Spanish And French Monarchial Beliefs
& # 8211 ; The Escorial And Versailles Essay, Research Paper
The castle of Versailles was built by Louis XIV of France ( 1643-1715 ) , and the Escorial was built by Philip II of Spain ( 1556-1598 ) . By analyzing the aerial and frontal frontages of these two castles, it may be seen that there were many similarities and differences between the two male monarchs? perceptual experience and pattern of monarchy. Each male monarch set his ain ends for his life, and concluded as to how a sovereign ought to act. Both Louis Fourteen and Philip II had spiritual responsibilities to pay attending to, organized the distribution of power in their several lands, communicated with other states and entities through war and diplomatic negotiations, raised armed forcess, and made programs for the enlargement of their ain beliefs, ideas and patterns. Aside from these facets of the two male monarchs? beliefs and patterns of monarchy, the architecture of their castles reflected their ideals, or personal beliefs, and the reading made by the painters of the castles reflects the attitudes of the two male monarchs toward life.
The function of the male monarch to the populace during the reigns of Louis XIV of France and Philip II of Spain were non predetermined, so each male monarch created for himself what he thought monarchy ought to be. Louis XIV and Philip II were both absolutists, and believed that they should be the supreme swayers of France and Spain, severally. However, Louis XIV did non desire to be a national symbol functioning no legitimate intent. He wished to command the military, economic system, foreign personal businesss, and the disposal of the land and of justness. He believed that the male monarch of France should be the best that France has to offer- being served by even the most powerful Godheads of France. Conversely, Philip II idea of himself as Catholic foremost, and male monarch of Spain 2nd. Opposite to Louis XIV, Philip II preferred to sit in the Escorial and pray, pour over records, and live more as a monastic than as Louis XIV? s construct of a male monarch. Philip II ne’er wanted to take much of an active portion in the disposal of his land, except for the times when he wanted to utilize some of his assorted powers. However, after he had used it for a piece ( engaging war, raising revenue enhancements, etceteras ) he would allow it put hibernating and return to his paperss. Nor did Philip II of all time wish to command most of the Spanish economic system. The parts that he did command were 1s that straight affected himself or his grosss, so critical in order to maintain his ground forces of huge proportions. In Spain, the disposal of justness was left chiefly to the Inquisition, and foreign personal businesss were dealt with in the castles of other male monarchs. The lone facet of his monarchy that Philip II wished to invariably take an active portion in was the military: his instrument for the re-Catholicism of Europe.
In both France and in Spain, each sovereign set a different degree of precedence to his popularity. Louis XIV one time said, ? L? ? cheapness, c? est moi- ? the province is myself? ? 1. This is stating that Louis XIV represents the Gallic people, authorities, society, and civilization- the? Sun King? – stand foring the centre and the really best of France. On the other manus, Philip II merely seemed to wish to be seen as a devout Catholic, at the service of the Holy See, and non caring much what other people thought of him.
Religious responsibilities were much more apparent in the life of Philip II than Louis XIV. Philip II would remain up for darks on terminal praying for his ain redemption and the redemption of others. Inside the Escorial, there was a church and a monastery where Philip II would besides normally spend hours in every twenty-four hours. When non in his church, Philip II frequently read his Bible and other spiritual Hagiographas. The chief end of Philip II? s life was even religious- to re-Catholicize Europe. Although both sovereigns were Catholic, faith played much less of a function in day-to-day life at Versailles, where many secular personal businesss were dealt with. At Versailles, faith was non absent, but apparently ignored normally.
In the fourteenth through the 16th centuries, France and Spain were both instead powerful states, but power was frequently distributed throughout the plutocratic nobilities otherwise. Louis XIV preferred to depute power to new Lords, or flush businessperson who had late received their baronial position from the male monarch. The Godheads who were non familial Lords had non yet had adequate clip to derive any existent power that could be used in rebellion against the male monarch. Philip II, nevertheless, did non diversify the bing hierarchy of power, but embraced it. Upon the edifice of the Escorial, many new Hidalgos were non created merely to fulfill the demands of a larger bureaucratism. In add-on, the Roman Catholic church even went inside the walls of the Escorial. This shows Philip II? s embracing of the bing power of the Holy See. Conversely, at the tribunal of Versailles, Louis XIV did non do the church a important portion of his chateau, hence taking most of the internal persuasion from the clergy. ( Even if there was a big spiritual influence at Versailles, by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges ( 1438 ) , the? Galic
ian? church was politically independent from the Holy See. )
Louis XIV and Philip II had some similar and some different methods for managing foreign personal businesss. Louis XIV deployed the Gallic ground forces against many different peoples, being ever at war or fixing for war in order to maintain peace at place, and war abroad. Philip II besides deployed his ground forcess against assorted people, nevertheless, he did so in order to spread out the boundaries of Catholicism. Concerning diplomatic dealingss, Louis XIV was much more involved than Philip II. Louis XIV was ever doing or interrupting one pact or another, endangering war, doing payoffs to assorted German provinces such as Bavaria, having some universe leader or an emissary thereof, and lodging his olfactory organ into the policies of any state that he could derive some control over. On the other manus, Philip II did non have many envoies or diplomats. He sent them out when demand be, in order to forestall any unnecessary wars, but ne’er made much of an effort at doing alliances- at least in the measures obtained by the Gallic.
In some ways the two male monarchs? intent for their armed forcess were strikingly similar. Both were created to spread out the ideas and beliefs of their main commanding officer ( i.e. Louis XIV and Philip II, severally ) , and to protect the people from whence the military came. However, the intent of the two armed forcess were besides rather different. Louis XIV multiplied the figure of the Gallic men-at-arms, centralized the military and forbade anyone but the male monarch to hold a military, therefore forestalling war between Lords. This made the Gallic military a really effectual offense and defensive force. Philip II, nevertheless, merely bothered with his military because it was his key to the re-Catholicization of Europe. Thus, the Spanish military as more of a violative force than a defensive force.
The enlargement of Louis XIV and Philip II? s ideas and beliefs was indispensable to the aspirations of each sovereign. Louis XIV wished to do France look great to all of Europe, and to set up an about cosmopolitan monarchy by obtaining the full Spanish heritage. On the other manus, Philip II did non wish to do much of a secular or secular advantage by re- change overing Europe to Catholicism. Therefore, both sovereigns had the demand to spread out their ain ideas and beliefs ; nevertheless, Louis XIV? s purposes were secular, and Philip II? s were spiritual.
The architecture of the Escorial is slightly dissimilar to that of Versailles. The Escorial is instead closed in, compact, and prohibiting. This corresponds to the nature of Philip II, who was instead introverted. In the centre of the Escorial lies the church, which is besides the tallest edifice in the full castle. The rotunda of the church seems to indicate toward the celestial spheres, seeking to make God, which is besides similar to the attitude of Philip II. Along the walls that enclose the Escorial lie the other? less of import? edifices intended to cover with secular issues. At Versailles, one has a feeling of openness, with the expansive chateau finally funneling down to the chief chateau where Louis XIV lived, the centrepiece of Versailles. This shows the importance of secular issues at Versailles, and spiritual issues at the Escorial.
The creative persons? readings of Versailles and the Escorial show some similarities and differences between Louis XIV and Philip II. In the image of the Escorial, the lone things shown are the Escorial and portion of Philip II? s ground forces. Everything shown is the male monarch? s. This symbolizes Philip II? s position as a European leader: he wasn? t much of one in anything but the military. However, the image of Versailles includes the environing country, some blue places, and, in the fringe, a church. The presence of a church in the fringe signifies merely about all of the spiritual influence at Versailles. The presence of the expansive mountains taking off into the distance demonstrates that Louis XIV was a great universe leader, where his power was non merely concentrated in France, but off beyond its boundary lines. In the image of Versailles, there is no military. This exhibits the sense of civil security felt by the Frenchmen under Louis XIV. In other words, there is no changeless defensive force nowadays, so Louis XIV must non necessitate one. After all, the Gallic military contained 400,000 people, there were decidedly adequate soldiers to guard the castle if need be. The presence of blue places signifies the Frenchmen? s awe of power and wealth. Or, more specifically stated, the French were non merely held in awe of the brilliant castle of Versailles, but of the wealth and power accumulated by the Gallic nobility.
The two given images of Versailles and the Escorial, and general cognition of Louis XIV and Philip II, allows one to see many similarities and unsimilarities between the two male monarchs? constructs and patterns of monarchy. This has been demonstrated through assorted illustrations of the methods of managing administrative, military, foreign, economic, and spiritual personal businesss used by Louis XIV of France, and Philip II of Spain.