/what kinds of cases do they review? ·To what extent is there evidence that white people are sometimes the victims of racial discrimination (“reverse discrimination”)? Please be aware of the findings of the EEOC on this matter, as well as the outcome of the Supreme Court case of Ricci v. DeStefano.
Prejudice and Discrimination: Sexual Orientation ·Thinking about public opinion in the U. S. , to what extent do people currently support same-sex marriage rights among gays and lesbians? How do public attitudes differ by age? How do their views on “gay marriage” compare to their views on “civil unions”? [Check out the graphs and tables] ·In how many states/which states do gays and lesbians have the right to marry? ·In the various court cases, on what basis have gays and lesbians (and their supporters) argued that they should have the legal right to marry? In the United States, both court judges and ordinary citizens play a role in shaping policies surrounding same-sex marriage. What are some of the key differences in the decisions and decision-making process of these two groups on the issue of same-sex marriage? Prejudice and Discrimination: Disabilities Studies ·What is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)? When was it signed into law? What does it cover (employment, public accommodations)? ·What are cochlear implants? In what ways is this medical technology controversial within the deaf community? Prejudice and Discrimination: Gender How large is the “gender gap in pay”? ·Looking at the graphs presented in class, how/why will the gender gap in pay change in the next couple of decades? ·Why does the gender gap in pay exist? What are some of the individual, or micro-level reasons for the gap? What are some of the structural, or macro-level reasons for the gap? [We didn’t talk about the macro-level very much in class, but as long as you understand what the macro-level perspective is, you should be able to develop a basic answer to this Q] ·Continuing to think about the micro- and macro-levels, what are some of the “solutions” to the gender gap in pay?
Possible Essay Questions: 1)Audit studies: What are audit studies? Define in general. What techniques were used in the audit studies discussed in class? Strengths; weaknesses; suggestions for improvements. 2)Gender bootcamp. First, what is it, in general, and how does it compare to military bootcamp? Looking at the subcomponents of gender bootcamp, what are the key features (steps, procedures, etc. )? Bring in as many examples from class as possible, especially focusing on primary socialization at home.