Six-day War and Israeli Military Leaders
Israel’s success in dealing with the treats it came across was due to many factors. These included Israel’s military tactics; which is one of the most important ones. Israeli determination for an independent state, the disunity between the Arab people, territory and the role of the US all played a part in the triumph of Israeli survival in the years 1948 – 73. Israeli military tactics were a long-term factor of why Israel was so extraordinary at dealing with everything that was thrown at them. Israel’s troops were highly motivated and better trained than any Middle Eastern country as the Israelis fought beside Britain in WWII.
Additionally Israeli military leaders; like Moshe Dayan were very skilled and the tactics that were used outsmarted the other rivalling nations. Moshe Dayan, who was called ‘a hero-tactician’ and was know for being an Israeli military leader and politician, was able to provoke Egypt into a war he knew they were not prepared for. He was able to come up with cunning schemes that outsmarted the Arabs. The 6-day war is also one of many Israeli victories as the strategies used were able to destroy Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian air force in just the first four hours of the Israeli take off on the 5th of June 1967.
This consequently led to the success of Israel dealing with threats due to their outstanding military tactics. The role of the US was also a crucial reason why Israel survived. The USSR and US were greatly involved with the Yom Kippur War as the USSR sent arms to Egypt and Syria and the US organised a massive airlift to Israel, which contributed to the military power they already had. Another reason why the US supported the Israelis was because they had similar political aims. They were against the spread of communism and the US was also resistant to the expansion of the Soviet Union.
After the Suez crisis, the United States became the western superpower in the Middle East. This was because after the Cold War, only the United States appeared to fulfill the criteria of being considered a world superpower. The Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957 declared that the United States would distribute economic and military aid and, if necessary, use military force to stop the spread of communism in the Middle East. Eisenhower also used a variety of political and ecological levers to compel France, Britain and Israel to desist from war.
Furthermore Israel obtained guarantees from the US that that the international waterways would remain open to Israeli shipping further bettering the survival and growth of their economy. Territory was also a factor in how Israel had survived in dealing with threats to its survival. Israel had made large territorial gains after the 6-day war. They were able to capture the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and the Sinai up to the Suez Canal, which really increased their total land mass. They were also able to place buffer zones between their neighbors to give a little bit more peace and control to Israel.
Lebanon even rejected calls by other Arab governments to participate in the 6-day war. Militarily weak in the south, Lebanon could not afford conflict with Israel. The loss of additional territory transformed the Palestinians decline in refugee camps hoping to return home. The additional flood of refugees turned Palestinian camps throughout the Middle East into centers of guerilla activity, which further let to the spectacular Israeli victory as many Israeli’s wanted to alter their lives so the only solution they thought of was by force.
Arab-Israeli negotiations took place soon after and the concept of ‘land for peace’ meant that the Israelis would have to give up the land they won in the 1967 war and in return, gain peace deals. This included the recognition of Israeli borders and it’s right to security. Which also played a part in Israel’s survival. Furthermore Israeli determination of independence was yet another factor why Israel successfully dealt with its threats. The Law of return gave any Jew in the world the right to become a citizen of Israel.
The UN passed a solution calling for the partition of Palestine. It recognized the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, as the partition plan allowed for the establishment of an Arab state. It let the Palestinians to be considered as refugees and war victims as some of the Palestinian people had just been affected by the holocaust. This then lead to world opinion of the survivors to be very sympathetic which assisted them as soon after they were granted the right to secure themselves and return to their homeland and gain independence.
Besides Israeli determination of Independence, the lack of Arab unity also made an appearance into how Israel survived so successfully. The lack of Arab co-ordination in the 6-day war really affected Israel, as they were able to us the Napoleonic Strategy. This meant they could attack each Syria, Egypt and Jordan one at a time. This gave the Israeli military enough time and effort to deal with the Arab armies who opposed them separately instead of fighting three against one.
Egypt also mislead the Jordanians by claiming 70% of all Israeli air force had been destroyed when in fact Israeli air superiority was one of the most important factors in their victory. In conclusion there was many reasons why Israel was so successful in dealing with threats to its survival in the years 1948-73. This included extraordinary Israeli military tactics, the role of the US, Territory, Israeli determination of independence and the severe lack of Arab unity. All these factors led to the survival of Israel in the years 1948-73.