Sport in the UK
MOSCOW STATE TEACHER`S TRAINING UNIVERSITY
COURSE PAPER COURSE PAPER
SPORT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM SPORT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
Written by Varlamova Anna
Checked by Makhmuryan K.
Moscow 2001 MOSCOW 2001
& # 183 ; ·Introduction
& # 183 ; ·THE MAIN PART
The societal importance of athletics
Animals in Sport
& # 183 ;Decision
& # 183 ;Questions
& # 183 ;The list of literature
have I chosen such subject? Sport is supposed to be interesting
merely for work forces, non for adult females. But I think it is a misguided sentiment. Sport is one of the most amusive things in the universe, because of fillings, experiences, exhilarations connected with it. Particularly it is so when we speak about the UK.
Think of your favourite athletics. Whatever it is, there is good opportunity that it was first played in Britain, and an even better opportunity that its modern regulations were foremost codified in this state.
Sport likely plays a more of import portion in people & # 8217 ; s life in Britain than it does in most other states. For a really big figure it is their chief signifier of amusement. Millions take portion in some sort of athletics at least one time a hebdomad. Many 1000000s more are regular witnesss and follow one or more athleticss. There are hours of televised athletics each hebdomad. Every newspaper, national or local, quality or popular, devotes several pages wholly to feature.
The British are merely seldom the best in the universe at peculiar athleticss in modern times. However, they are one of the best in the universe in a much larger figure of different athleticss than any other state ( British individuality at work once more ) . My class paper looks at the most publicised athleticss with the largest followerss. But it should be noted that 100s of other athleticss are played in Britain, each with its ain little but enthusiastic followers. Some of these may non be seen as a athletics at all by many people. For most people with big gardens, for illustration, croquet is merely an agreeable societal interest for a cheery afternoon. But to a few, it is a lifelessly serious competition. The same is true of the game such as indoor bowling, darts or snooker. Even board games, the sort you buy in a store, have their national titles. Think of any interest, nevertheless fiddling, which involves some component of competition and, someplace in Britain, there is likely a & # 8216 ; national association & # 8217 ; for it which organized contents.
The British are so affectionate of competition that they even introduced it into gardening. Many people indulge in an informal competition with their neighbours as to who can turn the better flowers or veggies. But the competition is sometimes formalized. Though the state, there are competitions in which nurserymans enter their chou, scallion, onions, carrots or whatever in the hope that they will be judged & # 8216 ; the best & # 8217 ; . There is a similar state of affairs with animate being. There 100s of Canis familiaris and cat shows throughout the state at which proprietors hope that their pet will win a award. There are a batch of such specific sorts of athletics in the United Kingdom but I want to halt my idea on consideration of more widespread.
THE MAIN PART
British are great lovers of competitory athleticss ; and when they are neither playing nor watching games they like to speak about them, or when they can non make that, to believe about them. Modern athletics in Britain is really different. ‘Winning is n’t every & # 173 ; thing ‘ and ‘it ‘s merely a game ‘ are still well-known expressions which reflect the recreational attack of the past. But to modern professionals, athletics is clearly non merely a game. These yearss, top participants in any athletics talk about holding a ‘professional attitude ‘ and making their ‘job ‘ good, even if, officially, their athletics is still an recreational one. The middle-class beginnings of much British athletics means that it began as an amateur interest – a leisure-time activity which cipher was paid for taking portion in. Even in football, which has been played on a profes & # 173 ; sional footing since 1885, one of the first squads to win the FA ( Football Association ) Cup was a squad of amateur participants ( the Corinthians ) . In many other athleticss there has been opposition to professionalism. Peoples thought it would botch the sporting spirit. May be they are right.
The societal importance of athletics The societal importance of athletics
The importance of engagement in athletics has legal acknowledgment in Britain. Every local authorization has a responsibility to supply and keep playing Fieldss and other installations, which are normally really inexpensive to utilize and sometimes even free. Spectator athletics is besides a affair of official public concern. For illustration, there is a jurisprudence which prevents the televi & # 173 ; Zion rights to the most celebrated one-year sporting occasions, such as the Cup Final and the Derby, being sold entirely to satellite channels, which most people can non have. In these instances it seems to be the event, instead than the athletics itself, which is of import. Every twelvemonth the Boat Race and the Grand National are watched on telecasting by 1000000s of people who have no great inter & # 173 ; est in rowing or horse-racing. Over clip, some events have developed a mystique which gives them a higher position than the criterion at which they are played deserves. In modern times, for illustration, the criterion of rugger at the one-year Varsity Match has been instead low – and yet it is ever shown unrecorded on telecasting.
Sometimes the traditions which accompany an event can look every bit of import as the existent sporting competition. Wimbledon, for case, is non merely a tennis tourney. It means summer manners, strawber & # 173 ; ries and pick, garden parties and long, warm English summer eventides. This repute created a job for the event ‘s organisers in 1993, when it was felt that security for participants had to be tightened. Because Wimbledon is basically a middle-class event, British tennis fans would ne’er let themselves to be treated like football fans. Wimbledon with security fencings, police officers on Equus caballuss and other steps to maintain fans off the tribunal? It merely would n’t be Wimbledon!
The long history of such events has meant that many of them, and their locales, have become world-famous. Therefore, it is non merely the British who tune in to watch. The Grand National, for illustration, attracts a telecasting audience of 300 million. This worldwide enthu & # 173 ; siasm has little to make with the criterion of British athletics. The cup finals of other states frequently have better quality and more entertaining football on position – but more Europeans watch the English Cup Final than any other. The criterion of British tennis is hapless, and Wimbledon is merely one of the universe ‘s major tourneies. But if you ask any top tennis participant, you find that Wimbledon is the 1 they truly want to win. Every football player in the universe dreams of playing at Wembley, every cricketer in the universe of playing at Lord ‘s. Wimble & # 173 ; Don, Wembley and Lord ‘s are the ‘spiritual places ‘ of their several athleticss. Sport is a British export!
There are a batch of athleticss in Britain today and of class, there is no usage in sing all of them. I try to do a short reappraisal of the most celebrated in the universe on the one manus and unusual athleticss on the other manus. And the first 1 is the most popular game in the universe:
Football is the most popular squad game in Britain. The British invented it and it has spread to every corner of the universe. There is no British
squad. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete individually in European and World Cup lucifers. The English and Welsh nines have together formed a League with four divisions. The Scots League has three divisions. The title-holders of the English First Division, and the Scottish Premier Division qualify to play in the European Cup competition.
British football has traditionally drawn its chief followers from the working category. In general, the clerisy ignored it. But in the last two decennaries of the 20th century, it has started to pull wider involvement. The visual aspect of fanzines is an indicant of this. Fanzines are magazines written in an informal but frequently extremely intelli & # 173 ; gent and witty manner, published by the fans of some of the nines. One or two books of literary virtue have been written which focal point non merely on participants, squads and tactics but besides on the wider societal facets of the game. Blithe football programmes have appeared on telecasting which likewise give attending to ‘off-the-field ‘ affairs. There has besides been much academic involvement. At the 1990 World Cup there was a gag among English fans that it was impossible to happen a hotel room because they had all been taken by sociologists!
Many squad athleticss in Britain, but particularly football, tend to be men-only, ‘tribal ‘ personal businesss. In the USA, the whole household goes to watch the baseball. Similarly, the whole household goes along to hearten the Irish national football squad. But in Britain, merely a smattering of kids or adult females go to football lucifers. Possibly this is why active support for local squads has had a inclination to go violent. During the 1970s and 1980s football vandalism was a major job in England. In the 1990s, nevertheless, it seemed to be on the diminution. English fans sing Europe are now no worse in their behaviour than the fans of many other states.
For the great mass of the British public the eight months of the football season are more of import than the four months of cricket. There are plentifulness of recreational association football ( or ‘soccer ‘ ) nines, and professional football is large concern. The one-year Cup Final lucifer, between the two squads which have defeated their oppositions in each unit of ammunition of a knock-out competition, dominates the scene ; the regular ‘league ‘ games, organised in four divisions, provide the chief amusement through the season and the footing for the huge system of wagering on the football pools. Many of the graffito on public walls are aggressive statements of support for football squads, and the vandalism of some British protagonists has become ill-famed outside every bit good as inside Britain.
Football has been called the most popular game in the universe, and it surely has a great many fans in Britain. And now I want to advert the English nomenclature for football.
Association football ( or association football ) is the game that is played in about all states. A squad is composed of a goalie, two dorsums, three half-backs and five forwards.
Association football remains one of the most popular games played in the British Isles. Every Saturday from late August United Nations & # 173 ; til the beginning of May, big crowds of people support their sides in football evidences up and down the state, while an about every bit big figure of people play the game in clubs squads of every imagin & # 173 ; able assortment and degree of accomplishment. Over the last 20 old ages though, the attend & # 173 ; ance at football lucifers has fallen off aggressively. This is because of altering life styles and football bullies about I have already written but I want to add that force at and near the football evidences increased, there was an ever-increasing inclination for people to remain off, go forthing the evidences to football fans.
After serious perturbations affecting English protagonists at the Eu & # 173 ; ropean Cup Finals in Brussels in 1985 which led to the deceases of 38 witnesss, English nines were withdrawn from European competitions for the 1985-1986 season by the Football Association. The Cup Final at Wembley remains, though, an event of national importance. Here is a drawing of a pes & # 173 ; ball field, or “ pitch ” , as it is normally called.
The football pitch should be between 100 and 130 meters long and between 50 and 100 meters broad. It is divided into two halves by the halfway line. The sides of the field are called the touch-lines and the terminals are called the goal-lines. In the center of the field there is a centre circle and there is a end at each terminal. Each end is 8 meters broad and be & # 173 ; tween 21
and 3 meters high. In forepart of each end is the end country and the punishment country. There is a punishment topographic point inside the punishment country and a punishment discharge outside it. A game of football normally lasts for one and a half hours. At half-time, the squads change terminals. The referee controls the game. The purpose of each squad is evidently to hit as many ends as possible. If both squads score the same figure of ends, or if neither squad scores any ends at all, the consequence is a draw.
The concluding of the football competition takes topographic point every May at the celebrated Wembley bowl in London. Some of the best known nines in England are Manchester United, Liverpool and the Arsenal. In Scot & # 173 ; land either Rangers, Celtic or Aberdeen normally win the cup or the title.
Today, many people are merely interested in football because of the pools and the opportunity of winning a batch of money.
Football pools Football pools
“ Making the pools ” is a popular signifier of wagering on football consequences each hebdomad. It is possible to win more than half a million lbs for a few pence.
The English have ne’er been against a gamble though most of them know where to pull the line and sagely refrain from wagering excessively frequently. Since the war the most popular signifier of gaming is no uncertainty that of venturing a little amount on the football pools. ( The word “ pool ” is connected with the image of watercourses of money pouring into a com & # 173 ; Monday fund, or “ pool ” from which the victors are paid after the house has taken its disbursals and net income. ) Those who do so have every hebdomad from one of the pools houses a printed signifier ; on this are listed the hebdomad ‘s lucifers. Against each lucifer, or against a figure of them, the opti & # 173 ; mist puts down a I, a 2 or an ten to demo that he thinks the consequence of the lucifer will be a place win ( interest on merriment & # 8217 ; s squad ) , an off win ( interest on a squad of opposition ) or a draw. The signifier is so posted to the pools house, with a postal order or check for the amount staked ( or, as the houses say, “ invested ” ) . At the terminal of the hebdomad the consequences of the lucifers are announced on telecasting and published in the intelligence & # 173 ; documents and the “ investor ” can take out his transcript of his voucher and look into his prognosis.
There is another game called rugger football, so called because it originated at Rugby, a well-known English public school. In this game the participants may transport the ball. Rugby football ( or ‘rugger ‘ ) is played with an elliptic ball, which may be carried and thrown ( but non frontward ) . The ball is passed from manus to manus instead than from pes to pick. If a participant is transporting the ball he may be ‘tackled ‘ and made to fall down. Each squad has 15 participants, who spend a batch of clip lying in the clay or on top of each other and become really soiled, but do non necessitate to have on such to a great extent protective vesture as participants of American football.
There are two signifiers of rugger – Rugby Union, which is purely recreational, and Rugby League, played mostly in the North, which is a professional athletics. Rugby Union has 15 participants, while Rugby League has thirteen, but the two games are fundamentally the same. They are so similar that person who is good at one of them can rapidly larn to go good at the other. The existent difference between them is a affair of societal history. Rugby brotherhood is the older of the two. In the 19th century it was enthusi & # 173 ; astically taken up by most of Britain ‘s public schools. Rugby conference split off from rugger brotherhood at the terminal of the century. There are two versions of this fast and aggressive ball game: rugger brotherhood and rugger conference. Although it has now spread to many of the same topographic points in the universe where rugger brotherhood is played ( rugby brotherhood is played at top degree in the British Isles, France, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand ; besides to a high degree in North America, Argentina, Romania and some Pacific islands ) . Rugby can be considered the ‘national athletics ‘ of Wales, New Zealand, Fiji, Western Samoa and Tonga, and of South African Whites. Its traditional place is among the working category of the North of England, where it was a manner for mineworkers and mill workers to do a small spot of excess money from their sporting endowments. Unlike rugger brotherhood, it has ever been a profes & # 173 ; sional athletics.
Because of these societal beginnings, rugby conference in Britain is seen as a working category athletics, while ruggers brotherhood is chiefly for the in-between categories. Except in south Wales. There, rugby brotherhood is a athletics for all categories, and more popular than football. In Wales, the phrase ‘interna & # 173 ; tional twenty-four hours ‘ means merely one thing & # 8212 ; that the national rugger squad are playing. Since 1970, some of the best Cambrian participants have been persuaded to ‘change codifications ‘ . They are ‘bought ‘ by one of the large rugger conference nines, where they can do a batch of money. Whenever this happens it is seen as a national catastrophe among the Welsh.
Rugby brotherhood has had some success in recent old ages in selling itself to a wider audience. As a consequence, merely as football has become less entirely working category in character, rugger brotherhood has become less entirely in-between category. In 1995- it eventually abandoned amateurism. In fact, the recreational position of top rugger brotherhood participants had already become meaningless. They did n’t acquire paid a wage or fee for playing, but they received big ‘expenses ‘ every bit good as assorted promotion con & # 173 ; piece of lands and paid speech production battles.
The game peculiarly associated with England is cricket. Judging by the Numberss of people who play it and watch it ( – expression at & # 8216 ; Spectator
attending at major athleticss & # 8217 ;
) , cricket is decidedly non the national athletics of Britain. In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, involvement in it is mostly confined to the in-between categories. Merely in England and a little portion of Wales is it played at top degree. And even in England, where its partisans come from all categories, the bulk of the population do non understand its regulations. Furthermore, it is rare for the English national squad to be the best in the universe.
Cricket is, hence, the national English game in a symbolic sense. However, to some people cricket is more than merely a symbol. The relatively low attending at top category lucifers does non give a true image of the degree of involvement in the state. One game of cricket takes a awfully long clip, which a batch of people merely do n’t hold to save. Eleven participants in each squad. Trial lucifers between national squads can last up to five yearss of six hours each. Top nine squads play lucifers enduring between two and four yearss. There are besides one-day lucifers enduring about seven hours. In fact there are 1000000s of people in the state who do n’t merely bask cricket but are passionate about it! These people spend up to thirty yearss each summer tuned to the unrecorded wireless commentary of & # 8216 ; Test & # 8217 ; ( = international ) Matches. When they get the opportunity, they watch a spot of the unrecorded telecasting coverage. Some people even do both at the same clip ( they turn the sound down on the telecasting and listen to the wireless ) . To these people, the observers become well-loved figures. When, in 1994, one celebrated observer died, the Prime Minister lamented that ‘summers will ne’er: be the same once more ‘ . And if cricket fans are excessively busy to listen to the wireless commentary, they can ever phone a particular figure to be given the latest mark!
Many other games which are English in beginning have been adopted with enthusiasm all over the universe, but cricket has been earnestly and extensively adopted merely in the former British imperium, peculiarly in Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the West Indies and South Africa. Make you cognize how to play cricket? If you do n’t populate in these states you wo n’t larn it at school. English people love cricket. Summer is n’t summer without it. Even if you do non understand the regulations, it is attractive to watch the participants, dressed in white playing on the beautiful green kink & # 173 ; et Fieldss. Every Sunday forenoon from May to the terminal of September many Englishmans get up really early, and take a batch of sandwiches with them. It is necessary because the games are really long. Games between two small town squads last for merely one afternoon. Games between counties last for three yearss, with 6 hours play on each twenty-four hours. When England plays with one or other cricketing states such as Australia and New Zea & # 173 ; land it is called a trial lucifer and stopping points for five yearss. Cricket is played in schools, colleges and universities and in most towns and small towns by squads which play hebdomadal games. Test lucifers with other cricketing states are held yearly.
Cricket is besides played by adult females and misss. The regulating organic structure is Women ‘s Cricket Association, founded in 1926. Women ‘s cricket nines have regular weekend games. Test lucifers and other international lucifers take topographic point. The adult females ‘s World Cup is held every four old ages. But There is The Marylebone Cricket Club ( MCC ) and Lord ‘s cricket land in the United Kingdom. The MCC was founded in 1787, and is still the most of import authorization on cricket in the universe. As a nine it is entirely male. No adult female is allowed to come in the nine edifices. There are particular bases for members and their married womans and pursuits.
Organised amateur cricket is played between nine squads, chiefly on Saturday afternoons. About every small town, except in the far north, has its cricket nine, and there must be few topographic points in which the popular image of England, as romanticists like to believe of it, is so clearly seen as on a small town cricket field. A excellent lucifer between English counties lasts for up to three yearss, with six hours play on each twenty-four hours. The game is slow, and a witness, sitting in the afternoon Sun after a tiffin of sandwiches and beer, may be excused for holding a small slumber for half an hr.
When people refer to cricket as the English national game, they are non believing so much of its degree of popularity or of the criterion of English participants but more of the really English associations that it carries with it. Cricket is much more than merely a athletics ; it symbolizes a manner of life – a slow and peaceable rural manner of life. Cricket is associated with long cheery summer afternoons, the odor of new-mown grass and the sound of leather ( the ball ) linking with willow ( the wood from which cricket chiropterans are made ) . Cricket is particular because it com & # 173 ; common hops competition with the British dream of rural life. Cricket is what the small town viridity is for! As if to stress the rural connexion, & # 8216 ; first category & # 8217 ; cricket squads in England, unlike squads in other athleticss, do non bear the names of towns but of counties ( Essex and Yorkshire, for illustration ) .
Animals IN SPORT
Traditionally, the favorite athleticss of the British upper category are runing, hiting and fishing
. The most widespread signifier of hunting is foxhunting & # 8212 ; so, that is what the word & # 8216 ; runing & # 8217 ;
normally means in Britain. Foxhunting plants like this. A group of people on Equus caballuss, dressed in 18th century siting apparels, ride around with a battalion of Canis familiariss. When the Canis familiariss pick up the aroma of a fox, person blows a horn and so Canis familiariss, Equus caballuss and riders all chase the fox. Often the fox gets off, but if non, the Canis familiariss get to it before the huntsmans and rupture it to pieces. As you might think in a state of animal-lovers, where most people have small experience of the harsher realit & # 173 ; Internet Explorers of nature, foxhunting is strongly opposed by some people. The League Against Cruel Sports wants it made illegal and the run has been steadily escalating. There are sometimes violent brushs between foxhunters and protestors ( whom the huntsmans call ‘saboteurs ‘ ) .Foxhunting is a popular interest among some members of the higher societal categories and a few people from lower societal categories, who frequently see their engagement as a grade of freshly won position. The hunting of foxes is athletics associated through the centuries with ownership of land. The hounds chase the fox, followed by people siting Equus caballuss, have oning ruddy or black coats and conforming with assorted regulations and imposts. In a few hill countries harts are hunted likewise. Both these types of hunting are enjoyed chiefly by people who can afford the cost of maintaining Equus caballuss and transporting them to run meetings in ‘horse boxes ‘ , or dawdler new waves. Both, peculiarly stag-hunting, are opposed by people who condemn the inhuman treatment involved in trailing and killing scared animate beings. There have been efforts to carry Parliament to go through Torahs to prohibit hunting, but none has been successful. There is no jurisprudence about runing foxes, but there is a fox-hunting seasons & # 8211 ; from November to March.
Killing birds with guns is known as ‘shooting ‘
in Britain. It is a minority interest confined mostly to the higher societal categories ; there are more than three times as many licensed guns for this intent in France as there are in Britain. The birds which people try to hit ( such as grouse ) may merely be shot during certain specified times of the twelvemonth. The upper categories frequently organize ‘shooting parties ‘ during the ‘season ‘ . The British do non hit little
animate beings or birds for athletics, though some husbandmans who shoot coneies or pigeons may bask making so. But ‘game birds ‘ , chiefly pheasant, grouse and partridge, have traditionally provided athletics for the landowning aristocracy. Until Labour ‘s election triumph of 1964 many of the premier curates of the past two hundred old ages, along with members of their cabinets, had gone to the grouse Moors of Scotland or the Pennines for the gap of the shot season on 12 August. Since 1964 all that has changed. Now there are non many taking British politicians transporting guns in the shot parties, though there may be foreign millionaires, non all of them from America. Some of the beaters, whose occupation is to upset the grouse so that they fly up to be shot, are pupils gaining money to pay for trips abroad. But there is still a race to direct the first shooting grouse to London eating houses, where there are people happy to pay immense sums of money for the privilege of eating them.
The lone sort of runing which is associated with the working category is hare-coursing
, in which greyhound Canis familiariss chase hares. However, because the huge bulk of people in Britain are urban inhabitants, this excessively is a minority activity.
The one sort of & # 8216 ; runing & # 8217 ; which is popular among all societal categories is angling
. In fact, this is the most popular participatory athletics of all in Britain. Between four and five million people go angling on a regular basis. When fishing is done competitively, it is called & # 8216 ; angling & # 8217 ; . The most popular of all out-of-door athleticss is angling, from the Bankss of lakes or rivers or in the sea, from breakwaters, stones or beaches. Some British lakes and rivers are celebrated for their trout or salmon, and attract partisans from all over the universe.
Apart from being hunted, another manner in which animate beings are used in athletics is when they race. Horse-racing is a long-established and popular athletics in Britain, both & # 8216 ; level racing & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; national Hunt & # 8217 ; racing ( where there are leaps for the Equus caballuss ) , sometimes known as & # 8216 ; steeple & # 173 ; pursuit & # 8217 ; . The former became known as ‘the athletics of male monarchs ‘ in the 17th century, and modern British royalty has near connec & # 173 ; tions with athletics affecting Equus caballuss. Some members of the royal household ain race horses and attend certain one-year race meetings ( Ascot, for illustration ) ; some are besides active participants in the athleticss of Polo and show-jumping ( both of which involve siting a Equus caballus ) . The steeplechase ( crosscountry running ) is really popular in most European states. The first known organized crosscountry race in 1837 was the Crick Run at Rugby School. Originally, crosscountry running took topographic point over unfastened state where the jeopardies were the natural 1s to be found in the state. These included hedges, ditches, watercourses and the similar. Schools and some nines still run over unfastened state. Sometimes, nevertheless, the rivals run off the class as, on one juncture, happened to all the smugglers in a race. Because of this, the organisation of these races has to be really rigorous. Presents, crosscountry races ( or steeplechases ) are frequently run in an enclosed country where the jeopardies are unreal. This makes organisation easier.
The main attractive force of horse-racing for most people is the oppor & # 173 ; tunity it provides for chancing ( see below ) . Greyhound racing, although worsening, is still popular for the same ground. In this athletics, the Canis familiariss chase a mechanical hare round a racecourse. It is easier to form than horse-racing and & # 8216 ; the Canis familiariss & # 8217 ; has the repute of being the & # 8216 ; hapless adult male ‘s rushing & # 8217 ; . Greyhound racing has had a singular resurgence in the 1980s, and by 1988 it accounted for about a one-fourth of all gaming. Its bowls are near town Centres, little plenty to be floodlit in the eventides. Until late the witnesss were largely male and hapless, the milieus shabby. The 1980s have changed all this, with the growing of commercial sponsorship for advertisement. There are fewer bowls and fewer witnesss than in 1970, but the old fabric cap image has become much less appropriate. But one thing has non changed. The elite of Britain ‘s Canis familiariss, and their trainers, largely come from Ireland.
Famous ( Equus caballus ) race meetings Famous ( Equus caballus ) race meetings
The Grand National:
at Aintree, near Liverpool, in March or April It is England ‘s chief steeplechase ( race over fencings ) . The class is over seven kilometers and includes 30 leaps, of which 14 are jumped twice. It is a unsafe race Jockeys have been hurt and Equus caballuss have been killed.
at Epsom, South of London, in May or June. It is England ‘s prima level race ( non over fencings ) .
near Windsor in June. Very stylish. The Queen ever attends.
As I have mentioned horse-racing, I think it will be good to pull attending to rushing in hole.
There are all sorts of rushing in England & # 8212 ; horse-racing, motor & # 173 ; auto racing, boat-racing, dog-racing, and even races for donkeys. On athleticss yearss at school male childs and misss run races, and even develop for them. There is normally a stat mi race for older male childs, and the 1 who wins it is surely a good smuggler.
Normally those who run a race go every bit fast as possible, but there are some races in which everybody has to travel really carefully in order to avoid falling.
There is the “ three-legged ” race, for illustration, in which a brace of smugglers have the right leg of one tied to the left leg of the other. If they try to travel excessively fast they are certain to fall. And there is the egg-and-spoon race, in which each smuggler must transport an egg in a spoon without allowing it bead. If the egg does fall, it must be picked up with the spoon, non the fingers.
Naturally animate beings do n’t race unless they are made to run in some manner, though it frequently seems as if small lambs are running races with each other in the Fieldss in spring.
Horses are ridden, of class. Dogs wo n’t race unless they have something to trail, and so they are given a hare to travel after, either a existent one or an imitation one.
The most celebrated boat-race in England is between Oxford and Cambridge. It is rowed over a class on the River Thames, and thou & # 173 ; littorals of people go to watch it. The eight oarsmans in each boat have great battle, and at the terminal there is normally merely a short distance between the victors and the also-rans.
The University boat-race started in 1820 and has been rowed on the Thames about every spring since 1836. At the Henly Regatta in Ox & # 173 ; fordshire, founded in 1839, crews from all over the universe compete each July in assorted sorts of race over a consecutive class of 1 mile 550 paces ( about 2.1 kilometer ) .
Horse racing is large concern, along with the wagering which sustains it. Every twenty-four hours of the twelvemonth, except Sundays, there is a race meeting at least one of Britain ‘s several twelve racetracks. Nine-tenths of the betting is done by people all over the state, by station or at local wagering stores, and it is estimated that a ten percent of all British work forces bet on a regular basis on Equus caballus races, many of them ne’er traveling to a race class.
Horse racing histories for about half of all gaming, Canis familiaris racing for a one-fourth ( after increasing by 27 per cent in 1987-88 ) . The entire gaming outgo is estimated at over three billion lbs a twelvemonth, or about 1 per cent of the gross domestic merchandise – though those who bet acquire about three-fourthss of their interest back in profitss. There is no national lottery, though premium bonds are a signifier of national nest eggs, with monthly awards alternatively of involvement. About half of all families bet on a regular basis on the football pools, although half of the money staked is divided between the province, through revenue enhancements, and the operators. Peoples are attracted by the hope of winning immense awards, but some victors become suffering with their sudden unaccustomed wealth. Bingo Sessionss, frequently in old film, are attractive chiefly to adult females, and have a good societal component. More popular are the slot machines in constitutions described as ‘amusement arcades ‘ . There has been some worry about the dependence of immature people to this signifier of gaming, which can take to theft.
Even if they are non taking portion or observation, British people like to be involved in athletics. They can make this by puting stakes on future consequences. Gambling is widespread throughout all societal categories. It is so basic to feature that the word ‘sportsman ‘ used to be a equivalent word for ‘gambler ‘ .
When, in 1993, the starting process for the Grand National did non work decently, so that the race could non take topographic point, it was widely regarded as a national catastrophe. The & # 163 ; 70 million which had been gambled on the consequence ( that ‘s more than a lb for each adult male, adult female and kid in the state! ) all had to be given back.
Every twelvemonth, one million millions of lbs are bet on Equus caballus races. So well-known is this activity that everybody in the state, even those with no involvement in horse-racing, would understand the significance of a ques & # 173 ; tion such as ‘who won the 2.30 at Chester? ‘ ( Which Equus caballus won the race that was scheduled to take topographic point at half past two today at the Chester racetrack? The inquirer likely wants to cognize because he or she has gambled some money on the consequence. ) The cardinal function of horse-racing in gaming is besides shown by one of the names used to denote companies and persons whose concern it is to take stakes. Although these are by and large known as ‘bookmakers ‘ , they some & # 173 ; times call themselves ‘turf comptrollers ‘ ( ‘turf is a word for land where grass grows ) ;
Apart from the Equus caballuss and the Canis familiariss, the most popular signifier of chancing connected with athleticss is the football pools. Every hebdomad, more than ten million people interest a little amount on the consequences of Saturday ‘s professional lucifers. Another popular type of gaming, stereotypically for middle-aged on the job category adult females, is bingo.
Nonconformist spiritual groups traditionally frown upon chancing and their disapproval has had some influence. Possibly this is why Britain did non hold a national lottery until 1994. But if people want to chance, so they will. For case, before the national lottery started, the British gambled & # 163 ; 250,000 on which company would be given the license to run it! The state ‘s large bookmakers are willing to offer odds on about anything at all if asked. Who will be the following Labour party leader? Will it rain during the Wimbledon tennis tourney? Will it snow on Christmas Day? All of these offer chances for ‘a waver ‘ .
Apropos of the Wimbledon tennis tourney: Wimbledon is a topographic point to which every tennis-player aspire. And I want to compose some words about it.
Peoples all over the universe know Wimbledon as the Centre of lawn tennis. But most people do non cognize that it was celebrated for another game before tennis was invented. Wimbledon is now a portion of Greater London. In 1874 it was a state small town, but it had a railroad station and it was the place of the All-England Croquet Club. The Club had been at that place since 1864. A batch of people played croquet in Eng & # 173 ; land at that clip and enjoyed it, but the national titles did non pull many witnesss. So the Club had really small money, and the members were looking for ways of acquiring some. “ This new game of lawn tennis seems to hold plentifulness of action, and people like watching it, ” they thought. “ Shall we allow people to play lawn tennis on some of our beautiful croquet lawns? ”
In 1875 they changed the name of the Club to the “ All-England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club ” , and that is the name that you will still happen in the telephone book. Two old ages subsequently, in 1877, Wimbledon held the first universe lawn tennis title ( work forces ‘s singles ) .3
The victor was S. W. Gore, a Londoner. There were 22 participants, and 200 witnesss, each paid one shilling. Those who watched were dressed in the really latest manner & # 8212 ; the work forces in difficult top chapeaus and long coats, and the ladies in frocks that reached to the land! The Club gained & # 163 ; 10. It was saved. Wimbledon grew. There was some surprise and uncertainty, of class, when the Club allowed adult females to play in the first adult females ‘s singles title in 1884. But the ladies played good & # 8212 ; even in long skirts that hid their legs and pess.
The Wimbledon titles begin on the Monday nearest to June 22, at a clip when England frequently has its finest conditions. It is non merely because of the tennis that people like to travel at that place. When the conditions is good, it is a really pleasant topographic point to pass an afternoon. The grass is fresh and green, the participants wear beautiful white apparels, the witnesss are dressed in the latest manner, there may be members of the Royal Family among them, and there are cool drinks in the alfresco coffeehouse next to the tennis tribunals. Millions of people watch the titles on telecasting.
About every athletics which exists is played in Britain. Equally good as the athleticss already mentioned, hockey ( largely on a field but besides on ice ) is quite popular, and both hoops ( for work forces ) and netball ( for adult females ) are turning in popularity. So excessively is the ancient game of rounders.
This athletics is instead similar to Amer & # 173 ; ican baseball and ancient Russian lapta, but it surely does non hold the same image. It has a long history in England as some & # 173 ; thing that people ( immature and old, male and female ) can play together at small town feasts. It is frequently seen as non being a proper & # 8216 ; athletics & # 8217 ; .
However, despite this image, it has late become the 2nd most popular athletics for province schools in Britain. More traditional athleticss such as cricket and rugger are being abandoned in favor of rounders, which is much easier to form. Rounders requires less particular equipment, less money and male childs and misss can play it together. It besides takes up less clip. It is particularly attractive for province schools with small money and clip to save. More than a one-fourth of all state-school athleticss Fieldss are now used for rounders. Merely football, which is played on about half of all state-school Fieldss, is more popular.
The British have a penchant for squad games. Individual athleticss such as sports, cycling, gymnastic exercises and swimming have comparat & # 173 ; ively little followerss. Large Numberss of people become interested in them merely when British rivals do good in international events. The more popular single athleticss are those in which societal & # 173 ; izing is an of import facet ( such as tennis, golf, sailing and snooker ) . It is noteworthy in this context that, apart from international competitions, the lone sports event which generates a batch of enthu & # 173 ; siasm is the one-year London Marathon. Most of the 10s of 1000s of participants in this race are ‘fun smugglers ‘ who are simply seeking to finish it, sometimes in hideous costumes, and so cod money for charity. The biggest new development in athletics has been with long-distance running. ‘Jogging ‘
, for healthy outdoor exercising, necessitating no accomplishment or equipment, became popular in the 1970s, and shortly more and more people took it earnestly. Now the one-year London Marathon is like a carnival, with a million people watching as the universe ‘s star smugglers are followed by 25,000 ordinary people seeking to finish the class. Most of them win and so roll up money from protagonists for charitable causes. Many 1000s of people take portion in local endurance contests all over Britain.
The Highland Games
Scots Highland Games, at which athleticss ( including fliping the caber, seting the weight and throwing the cock ) , dancing and shrieking competitions take topographic point, pull big Numberss of witnesss from all over the universe.
These meetings are held every twelvemonth in different topographic points in the Scots Highlands. They include the kins led by their pipers, dressed in their kilts, tartan tartans, and plumed bonnets, who march round the sphere.
The characteristics common to Highland Games are bagpipe and High & # 173 ; land dancing competitions and the public presentation of heavy athletic events & # 8212 ; some of which, such as fliping the caber, are Highland in ori & # 173 ; gin. All rivals wear Highland frock, as do most of the Judgess. The games take topographic point in a big roped-off sphere. Several events take topographic point at the same clip: pipers and terpsichoreans perform on a platform ; athletes toss the caber, put the weight, throw the cock, and wrestle. There is besides a competition for the best-dressed Highlander.
Highland dance is performed to bagpipe music, by work forces and adult females, such as the Sword Dance and the Reel.
No 1 knows precisely when the work forces of the Highlands foremost gathered to wrestle, toss cabers, throw cocks, put weights, dance and drama music. The Games reflected the tough life of the early Scots. Muscle-power was their agencies of support & # 8212 ; managing lumber, raising stones to construct houses, runing. From such activities have developed the competitions of fliping the caber, seting the weight and throwing the cock. Fliping the caber originated among woodsmans who wanted to project their logs into the deepest portion of a river. Fliping the caber is non a inquiry of who can throw it farthest. For a perfect throw the caber must set down in the 12-o’clock place after be & # 173 ; ing thrown in a perpendicular hemicycle. The caber is a really heavy and long log..
Conker Contest and British Marbles Championship
Every twelvemonth, normally on the Wednesday nearest to 20th October, about a 100 rivals gather to take portion in the one-year buckeye competition in a chosen topographic point. The buckeyes are collected by kids from an avenue of chestnut trees. The buckeyes are carefully examined and numbered on their level sides, so bored and threaded on nylon cord. Each rival is allowed an in agreement figure of “ work stoppages ” , and a referee is present to see just drama. There are awards for victors and second best. The competition normally starts at about 7 p. m.
It is said that in Elizabethan times two suers for a small town beauty settled the affair by agencies of a marbles competition. What is now the Marble Championship is believed to be a endurance of that competition. The game of marbles day of the months back to Roman times. Teams of six compete on a handbill, sanded rink. Forty-nine marbles are placed in the Centre of the rink, and the participants try to strike hard out4
every bit many as possible with their marble. The marble is rested on the index finger and flicked5
with the pollex. The two highest single tonss conflict for the title-holder & # 173 ; ship with merely 13 marbles on the rink. Similar competitions are now held in some other English-speaking states.
The well-known sporting events
The Boat Race:
( between Oxford and Cambridge universities ) , on the River Thames
in London at Easter. The class is over seven kilometers. Oxford have won 64
times, Cambridge 69 times.
The Wimbledon Tennis Tournament:
in July, at Wimbledon, south London, regarded
by many tennis participants as the most of import title to win. There is great
public involvement in the tourney. Many tennis fans queue all dark outside the
evidences in order to acquire tickets for the finals.
The Open Golf Championship:
golf was invented by the Scots, and its central offices
is at the Royal and Ancient Golf Club, St. Andrews, Scotland.
Henley ( Rowing ) Regatta:
at Henley on the Thames ( between London and Oxford ) .
An international summer event. It is a stylish juncture.
a boating regatta. Cowes is a little town on the Isle of Wight,
opposite Southampton, and a world-famous boating Centre.
At the terminal of my class paper I want to do a short reappraisal of what I have already written and compose what I haven & # 8217 ; t written.
Many sorts of athletics originated from England. The English have a adage, “ All work and no drama makes Jack a dull male child. ” They do non believe that drama is more of import than work ; they think that Jack will make his work better if he plays every bit good, so he is encouraged to make both. Association football, or association football is one of the most popular games in the British Isles played from late August until the beginning of May. In summer the English national athletics is cricket. When the English say: ‘that ‘s non cricket ‘ it means ‘that ‘s non just ‘ , ‘to play the game ‘ agencies ‘to be just ‘ .
Golf is Scotland ‘s main part to British athletics. It is deserving observing here an interesting characteristic of featuring life in Britain, viz. , its often close connexion with societal category of the participants or specta & # 173 ; tors except where a game may be said to be a “ national ” athletics. This is the instance with cricket in England which is played and watched by all categories. This is true of golf, which is everyplace in the British Isles a middle-class activity. Rugby Union, the recreational assortment of Rugby football, is the Welsh national athletics played by all subdivisions of society whereas, elsewhere, it excessively is a game for the in-between categories. Association football is a propertyless athletics as are packaging, wrestle, snooker, darts and dog-racing. Equally far as fishing is concerned it is, apart from being the most popular British athletics from the angle of the figure of active participants, a athletics where what is caught determines the category of a fisherman. If it is a salmon or trout it is upper-class, but if it is the kind offish found in canals, pools or the sea, so the angler is about certain to be propertyless.
Walking and swimming are the two most popular sporting activi & # 173 ; ties, being about every bit undertaken by work forces and adult females. Snooker ( billiards ) , pool and darts are the following most popular athleticss among work forces. Aerobics ( keep-fit exercisings ) and yoga, squash and cycling are among the athleticss where engagement has been increasing in recent old ages.
There are several topographic points in Britain associated with a peculiar sort of athletics. One of them is Wimbledon & # 8212 ; a suburb to the South of Lon & # 173 ; Don where the All-England Lawn Tennis Championships are held in July ( since 1877 ) . The finals of the tourney are played on the Cen & # 173 ; tre Court. The other one is Wembley & # 8212 ; a bowl in north London where international football lucifers, the Cup Finals and other events have taken topographic point since 1923. It can keep over 100,000 witnesss. The 3rd one is Derby, the most celebrated level race in the English racing calendar, it is run at Epsom near London since 1780.
Having written my class paper I think that I have proved athletics & # 8217 ; s meriting attending. Especially athletics is a really interesting subject refering the United Kingdom. Of class, I couldn & # 8217 ; t illustrate all Britain athleticss, but which I still do reflect Britain & # 8217 ; s life with all contradictory combinations. Both life is unagitated and exciting, and athletics is unagitated with golf & # 8217 ; s followings and exciting with football & # 8217 ; s fans.
1. Which is the English summer national athletics?
2. Which sorts of athletics can you call in English?
3. Which game can be called the most popular game in the universe?
4. How many participants are at that place in a football squad?
5. What has given British football a bad name late?
6. What is a football pool?
7. Football is played chiefly with the pess. What about rugger?
8. How do Rugby Union and Rugby League differ from each other?
9. What is called a trial lucifer in cricket?
10. Which topographic point in Britain is associated with lawn tennis title-holder & # 173 ; ships?
11. Which topographic point in Britain is associated with a yachting regatta?
12. Which celebrated horse-race meetings does the Queen call on?
13. What kinds of rushing do you cognize?
14. What events take topographic point at Scots Highland Games?
15. Where is the Royal and Ancient Golf Club located?
16. What was about half of all money stake on in 1993?
17. What is a & # 8216 ; buckeye & # 8217 ; ?
18. What is & # 8216 ; ramble oning & # 8217 ; ?
19. What is more of import in athleticss: the ability to win a triumph or the ability to lose without choler ; absolute equity or physical power?
20. What English parlances which have come from the universe of athletics do you cognize?
THE LIST OF LITERATURE
1. & # 1055 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 171 ; 1 & # 1089 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 187 ; & # 171 ; English & # 187 ; // & # 171 ; Football, made in Britain, loved by the universe & # 187 ; , 2001, & # 8470 ; 13, p.2
2. Britain in Brief, & # 1055 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , 1993
3. Peter Bromhead & # 171 ; Life in Modern Britain & # 187 ; , Longman, 1997
4. James O & # 8217 ; Driscoll & # 171 ; Britain. The state and its people & # 187 ; , Oxford University Press, 1997
5. David McDowall & # 171 ; Britain in close-up & # 187 ; , Longman, 2000
6. Satinova V.F. & # 171 ; Read and talk about Britain and the British & # 187 ; , Minsk, 1997
7. Material from the site: www.scotland.com
THE LIST OF LITERATURE
1. Levashova V.A. & # 171 ; Britain today & # 187 ;
2. David McDowall & # 171 ; Britain in close-up & # 187 ; , Longman, 2000
3. Oshepkova V.V. , Shustilova I. I. & # 171 ; Britain in brief & # 187 ;