Some Facts About Body

9 September 2016

What structure separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and what is it made of? The diaphragm. Made of skeletal muscle 2. What is the collective name for the contents of the ventral cavity? The viscera 3. What are the main functions of these membranes and the potential space they form? To secrete serous fluid which allows the parietal membrane to slide over the visceral membrane without friction. 4. What is the clinical condition that develops when air is able to enter the potential space of the pleural membrane? Pneumothorax 5.

What is the clinical condition called when the membrane of the abdominal cavity is inflamed? (hint: periton****) Peritonitis 6. How does an organ differ from a tissue? Tissues are collections of specialised cells and cell products that perform – a relatively limited number of functions (or a specific function) [or one or more specific functions]. Organs are combinations of tissue that perform complex functions. (or two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions). 6. Using the gastro-intestinal tract as an example, list the cavity/cavities in which organs of this system are found. buccal cavity), thoracic cavity (oesophagus), abdomino-pelvic cavity (rest of organs) – may separate organs into abdominal cavity and into pelvic cavity. .Using the gastro-intestinal tract as an example, list the cavity/cavities in which organs of this system are found. (buccal cavity), thoracic cavity (oesophagus), abdomino-pelvic cavity (rest of organs) – may separate organs into abdominal cavity and into pelvic cavity. 8. Do all organs of the body lie within a body cavity? If not, give examples. No. muscles & bones lie outside cavities, kidneys (part of the pancreas) re “retroperitoneal” so lie “outside” the abdominal cavity. 9. Using directional terms, describe the appearance of the body when it is standing in the ‘Anatomical Position’ . Body vertical, feet inferior to waist & knees, feet not everted, legs neither flexed nor extended, arms lateral to trunk, hands inferior to elbows, face directed anteriorly, neck neither flexed nor extended. 10. Describe the position of each of the following using anatomical, directional terms: ear (compared to the nose and to chin), elbow (compared to the wrist & shoulder), vertebrae (compared to sternum and kidneys).

Some Facts About Body Essay Example

Ear is lateral to parietal bone(or nose), superior to mandible. Elbow is proximal to hand, but distal to shoulder Backbone is posterior to lungs & viscera and medial to shoulder blades. Task Describe how the body is sectioned by the Frontal, Sagittal and Transverse planes. Frontal You would see the body as if you were standing in front of a mirror looking at your self . A plane that divided the body into anterior and posterior sections Sagittal Sagittal: you would see an arm sliced lengthways into a front half (anterior) and a back half (posterior) so see same tissues as in transverse section, but not as “rings”.

Transverse Transverse: you see “rings” of (going from superficial to deep) skin, subcut fat, muscle, bone (=radius/ulna, or humerous) 12. What organs would you find in the Right Hypochondriac Region? (ascending) large intestine, liver &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& amp;&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& Week 5 Table 1: Comparison of metric units of length METRIC UNITEQUIVALENT SIZE 1 metre (m)1 m100 centimetres 1 centimetre (cm)10-2 m10 millimetres 1 millimetre (mm)10-3 m1000 micrometres 1 micrometre (*m) 10-6 m1000 nanometres 1. Red Blood Cell RBC •no nucleus •biconcave disc •red in colour White blood cells WBC •Have a nucleus varied shapes •some have granulaes •irregular shaped cells wall unlike RBC What do you think these formed elements in the blood could be? ( Hint: they assist in coagulation) Platelets What views do the T and the L represent? Smooth muscle cells in longitudinal and transverse sections. CharacteristicSkeletal muscleSmooth muscle Microscopic appearance Long cylindrical striated and multinucleate ( more than one nucleus)Short, spindle shaped, non-striated, single central nucleus Main functions Moves, stabilises the position of the skeleton, guards entrances and exits to the digestive, respiratory and urinary tracts.

Generates heat, protects internal organs. Moves food. Urine and reproductive tract secretions. Controls diameter of respiratory passageways. Regulates the diameter of the blood vessels. Locations in the body Combines with connective tissue and neural tissue in skeletal muscle. Found in the walls of blood vessels and in the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive organs. Type of nerve supply (autonomic or somatic)Somatic ( conscious attempt to think about moving the area of the body)Autonomic ( automatic movement of a body part example heart)

Bone cells make up only 2% of bone mass. Bone contains four types of cells 1. Osteocytes 2. Osteoblasts 3. Osteoprogenitor cells 4. Osteoclasts Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix that live in lacunae are between layers (lamellae) of matrix. They are connected by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in lamellae. They do not divide. Two major functions of osteocytes 1. To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix 2. To help repair damaged bone Osteoblasts are immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis).

Osteoid is the matrix produced by osteoblasts, but not yet calcified to form bone. Osteoblasts surrounded by bone become osteocytes. Osteoprogenitor cells These are Mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts. Located in endosteum, the inner cellular layer of periosteum there involved in fracture repair. Osteoclasts secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes; they appear as giant, multinucleate cells. Their role is to dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis). Derived from stem cells that produce macrophages. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

Week 6 2. Locate the Foramen magnum. Why is there an opening here in the skull? Connects the skull/cranial cavity with the vertebral canal. The Foramen surrounds the connection between the brain and the spinal cord. Growth of the face. Locate the newborn skull model and compare it to the adult skull. Notice the great increase in the facial skeleton in the adult. 3. Gaps between skull bones allows skull to be moulded an fit through the birthcanal No teeth in the newborn Brain cavity nearly the same size. Facial bones much smaller in new bone 4 What is the significance of the C1 and C2?

Atlas and axis allows rotation of the head on the neckThe odontoid peg from C2 allows CI Atlas to rotate around the peg. 5What feature distinguishes thoracic vertebrae from other vertebrae? The ribs joining onto to the thoracic vert 6. At what stage during human development do the cervical and lumbar (concave) curves develop and for what purposes? When the child begins to walk to keep the centre of gravity aligned 7. What distinguishes a ‘true’ rib from a ‘false’ rib? True ribs (numbers 1 through 7) each have their own costal cartilage connecting them directly to the sternum.

False ribs (8 through 12) either have their costal cartilage connecting to the cartilage of the rib above (ribs 8-10) or are floating ribs, not connected to the sternum. 8Make a list of the differences in structure between the male and female pelvis. What is the purpose of these structures? Use the criteria listed in Martini figs 8. 8 to 8. 10 to identify and record in your Log book the sex of skeletons A, B, C, D, E and F. AF B M CMD M EFF F Female pelvis has round pelvic opening (not heart shaped); has pubic arch >100o (rather than

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