Slaves comprised one-fifth or 20 percent of the total population of New York City, making it a city with one of the highest concentration of slaves in colonial America. (See the introductory section. ) 2. Which statement describes African American slaves’ views on the American Revolution? A. They viewed it as an opportunity to gain their own freedom. As the battle for political independence from Great Britain intensified in the late eighteenth century, the rhetoric of the day that freely referenced liberty and freedom of oppression was not lost on the slaves.

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They fought on both sides of the Revolution because they saw the Revolution as an opportunity to gain their own freedom. (See the introductory section. ) 3. What was the attitude of white New Yorkers regarding the abolition of slavery? c. Their attitude was not much different than their Southern counterparts. Though New Yorkers lived with a constant threat posed by rebellious slaves, they proved no more willing to relinquish their slaves as their Southern counterparts had been in earlier times. (See section “African American Life in Eighteenth-Century North America” in your textbook.) 4. What led colonists to embrace slave labor more enthusiastically in the mid-eighteenth century? b. A diminished supply of European-born laborers Although demand for labor in the American colonies remained high, the supply of white labor from Europe diminished due to, among other factors, the Seven Years’ War of 1756-1763. (See section “Slaves and Free Blacks across the Colonies” in your textbook. ) 5. Which statement accurately describes the scope of slavery in mid-eighteenth-century New England? a.

The use of slave labor expanded into occupational sectors where it had previously not existed By the mid-eighteenth century, slavery expanded into new occupational sectors and into new geographic areas. In both cases, the shortage of white immigrant labor prompted this changed dynamic. Enslaved Africans were employed as apprentices to skilled artisans and were used as laborers in grain-producing operations in southern New England. (See section “Slaves and Free Blacks across the Colonies” in your textbook. ) 6. How did the colony of Georgia’s relationship

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to slavery change in the1750s? b. The colony’s ban on slave imports was lifted, allowing Georgia to become a slave society. Established as a military buffer between Britain’s lucrative Carolina colonies and Spanish Florida, Georgia did not permit slavery under the terms of its original charter. Succumbing to immense political pressure, the colony’s trustees lifted this ban in 1751 and Georgia quickly transformed into a slave society, witnessing an explosive increase in the slave population in less than thirty years. (See section “Slaves and Free Blacks across the Colonies” in your textbook. )

What sustained the black population in colonial New England? c. The continuous importation of slaves directly from Africa Domestic birth rates among slaves in New England remained extremely low. In response, colonial New Englanders relied on a brisk trade in slaves imported directly from Africa. By the early 1740s, 70 percent of all slaves imported into New England were brought directly from Africa, a reversal of a dynamic that existed earlier in the eighteenth century when 70 percent of all slaves imported into New England originated from Britain’s West Indian colonies.

(See section “Slaves and Free Blacks across the Colonies” in your textbook. ) 8. What percentage of the total northern population did free blacks comprise? c. 10 percent In both the North and the South, black freedom contracted as the eighteenth century progressed. Free blacks represented a negligible portion of the total populations of any of the given Southern colonies. Although more common in northern colonies, their numbers never rose above 10 percent of the total population. (See section “Slaves and Free Blacks across the Colonies” in your textbook.) 9. How did New England blacks form a distinctive African American culture? b. Establishing their own rituals and celebrations Establishing new rituals and celebrations was one way in which the black population of New England created their own distinct culture that reflected the assimilation of the American-born population alongside the influence of recent African arrivals. Negro Election Day is one example of this phenomenon. This celebration was largely confined to New England and was an opportunity for blacks to cross cultural and linguistic divides.

It also gave the powerless the opportunity to play the role of the powerful. (See section “Shaping an African American Culture” in your textbook). 10. What was the eighteenth-century revival movement that swept through colonial America called? d. The Great Awakening The Great Awakening refers to a religious revival movement of the eighteenth century that spread throughout the colonies and fostered a spirit of equality that appealed to both white and black Americans. Chapter 3 provides more in-depth information about its effects on the American slave population and how it influenced the American Revolution.

(See section “The Slaves’ Great Awakening” in your textbook. ) 11. What was the name of the eighteenth-century intellectual movement that questioned traditional institutions, customs, and morals? a. The age of Enlightenment The age of Enlightenment was a time when thinkers in America and in Europe questioned traditional institutions, morals, customs, and values. American colonial leaders often framed their critique of their relationship with Great Britain through the lens this movement provided. (See section “The African American Revolution” in your textbook. ) 12.

How did African Americans use the climate of the American Revolution in their efforts to bring about an end to slavery? b. They fought for both sides in the conflict. Slaves took advantage of the social disorder in the Revolutionary era to seize their freedom. Once the conflict with Great Britain began, fugitives could often secure freedom through military service. While more than five thousand African Americans fought alongside the patriots, approximately fifteen thousand black loyalists served with the British, who had promised freedom to those who would serve them.

(See section “The African American Revolution” in your textbook. ) 13. What was the Somerset case? c. It was a lawsuit filed on behalf of a runaway African-born slave in a British court The Somerset case ultimately freed an American slave named James Somerset in 1772. Born in Africa, Somerset was later sold into slavery in Virginia, where he lived until his owner brought him to London while traveling on business. Somerset ran away, and was eventually apprehended when a British antislavery activist challenged his owner’s right to detain him.

Ultimately, Somerset would gain his freedom as a result of the British court’s ruling in favor of Somerset. (See section “The Road to Independence” in your textbook. ) 14. How did American patriots respond to African Americans’ demands for freedom during the Revolutionary Era? d. With indifference Although northern blacks tried hard to frame their appeals for freedom in the Revolutionary language of the era, with its emphasis on “natural rights,” “equality,” and “freedom from tyranny and oppression,” such appeals generally fell on deaf ears.

Many leaders in the patriot cause, such as James Otis, chose not to link the struggle for their political freedom from Great Britain with the freedom struggles of the enslaved. (See section “The Road to Independence” in your textbook. ) 15. Who was Crispus Attucks? b. He was a runaway slave who became the first martyr of the American Revolution. Crispus Attucks was a free black man of African and Nantucket ancestry who had secured his freedom by running away from his master as a young man. He went on to join the ranks of Boston’s working class, as a laborer on the city’s docks.

Attucks’s resentment toward the British presence in the city of Boston, a resentment shared by his fellow dockworkers, ultimately led to his involvement in what would be known as the Boston Massacre. (See section “Black Patriots” in your textbook. ) 16. What was Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation? c. A document extending freedom to black men willing to fight for the British Issued in November 1775 by Virginia’s royal governor John Murray, the Earl of Dunmore, Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation promised freedom to blacks in exchange for their willingness to serve in the British army.

(See section “Black Loyalists” in your textbook. ) 17. What ultimately convinced George Washington to allow black men to fight in the Continental Army? c. The idea that his own slaves could potentially fight for the opposing side The potential scenario in which Virginia slaves were fighting for the British convinced Washington to revisit his earlier prohibition against black troops serving under his command. The Continental Congress declared all blacks eligible for service in the army one week after Dunmore issued his proclamation.

(See section “Black Loyalists” in your textbook. ) 18. What role did blacks play in Britain’s Revolutionary War southern strategy? a. They served as scouts and soldiers Blacks played pivotal roles in Britain’s southern strategy, serving as everything from scouts to soldiers. While their contributions would prove valuable, Britain’s southern strategy ultimately failed to bring forth the results the British had hoped for. Black participation in the British cause stiffened the resolve of southern patriots, an outcome the British had sorely underestimated.

(See section “American Victory, British Defeat” in your textbook. ) 19. Where did black loyalists who sided with the British likely resettle when the Revolutionary War ended? b. The Bahamas Britain’s Royal Navy evacuated approximately fifteen thousand blacks at the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, and they were later resettled in Britain’s remaining colonies of Canada, Jamaica, South Africa, Australia, or the Bahamas.

Some were transported to England itself. (See section “The Fate of Black Loyalists” in your textbook. ) 20. Where was the United States’ free black population concentrated after the Revolutionary War? b. In the Upper South and the North Free black communities in the Upper South and in the North grew substantially in the twenty years after the Revolutionary War. (See section “Closer to Freedom” in your textbook. )

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