From a biomedical perspective, a high potential for benefit from sharing research-generated SC disease indings stems from a positive health impact of comprehensive forms of health care. Without care, symptoms can be very severe and life threatening, mainly resulting from obstruction to small blood vessels, chronic anemia, acute breakdown of blood cells and increased risk of serious infection. Although environmental and genetic factors influence severity, without care many children in malaria endemic settings are likely to die in their first few years of life.

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In contrast, quality of life is significantly improved where comprehensive care programs are in place, typically in high-income ettings, leading to a median adult survival of 48 years SC trait is generally seen as a benign condition whose maln implication Is an Increased future reproductive risk for the disease. The disease originated In at least 4 places In Africa and In the Indian/ Saudi Arabian subcontinent. It exists In all countries of Africa and in areas where Africans have migrated . t is most common in West and Central Africa where as many as 25% of the people have sickle cell trait and 1-2% of all babies are born with a form of the disease. In the united States with an estimated population of over 270 million, bout 1,000 babies are born with sickle cell disease each year. Approximately 70,000 – 100,000 individuals in the United States have sickle cell disease and 3 million have sickle cell trait. In contrast, Nigeria, with an estimated 1997 population of 90 million, 45,000-90,000 babies with sickle cell disease are born each year.

The transatlantic slave trade was largely responsible for introducing the sickle cell gene into the Americas and the Caribbean. However, sickle cell disease had already spread from Africa to Southern Europe by the time of the slave trade, so It Is present In Portuguese, Spaniards, French Corsicans, Sardinians, and Sicilians, mainland Italians, Greeks, Turks and Cypriots. Sickle cell disease appears in most of the Near and Middle East countries including Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Yemen. Sickle Cell has also been reported in India andSri Lanka.

Page 2 Sickle Cell Disease & International Relations Essay

Sickle cell disease is an international health problem and truly a global challenge. The most common genotype is homozygous SS disease. S-Hemoglobin C (SC) disease, Sџ+ thalassemia and SPO thalassemia are also relatively common and is a result of migration of people originating from these regions. People whocarry just one PS mutation have he sickle cell trait (HbAS), and are generally asymptomatic. However there is emerging data which suggest that having sickle cell trait may be associated with increased risk for adverse health outcomes such as venous thrombosis and obstetric complications.

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