Sikh and Punjabi
Climate of Punjab The weather conditions at Punjab are affected by the diversified geographical conditions. The hilly terrains have a cool soothing temperature throughout the year. The weather conditions are classified in four types of climate. They are Winter, Summer, Monsoons. Summer: Summer lasts from late March to the end of the month of May. The day temperatures start rising from the middle of February. The weather conditions of around 40 degrees Celsius are normal for many places in Punjab. The temperatures are high in the interior areas.
Monsoon: The monsoons are a very important season for this state. It normally arrives in June and lasts till September. The heavy rainfall during this season is vital for cultivation in the fertile land of Punjab. Tourists usually abstain to visit the state during this season. Autumn: The period from middle of September to middle of November is also a ideal time for visiting the state. The Diwali festival is normally held during this season across the country. The Tika festival is also held during this time. Language used in Punjab Punjabi (?????? n Gurmukhi script and ?????? in Shahmukhi script), which can be specified as Eastern Punjabi to distinguish it from Western Punjabi spoken in Pakistan, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historicalPunjab region (north western India and in Pakistan). For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. Even though Punjabi is the most spoken language in Pakistan, it has no official status. Punjabi language has many different dialects, spoken in the different sub-regions of greater Punjab.
Since the Partition of British India in 1947, the Punjabi spoken in the two countries has deviated from each other, with Pakistanis retaining strong on Persian and Arabic vocabulary through Urdu, and Indians relying more heavily on Sanskrit vocabulary through Hindi. TheMajhi dialect is Punjabi’s prestige dialect. This dialect is considered as textbook Punjabi and is spoken in the historical region of Majha,  centralizing in Lahore and Amritsar. Along with Lahnda and Western Pahari languages, Punjabi is unusual among modern Indo-European languages because it is a tonal language. Different Art forms in Punjab GATKA (MARSHAL ART OF PUNJAB)
Gatka (???? ) is a weapon-based Indian Marshal art created by the Sikhs of the Punjab. The Punjabi word gatka refers to the wooden stick used in sparring matches. The term might have originated as a diminutive of the Sanskrit word gadha or mace. A more popular theory is that it derives from the Punjabi words gat and ka. Gat means grace, liberation, and respect in one’s own power, while ka means someone who belongs or is part of a group. Gatka would therefore translate as “one whose freedom belongs to grace”. Gatka is an ancient martial art which has been thoroughly battle-tested and has existed in northern india for many thousands of years.
It is considered to be a spiritual as well as a physical exercise. Both these aspects of the person are developed to a high level during the learning phase in this ancient art. Although it uses the sword as its primary weapon, many other weapons are available to the Gatka master. Today, this art exists exclusively amongst the Sikhs who have passed down the flamboyant techniques through generations, since their sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind wore the two swords of Miri (temporal, worldly) and Piri (spiritual, transcendental).
The Sikhs have been responsible for the revival of this early art ensuring it’s survival despite mass persecution of the native population in India by foreign invaders like the Mughals and others for many hundreds of years. Gatka is a complete martial system which uses spiritual, mental and physical skills in equal portions to help one fully competent in defending themselves and others. FOLK DANCE BHANGRA GIDDHA KIKLI JHUMAR SAMMI KARTHI Folk Dance | | | Folk-dances of the Punjab virtually hold a mirror to the characteristic Punjabi manliness, fortitude, forthrightness and gaiety.
The dances are down-to-earth and devoid of all superficiality or sophistication. | | The men and women do not dance together. They form separate groups. Folk dances are generally not the same for men and women but some dances are common to both. Bhangra is the men’s dance and Giddha is the women’s dance. Bhangra and Giddha are the most popular folk-dances of the Punjab. | | HandicraftsPunjab has a rich tradition of its colourful handicrafts and richly embroidered hand woven textiles. Silk, woolen and cotton fabrics are used for the purpose. Phulkari work is one of the most fascinating expressions of the Punjabi folk art. Women have developed this art at the cost of some of their very precious moments of leisure. They have always been very fond of colour and have devoted a lot of their time to colourful embroidery and knitting. It has also been customary for parents and relatives to give hand-embroidered clothes to girls in dowry. Punjabi women were known for embroidery with superb imagination. Phulkari is something of which Punjab is justly proud and is also noted as the home of this embroidered and durable product.
This is a kind of women’s dress used a special cover to be worn over the shirt which women traditionally don. It actually formed part of the brides trousseau and was associated with various ceremonies preliminary to the wedding during which it used to be embroidered. The cloth used for making this, is generally in red or maroon colour and the thread employed in the close embroidery is made of silk in gold, yellow, crimson red, blue and green colours. The word Phulkari (embroidered flowers) is normally used for all types of embroidery but the real Phulkari work is not that in which the motifs are properly spread.
In the Phulkari work, the whole cloth is covered with close embroidery and almost no space is left uncovered. The piece of cloth thus embroidered is called baag meaning a garden. If only the sides are covered it is called chope. The back ground is generally maroon or scarlet and the silken thread used is mostly golden. Colour schemes show a rich sensitiveness. Some Phulkaris are embroidered with various motifs of birds, animals, flowers and sometimes scenes of village life. Folk music The real spirit of a folk-song rests not only in its text but also in its tune.
The popular tunes of Punjabi folk-songs ring with the heart-throbs of the simple, unsophisticated villagers. These melodies, characteristic of their deeply-felt emotions are absolutely in tune with their mode of living. The rhythm and beat of Punjabi folk music is simple. The rhythmic patterns are determined by the day-to-day activities of the villagers, the sound of the grinding stone, the drone of the spinning wheel, the creaking of the Persian wheel, the beat of the horse’s hooves etc. These rhythms refined into symmetrical patterns form the basis of the entire folk music of the Punjab.
There is a widespread variation in the tunes and melodies prevalent in the different regions of the state. The folk tunes prevalent in the east of the undivided Punjab are different from those popular in the west. In the west specially on the plains of the Sindh Sagar Doab certain folk forms like Mahiya and Dhoola were very popular. Boli is popular all over the Punjab, though the eastern mode of performing it is different from the western one. Even in one area the same song is sung differently by different groups. This element of flexibility in Punjabi folk music adds a lot of variety to it. olk dramaRam LilaNautankiPuppetryMadarisBazigars;saperasSwangNagalKheoraSports of PunjabSports in Punjab – Punjabis are fond of playing various games and they are good athletes. The heavy diet and strong built is one of the factors that help them performed better in Sports. Some of the popular games of Punjab include hide-and-seek, kite flying, and gulli-danda (a stick-game). Punjabis are also very fond of the Kabaddi which is a team wrestling game that is played by young boys and men. Other popular games for pastime are Wrestling, cock fighting, partridge fighting, pigeon flying, and gambling.
Religion in Punjab| Sikhism was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak and is a monotheistic religion. Sikhs think religion should be practiced by living in the world and coping with life’s everyday problems Intrinsic to the Sikh faith is the Holy Book Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib is founded on the teaching of Guru Nanak and the 9 Sikh Guru’s who followed him. This book is treated with the greatest of respect and is the cornerstone of thereligion. Sikhism was born out of Hinduism and Islam which were the prevalant relgions of the time.
However most Sikhs see Sikh teachings as a direct revelation from God and therefore a separate entity. Guru Nanak (1469-1539) was one of the greatest religious innovators of all time and the founder of the Sikh religion Sikhism is a religion, way of life and philosophy. It is the youngest of all the world’s four great monotheistic religions. A progressive religion, it was founded in the 15th Century by Guru Nanak. The word “Sikh” is Punjabi which mean “disciple”. Sikhs are disciples of the religious Sikh Gurus. Today, there are 18-20 million Sikhs in the world, followed predominantly in the Indian State of Punjab.