Solid Waste Management
Management is an area that is drawing a lot of attention in urban areas. It is acknowledged that while the problem is acute, the financial support is inadequate. This project was conceptualized to demonstrate what could be done with waste generated locally, with minimal investments. This pilot plant is expected to provide significant impetus to the eco-friendly initiatives in the institution. The input to the system comes from the food waste that gets generated by the College Hostel. The system generates bio-gas using anaerobic decomposition.
A separate compression unit also has been developed for compressing the bio-gas generated. The system is one of the very few attempts to use food waste as input. The applications that were planned to be demonstrated by the pilot are: ? Use of the bio-gas generated for cooking food in the Hostel ? Illumination of mantel lamps ? Running of an automobile using compressed gas. Overview of solid waste management in developing countries: Solid waste management is becoming a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries.
The public sector in many countries is unable to deliver services effectively, regulation of the private sector is limited, and illegal dumping of domestic and industrial waste is a common practice. Improper Solid waste management leads to substantial negative environmental impacts for example, pollution of air, soil & water, and generation of greenhouse gases from landfills, and health and safety problems such as diseases spread by insects and rodents attracted by garbage heaps, and diseases associated with different forms of pollution.
Municipal authorities charged with responsibility of providing municipal solid waste management services have found it increasingly difficult to play this role. Changing lifestyle such as use of canned soft drinks, mobile phones and disposable diapers moreover, will pose special waste management challenges, as waste management systems in developing countries are incapable of frequent adjustment to match these lifestyle changes. Solid waste collection and disposal is thus well beyond the capacity of municipal governments. More than 80 per cent of total waste management costs in low-income countries are collection costs.
The upshot is that an increasing proportion of urban dwellers in developing countries, particularly the urban poor, will lack access to municipal solid waste management services and consequently, suffer from pollution-related environmental and health problems. Fortunately, there are ways of dealing with or, at least minimizing this problem. 1. 2 Review of Solid Waste Management in India The country has adopted an integrated solid waste management system to achieve its goal of reducing and recycling solid waste to the maximum feasible extent.
To achieve this goal, the Country has adopted a policy that establishes a hierarchy of solid waste management options. The most preferred management option is the reduction of solid waste at its source. The second most preferred solid waste management technique is recycling and reuse of solid waste. The Country’s goal is to achieve, maintain or exceed 50 percent recycling of municipal solid waste by the end of the Calendar Year 2015. The third tier option is combustion of solid waste remaining after reduction and recycling that for the recovery of electrical energy.
Solid waste remaining after reduction, recycling and combustion is land fill. 1. 3 Objectives ? To determine the quantity of food waste collecting in the SJBIT campus. ? To make appropriate use of food waste for converting it into bio gas. ? To develop a pilot model for generating the biogas from the food waste. ? To make use of application of biogas in illuminating, in cooking and in using automobiles for the SJBIT campus. 1. 4 Scope of the Project: This pilot model developed for the project will determine the amount of biogas that could be produced from the food waste generated in SJBIT campus.
This helps in executing a plan for college in generating biogas. It has vast application in finding sustainable energy source which is very environmental friendly. The food waste introduced is a very cost effective source for fuel. The uncompressed gas can be used for cooking in hostel and mantle lamps for illumination. The compressed gas can be used for generating power by using it as a fuel for running electricity generators. The power so generated can provide emergency lighting in the campus and it can also be used for vehicles that can be run for campus commuting. . 5 Advantages of Biogas technology ? It provides a better and cheaper fuel cooking, lighting and for power generation. ? It produces good quality, enriched manure to improve soil fertility. ? It proves an effective and convenient way for sanitary disposal of human excreta, improving the hygienic conditions. ? It generates social benefits such as reducing burden on forest for meeting cooking fuel by cutting of tree for fuel wood, reduction in the drudgery of women and children etc.
Solid waste management is the discipline associated with the control of generation, Storage, Collection, Transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste in a manner in accordance with best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations that is also responsive to public attitudes. This study also includes administrative, financial, legal, planning, and engineering functions involved in solution to all problems of solid waste. Flow chart functional elements in solid waste management system. 2. 1 Solid Waste
All the waste from human and animal activity that are normally solids and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. The U. S solid waste disposal act 1965 defines that solid waste means garbage refuse and other discarded solid materials resulting from commercial and agriculture. Operations and from community activities but does not include solids or dissolved materials in domestic sewage or other significant pollutants in water resources, such as silt dissolved or suspended solids in industrial waste water efflluents, dissolved materials in the irrigation return flows or other common water pollutants.
It refers to heterogeneous mass throw away from, the urban community as well as the more homogeneous accumulation of agriculture, industrial, mineral waste. Some other common terms applied to solid waste are refuges, garbage and rubbish. The term refuse and solid waste are used more or less unanimously although the later term is preferred. Refuge consists of all the putrescible or non putrescible expect for body wastes.