Standard Economic Sustainability Indicators To Saudi Arabia Economics Essay
Bing the largest petroleum oil exporter in the universe has provided Saudi Arabia a uninterrupted flow of gross estimated at around 311 billion for 2012 EIA, 2012. The Saudi authorities has been passing for the past decennaries a considerable part of its gross into bettering the criterion of life of its citizens. The Ninth Five-Year Plan initiated in 2009 allocated more than 380 billion $ to develop the state ‘s educational abilities, societal and healthcare public assistance, transit system and decide recurrent lodging scarceness ( MEP, 2009 ) . Measuring the sustainable success of those development policies is a difficult enterprise which requires extended attempts. A really common manner to measure economic sustainability is through indexs that were foremost implemented by UNCSD and Eurostat two decennaries ago. However every bit attractive as those indexs may look like, using them to the Saudi Arabian context offers its ain challenges and defects. In this paper, we will specify sustainable economic development ( SED ) , explain the indexs that are used to mensurate sustainability and measure their pertinence for Saudi Arabia.
2-Defining Sustainable Economic Development:
2.1-Economic development and economic growing: Two sundry constructs
Standard Economic Sustainability Indicators To Saudi Arabia Economics Essay Essay Example
It has become late common pattern among research workers to utilize both the looks of economic growing and economic development when mentioning to the same construct. However, from an economic position, growing and development are two diverse constructs and can non be used interchangeably. Economic growing is one facet of the procedure of economic development ( Sen, 1983 ) . It is by and large regarded as a short term, quantitative impression which is in contrast to the long tally, more qualitative percept organizing economic growing ( Schaeffer et al. , 2000 ) .
As Kindleberger ( 1958 ) introduces it, economic growing denotes, in a proficient and institutional position, an addition in the sum of goods and services produced by an economic system over a specific period of clip. Growth is normally calculated by gauging the accretion of fluctuations of the national income ( GDP ) , per capita income, ingestions, investings and personal nest eggs ( cite? ) . Han et Al ( 2003 ) further expands the thought of growing by including in it the impressions of productiveness and efficiency to account for enhanced production techniques and improved organisational aptitude.
On the other side, Economic Development is a much wider idea than economic growing. It is defined as the continual, conjunct actions of communities and policymakers that improve the criterion of life and economic wellness of a specific vicinity ( Tadaro & A ; Smith, 2011 ) . It is a procedure by which a community creates, retains, and reinvests wealth while bettering its quality of life ( Dodson, 2009 ) and includes all the societal, cultural, political, and moral factors that are subscribers to the stuff success ( Friedman, 2006 ) . As Kindleberger ( 1958 ) explains it, the nucleus of economic development lies along the line of the values of Freedom, Sustenance and Self-esteem.
Accelerated Economic development is to be reached by cultivating attempts to excite enhanced instruction and health care, increase single freedom and attain higher buying power and a diversified cultural life ( World Bank, 1991 ) . Gender equality and environmental saving are constructs that were subsequently developed, billowing in the early 1990 ‘s, but which have since been having increased attending. Fostering economic development besides entails alterations in the composing of end product and in the allotment of inputs by sectors ( Rodrik, 2004 ) .
The International Economic Development Council ( IEDC ) delineated a set of guideline policies to be applied by national authoritiess and legislators for exciting economic development. These policies can be summarized into three classs:
-Policies taking at supplying services such as health care or transit substructure.
-Policies initiated by the authorities to aim wide economic aims such as cut downing rising prices and unemployment while increasing consumer assurance.
-Policies explicitly directed at bettering the concern clime through concern finance, revenue enhancement inducements, engineering direction and transportation or existent estate development.
Since each community has its ain alone challenges, there is no 1 policy or scheme that can be applied everyplace to achieve economic success. Ultimately a choice uniting variable policies that are fitted to local specialnesss is the best attack. This method has already been adopted by outstanding international beings in their attempts to develop economic development indexs that are to organize the footing for measuring development.
2.2- Sustainable Economic Development: What are we precisely supposed to prolong?
Economic sustainable development is a comparatively new term that was popularized by the United Nation ‘s Brundtland Commission in 1987. The construct was derived from the early human realisation of the necessity to equilibrate resource ingestion and reproduction ( Ehnert 2009 ) with the consciousness to integrate resource scarceness and ecological bounds into economic growing theoretical accounts. Primeval attempts to specify the construct of sustainable economic development can be found as far back to the nineteenth century in Hotelling ‘s theory for the optimum usage of exhaustible resources and the Jevons ‘ Paradox[ 1 ]affecting resource preservation ( mention ) .
A more modern-day effort to specify sustainable development was made by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature ( IUCN ) committee sum uping it as “ the development that meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands. ” The definition was further refined by Pearce et Al ( 1990 ) , Munashinghe ( 1993 ) and Dasgupta et Al ( 2000 ) who added to it societal, economic and environmental positions. Respectively, Stavins et Al ( 2003 ) complement the definition by adding the impressions of resource interlinkages, intergenerational equity, and dynamic efficiency. In the context of this survey, we will utilize a farther modern-day effort made by Gilbert et Al ( 2006 ) to construe sustainable development as “ the care and sweetening of environmental, societal and economic resources, in order to run into the demands of current and future coevalss ” .
Hence sustainable development is non to be perceived as a prohibition to utilizing natural resources but as a way to following preservation steps that does non endanger the survival abilities of future coevalss. A divergency among economic experts prevarications in the construct of what is really desired to be conserved. Two chief schools of idea can be discerned. The first one, endorsed by Solow ( 1991 ) and Markandya et Al ( 2002 ) is based on the construct that public-service corporation[ 2 ]should be sustained ; intending the mean per capita public-service corporation of a coevals should be non-declining in order for the following coevals to see at least the same degree of wealth and felicity. The 2nd school is more focussed on the sustainability of the physical throughput that is, as Daly ( 2006 ) explains it, the entropic physical flow from nature ‘s beginning through the economic system and back to nature ‘s sink has to be preserved. In peculiar, it means to conserve the health of the future coevalss by protecting the capacity of the ecosystem to offer the same current biophysical resources and services in order to keep production chances for the hereafter ( World Bank, 2002 ) . It is the minimal province required for the ecosystem continuance at its current degrees through coevalss. Both attacks do supply advantages and restrictions, nevertheless for the interest of this survey we prefer utilizing a utility-based method for specifying sustainability.
2.3-Weak vs. Strong Sustainability: which one to take?
Another argument dominant among economic experts is the quandary between
natural vs. manufactured capital as a beginning of economic sustainability. The literature normally explains this argument as choosing between “ Strong ” vs. “ Weak ” sustainability.
A “ weak ” sustainability revolves around the impression of intergenerational equity. Economists such as Heal ( 2009 ) and Arrow et Al ( 2004 ) specify this equity as the demand that the wealth of a society defined as human capital, cognition capital and natural capital do non worsen over clip. As Ayres et Al ( 2000 ) describes it, weak sustainability is a job of pull offing a state ‘s capital in order to at least keep it at a changeless degree either per capita or in entire. Based on Pearce et Al ( 1990 ) weak sustainability encompass natural capital but besides a uninterrupted permutation between Man-made and the same considered natural capital. This preparation can be particularly valid for non-renewable resources such as hydrocarbons, minerals and deep aquifers ( Solow, 1986 ) .
In contrast, “ strong ” sustainability is seen as continuing life chances by conserving the stock of human capital, technological capableness, natural resources and environmental quality ( Brekke, 1997 ) . As natural resources are indispensable inputs for economic production, a minimal measure of ecological and societal capital should be maintained in physical footings. As Barbier ( 2007 ) expose it, it is the non-depletion of indispensable signifiers of natural capital such as the ozone bed, air and H2O quality among others.
An informative illustration of black weak sustainability application is the little Pacific island state of Nauru where high class phosphate was find in the early twentieth century ( Gowfy & A ; MacDaniel, 1999 ) . Nauru ‘s society was transformed from a self-sufficing community life within the restraints of the island resources to massive foreign good importers. After about a century of phosphate excavation, the resource started to run out and the island was left wholly devastated with the lone utile portion of the land reduced to a narrow coastal strip. The island had antecedently made active efforts to diversify its economic system by puting its phosphate gross in Australian premier existent estate and investment in capital stock markets ( BBC, 2004 ) . By making this, the state applied the weak sustainability construct based on the thought that the Nauru people will prolong their old criterion of life by populating out of the rents and involvement of the investing trust one time phosphate militias are depleted. By making this, Nauru placed its wellbeing at the clemency of fluctuations of the planetary economic system. Unfortunately, a series of major bad investings coupled with the 1997 Asiatic fiscal crisis wiped away much of the Nauruan trust turning the one time comfortable Nauru province into a failed one ( Connel,2006 ) .
By taking to use weak sustainability and puting its trust in capital market, Nauru overexposed its national trust fund to external hazards. Alternatively it should hold opted for a variegation scheme based on a strong sustainability attack which would hold focused more on safeguarding the autochthonal natural and human capital of the island by reconstructing its ecosystem while bettering its agricultural abilities, heightening its touristic attraction and supplying better educational chances for its population.
2.4-Linking sustainability to economics
The above argument of weak and strong sustainability can be economically interpreted as whether each capital stock has to be maintained independently or whether the amount of economic, societal, environmental and institutional stocks has to be non-declining ( Spangenberg, 2005 ) . Economicss rationalism emerges from the demand to presume an association between sustainability and commensurability, the ability to mensurate variable constituents with a common criterion[ 3 ]. Furthermore, this rationalism is reinforced by premises taken by sustainability research workers such as complete permutation ( Daly, 1997 ) and strong comparison and predictability of ecosystems[ 4 ]( Sprangenberg, 2005 ) . One has to maintain in head that economic constructs are applied when analyzing sustainability chiefly to supply commensurability and easiness of comparing between procedures. The studied impact of the sustainability of an economic procedure, such as the one antecedently described, is limited to the direct impacts with really limited penetration about 2nd degree reverberations. An illustration of this may be to quantify the losingss due to the disappearing of the Aral Sea. An economic survey can measure the impact of losing occupation chances, the costs incurred due to population resettlement or the possible reverberations on human wellness. Such a survey, though, will confront existent challenges for mensurating the cost and impact of clime alteration as clime can non be genuinely valued since it is non substitutable by human-made capital.
3-How to quantify and mensurate sustainable development
Policymakers need methods to measure sustainability. A really simplistic and somehow efficient manner to make so is utilizing sets of sustainability indexs. Indexs are more than merely informations ; they are helpful tools that ease the procedure of decision-making by simplifying and aggregating information. They help to supply a better apprehension of the job by pass oning relationships, thoughts and values that are non apparent utilizing basic statistics. Analyzing the development of those sustainability indexs over clip is a good contemplation of the advancement of national entities in their attempt toward sustainable development.
Over the old ages, many taking establishments have worked on developing 100s of planetary indexs of economic sustainability. Of these we can call the United Nations ‘ Commission on Sustainable Development ( UNCSD ) , Eurostat and the International Institute for Sustainable Development ( IISD ) . As research workers are neglecting to hold on a common land for a criterion of sustainability indexs, assorted set of indexs have been independently developed over the old ages ensuing in 100s of these indexs undertaking assorted facets of the economic system.
In the undermentioned subdivision, we will name and depict the mainstream indexs that have been used by the above taking entities in their planetary appraisals of economic sustainability. These indexs portion common standards such as their relaxation to be calculated, their relevancy to prevalent economic affairs and the dependability of the statistics they are based on.
Table 1 below represents a aggregation of 13 chief indexs used by the old establishments divided by subject, index type, description and the organisation that foremost used the considered index while measuring sustainability.
Table 1: Main indexs used by taking establishments to measure sustainable economic development.
Concept Main user for SED
Gross Domestic Product, per Capita or PPP
Market value of all officially recognized goods & A ; services produced in a twelvemonth by a state
The entire labour force that is presently non working but is actively seeking employment and is presently available to work
Natural resource productiveness
Ratio between Gross Domestic Product and the Domestic Material Consumption.
Three indexs: the strength of energy usage by economic activity, the one-year energy ingestion of a state per capita and the portion of renewable energy beginnings in the specified state ‘s energy mix.
Water and Land usage
For land: land debasement index which assesses the portion of land which is no longer a proper economic or ecological map due to human activity
For H2O: the proportion of renewable vs. non-renewable H2O used as a sum of H2O resources used
Adult literacy rate
per centum of the population age 15 and above who can, read and compose a short, simple statement on their mundane life
per centum of population with entree to primary health-care services
Research & A ; Development
the per centum of GDP spent on research and development on the national district during a specific financial twelvemonth
mean figure of old ages that a individual is expected to populate at birth as determined by historical statistics
Governance & A ; Institutional
Corruption perceptual experience index
Degree of corruptness in a state as perceived by its citizens and foreign experts.
Crime and Safety
The figure of recorded knowing homicide, robbery and vehicle per hundred 1000 individuals.
Sustainable public finance
the ability of a authorities to keep its current disbursement, revenue enhancement and other policies in the long tally without baleful authorities default
3.1- The Gross Domestic Product
The prima economic index normally used to mensurate economic development is the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) per capita. The GDP, besides known as nominal GDP, is the market value of all officially recognized concluding goods and services produced within a state in one twelvemonth ( Kuznets, 1934 ) . GDP per capita is the entire GDP divided by the resident population over a specific period. The per capita GDP is a really normally cited statistic when measuring the economic activity of national economic systems, and is frequently considered as an index of the state ‘s criterion of life. It has proved itself to be rather utile for cross-border comparing between different national and international entities peculiarly because it can be often and systematically measured ( Stieglitz, 2009 ) . A growing in GDP per capita is sometimes correlated with an sweetening in the quality of life. It is besides the contemplation of improved economic efficiency and productiveness ( Han et al, 2003 ) . The Cato institute found that the addition in the “ Happiness ” of a population was straight relative to the addition of the per capita GDP up to a bound of 15,000 USD per individual.[ 5 ]
One dependable manner to cipher the per capita GDP is the outgo attack which is done by summing all of the outgo incurred by persons during one twelvemonth so spliting it by the entire resident population ( UNSNA, 1993 ) . It divides the GDP into multiple constituents in the signifier of:
combining weight. 1
Where Consumption histories for the private family concluding ingestion ( including lasting, impermanent goods and services ) ; Investment consists of concern investing in equipment excepting exchange of bing assets ; Government Spending includes the governmental outgo on concluding goods and services ; and Net Export represents the difference between gross exports and gross imports.
An extra commonly used discrepancy of the GDP is the Purchase Power Parity GDP per capita or PPP GDP ( per capita ) . It is calculated by analysing the purchase power para of a currency relation to other standard modesty currencies such as Euro or US dollar. This method helps alleviate income disparity ensuing from the infirmity of emerging states ‘ currencies in international markets.
However, every bit attractive as it may looks, the GDP construct offers serious lacks as an rating tool of economic development, and can barely reflect the wellbeing of the state. The most outstanding statement against its acceptance is that it weakly reflects how the wealth is distributed among assorted demographic groups. This is specifically the instance of resource-based economic systems like Saudi Arabia where equal wealth distribution offer some challenges. Such can be reflected by comparing the Kingdom ‘s nominal GDP and Per capita GDP. In 2011, Saudi Arabia GDP ranked in the highest twentieth with a value of 576.8 Billion USD good in front developed states such as Luxembourg and Sweden ( World Bank, 2011 ) . When sing the Per capita GDP, the Kingdom ranked 41th, well lower, with a value of 20,540 USD per individual ( World Bank, 2011 ) . The state ‘s GINI index, a step of the income inequality distribution, was about 0.73 in the early 2000s ( BTI, 2012 ) one of the highest in the universe[ 6 ]. Another illustration can be taken from the United States, where from 1980 to 1990, 5 % of families increased their existent income by more than 20 % with the addition being reflected in the GDP as corporate ( Cobb & A ; Cobb, 1994 ) .
Addition of GDP does n’t needfully intend sustainable growing. In 1981 due to oil monetary value peaking, the Saudi GDP per capita reached a upper limit of 18000 USD ( 44,500 $ in 2011USD ) rapidly draggling down to 6407 USD in 1988 ( 14160 $ in 2011 USD ) due to a rearward drawback in oil monetary value ( World Bank, 2012 ) . Such fluctuations are common and uncover that the GDP is merely a temporarily measuring of economic activity non a contemplation or projection of a consistent criterion of life.
Oppositions besides cite other statements disadvantaging the usage of GDP as dependable index of sustainable economic development. The GDP does non take into history many core economic facets such as currency fluctuations, informal economic system[ 7 ], non-market minutess[ 8 ]and personal remittals traveling into and out of the state ( Cobb & A ; Cobb, 1994 ) . Another concern is that the GDP fails to take history of import outwardnesss such as resource depletion ( debasement of farming area, over-extraction of oil and minerals, etc. ) , environmental harm ( H2O pollution, deforestation, and desertification ) and belowground black market economic system ( Redefining Progress, 1995 ) . Impacts of resource depletion and environmental amendss may be of particular involvement for Saudi Arabia. More than 85 % of its current governmental gross is generated from non-renewable resources with fringy income being produced from variegations outside the energy and petrochemical sectors ( SAMA, 2011 ) . As H2O and cultivable land are scarce, the Kingdom ‘s sustainable economic growing is extremely reliable on ecological and resource saving for the hereafter.
Furthermore, non-accounting for the black market economic system can take for a ample understatement of the GDP, particularly for emerging economic systems. Nigeria is an interesting instance where surveies estimate that up to 40 % of the GDP is unaccounted for due to black market activities ( Havocscope, 2012 ) . These activities cover a broad scope of activities from Oil and Gas smuggling to counterfeited goods and music buccaneering.
Furthermore, as the GDP is merely an add-on of everything produced within a state, it is non merely boosted by the virtuosities of a society but besides by its defects ( Nordhaus and Tobin, 1972 ) . In other words, the GDP is besides boosted by the degeneracies of a society such as offense, war or household breakdown as all of these enforce big economic costs on persons and societies in the signifier of legal and medical disbursals, belongings amendss and others. Inasmuch, the GDP treats all the disbursals incurred by such bad lucks as add-on to the general wellbeing instead than a decrease.
One manner to reflect the restriction of the GDP is to compare it to the Genuine Progress Indicator ( GPI ) . The GPI is a new metric system developed two decennaries ago by the public policy think tank Redefining Progress as a proposed reply to all the above cited GDP defects. The GPI takes into history facets of economic live that the GDP normally ignores such as uneconomic growing, cost of resource depletion, cost of natural impairment, income distribution and others ( Talberth et al, 2006 ) . Unlike the GDP, the GPI is less employed worldwide and is non every bit systematically measured throughout the states that use it ( Lawn, 2003 ) . Finland, Canada and the USA are the most advanced states in implementing GPI theoretical accounts inside their local economic systems ; nevertheless each one of them computes it utilizing a different attack. For the interest of this study, we will follow the American definition of GPI which is reported by Redefining Progress as:
Where S is the value of public assistance bring forthing non-market services, Personal computer the income weighted private ingestion, the alteration in capital stock and balance of international trade, ND the private defensive cost of natural impairment and D the cost of impairment of nature and natural resources all in USD.
For the instance of the United States[ 9 ], a comparative difference between GDP and GPI runing from 1950 to 2005 is illustrated for the instance of the United States in figure 2 below.
in 2000 $
Figure 1: Development of the GDP vs. GPI per capita for the United States between 1950-2005 ( 2000 $ )
Beginning: State of Maryland, Economic Department, Annual GPI Report ( 2006 ) .
As it is noticed from the graph, the development waies of both the GDP and GPI are rather diverging. While the GDP about threefold increased from 12,000 2000 $ in 1950 to 36500 2000 $ in 2005, the GPI growing was less steep holding merely increased 50 % between 1950 ( 9000 $ in 2000 $ ) and 2005 ( 14000 $ in 2000 $ ) . The apparent difference between the two curves helps reflecting the defects of the GDP as a step for a state ‘s criterion of life for the grounds antecedently explained.
Another used sustainability index is the unemployment rate. As defined by the International Labor Organization, the unemployment rate is the entire labour force that is presently non working but is actively seeking employment and is presently available to work ( eq.3 ) . To be defined as a job-seeker, the unemployed worker must hold been doing the attempt of reaching employers, holding occupation interviews and utilizing any other mean of occupation arrangement within the anterior four hebdomads ( ILO, Eurostat, 2011 ) .
One has to be careful when utilizing unemployment rate as an index of economic sustainability. A low unemployment rate does non ever intend that the economic system is in a sustainable way. Persons can be working but still be under-employed. A individual is classified as under-employed when, despite being a extremely skilled worker, is working in low paying occupations taking to them non utilizing all the mental and proficient capacities ( William claude dukenfields, 1975 ) . A high under employment rate frequently correlates with the underutilization of the working force bring oning a lesser benefit to the general economic system and therefore endangering its long term subsistence. ( Underemployment rates are truly difficult to calculate for Saudi Arabia, no natural statistics are available )
Additional concern when utilizing this index is that it does non separate between unemployment and overstaffing. Known as a concealed signifier of unemployment, overstaffing refers to using workers without giving them adequate work business taking them to go economically inefficient. This type of work is common among governmental bureaus, province tally companies and in extremely seasonal occupations such as touristry and agribusiness ( beginning? ) . Hidden unemployment may be a concern for Saudi Arabia as the governmental and sub-governmental sectors employ about 38 % of the Saudi labour force ( SAMA, 2010 ) while the touristry sector ( notably spiritual touristry ) provides a farther 8 % of Saudis occupation chances ( CDSI, 2010 ) which means that around 45 % of the Saudi labour force is potentially at hazard of concealed unemployment ( Figure 2 ) .
Figure 2: Distribution of the Saudi Labor Force by Sectorial Activity
Beginning: SAMA 47th Annual Report, CDSI Annual Report ( 2011 ) & A ; Author Analysis
Furthermore, utilizing a general unemployment rate as an index for Saudi Arabia ‘s economic development may be fallacious as there is a big disparity between females and males unemployment rates. While the official general unemployment rate is around 10 % ( SAMA, 2011 ) , the female unemployment rate is around 6 times higher than the male ‘s stretch records high of 24.9 % in 2010 ( CDSI, 2011 ) . Yet, every bit much as this rate may look high, it may still be an under-estimate as it is rather difficult to describe the position of a female as a occupation searcher particularly when she may be still executing her function as a homemaker. Furthermore, the female engagement rate in the labour force is an of import index that should be considered. A low female engagement rate such as is the instance for Saudi Arabia ( 17 % in 2010, World Bank ) despite high academic degree attainment implies that a big section of the society capablenesss and professional aspirations is non made in usage which undeniably limits the society ‘s chances for sustainable economic development ( Figure 3 ) .
Figure 3: Unemployment rate and Female labour Participation Rate in Saudi Arabia from 2001 to 2010.
Beginning: World Bank Data Statistics ( 2012 ) , SAMA 47th Annual Report ( 2011 ) , CDSI Annual Reports ( 2011 )
Furthermore, the tightening of the Saudi labour under the Nitaqat ordinances ( 2011 ) led to the creative activity of a system enforcing on companies to hold a certain per centum of Saudi citizens as portion of their work force as per their field of work. Faced with such duties to engage Saudis, some companies resorted to forge employment such as paying subjects to hold their names used in authorities functionary statistics without holding them really working in the company[ 10 ]. If the maltreatments become applied on a big graduated table, they can hold serious reverberations on the consistence of the unemployment statistics gathered by local governments and farther degrade the dependability of the unemployment rate as an index for sustainable economic development.
3.3- Life Expectancy at Birth
Variation of Life anticipation is a normally used index to measure the sustainability of an economic system. As defined by the World Health Organization ( 2010 ) , life anticipation is the mean figure of old ages that a individual is expected to populate at birth as determined by historical statistics. It is normally predetermined by the individual ‘s background such as status, race, age, sex or other demographic factors. The development of population life anticipation over clip is a good index of the patterned advance of the nutritionary and the health-care development degrees for the considered states ( UNCSD, 2007 ) . However life anticipation at birth is extremely reasonable to infant mortality rates which can take to incorrect reading in emerging states where infant mortality is comparatively elevated. This can be solved by analyzing the population life anticipation at age 5. Such a step will except infant mortality rate taking to a better apprehension of the development of grownup ‘s quality of life.
The graph below in Figure 4 shows the development of life anticipation at birth and at age 5 for Saudi Arabia. The life anticipation at age 5 for Saudi Arabia has been generated by infering the mortality rates of kids of below age 5 from the general life anticipation map and life tabular array used by the World Bank. The life anticipation of Saudi citizens has come a long manner increasing from 47 in the early 1960s to 74 in 2010 ( World Bank, 2011 ) . Likewise, the unrecorded anticipation at age 5[ 11 ]has increased from 52 in 1960 to 76 in 2010 which means that the addition in life span is non merely due to a lessening in childish mortality rate but besides to a general addition in the quality of life. Nonetheless, the childish mortality rate did drastically better with the difference between life anticipation at birth and at age 5 being cut downing threefold from 6 old ages to around 2 old ages ( Figure 4 ) .
Figure 4: Life Anticipation with and without mortality rates
Beginning: World Bank 2012 & A ; Author analysis
3.4- Adult literacy rate
The UNESCO defines the grownup literacy rate as the per centum of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and compose a short, simple statement on their mundane life ( UNESCO, 2011 ) . In add-on to being able to compose, a literate grownup must besides be numerate, i.e. holding the ability to treat simple arithmetic computations. The literacy rate index is calculated by spliting the figure of literates aged 15 old ages and over by the corresponding age group population so multiplying the consequence by 100. It is really of import to look at the adult females literacy rate when analyzing the development of an emerging state as adult females are sometime at disadvantage when seeking academic chances.
Adult literacy rate is a good index for reflecting the development phase of a society. However it would be more interesting to look deeper into the educational attainment degree particularly on more specialised indexs such as the figure of grownups with assorted university grades. Both indexs help measuring the quality of the human capital of a society and the accomplishments of its labour market. Besides, break uping those two indexs by sex may give further penetration to the position of SED.
In the instance of Saudi Arabia, the grownup literacy rate increased from 70 % in 1992 to 86 % in 2009 ( World Bank, 2012 ) . Furthermore, the male and female registration in general instruction increased tenfold from 536,400 pupils in 1970 to 5,147,000 in 2010 ( MEP, 2010 ) reflecting an betterment of young person instruction for both sexes.
Figure 5: Male and Female Enrolment in General Education in Saudi Arabia from 1970 to 2010.
Beginning: MEP, Achievements of the development programs, 2011.This tendency is besides confirmed when looking at the development of educational attainment of the Saudi population with so figure of unmarried mans and Masterss pupils alumnuss about trebling from 1996 to 2010 ( CDSI, 2011 ) and the figure of doctorial pupils duplicating for the same period. All these indexs endorse that Saudi Arabia is implementing a sustainable economic way from an academic position.
Figure 6: Saudi Graduates from Local Universities by Educational Level 1996 to 2010
Beginning: CDSI Annual Report ( 2011 ) & A ; Author Analysis.
3.5-Sustainable Public Finance
As explained by Belassone et Al ( 2000 ) sustainable public finance ( or financial sustainability ) denotes the ability of a authorities to keep its current disbursement, revenue enhancement and other policies in the long tally without baleful authorities default on some of its liabilities and promised outgo. One manner to cipher future financial sustainability is to utilize the Permanent Income Hypotheses ( PIH ) developed by M. Friedman in 1957[ 12 ]. The PIH has been normally used in the context of hydrocarbon resource rich economic systems. It defines Sustainable Government disbursement in map of the expected rente value of fiscal and hydrocarbon grosss in the signifier of:
With stand foring the national crowned head fund fiscal assets accrued at the terminal of the old twelvemonth, the expected rate of return on the crowned head fund, n the figure of old ages staying until depletion of hydrocarbon militias, FR the entire financial gross for period Ns and d the price reduction factor.
Aissaoui ( 2012 ) applied this method to imitate financial break-even monetary values for OPEC states. In the instance of Saudi Arabia, using a 5 % price reduction factor and presuming that 70 % of the petroleum oil production is exported at international monetary values, he found that the average estimations of the break-even hydrocarbon monetary values for 2012 scope around 94 $ per barrel ( Figure 7 below ) . Assuming a lasting income of rough oil rents at monetary values runing in the 100-110 $ as reflected during the past two old ages, the Saudi budget seems well-balanced for old ages to come unless major deformations or outgo occur.
It is of import to observe that the above attack has some restrictions for economic systems trusting chiefly on resource export. It ignores the consequence of fluctuations in currency exchange rate. In the instance of Saudi Arabia, where the national currency is pegged to the US dollar, the authorities income generated from hydrocarbon gross revenues is accumulated in US dollars while the national budget is run in the Saudi riyal. Because of this, the Saudi Riyal is inherently inflationary, taking to higher monetary value particularly with 80 % of imported merchandises flow from outside the US ( CDSI, 2011 ) .
Figure 7: OPEC Fiscal Cost Curve for 2012
Beginning: Ali Aissaoui, Economic Commentary, August-September 2012, Apicorp Research
Another job that can be faced with this index is the dependability of the provided statistics. It is typical to hold multiple amendments affecting the budget adding auxiliary or complementary alteration over the twelvemonth. Having such common extra-budgetary minutess tend to impact the quality of the index as it wo n’t be able to truly reflect the position of the public fundss ( Aissaoui, 2012 )
As it was the instance with the GDP index, the public finance index in Saudi Arabia will be extremely susceptible to fluctuation in energy monetary values. Since petroleum oil is the Kingdom ‘s paramount export merchandise bring forthing more than 85 % of governmental grosss ( SAMA, 2011 ) , the public finance indexs is extremely sensitive to any alteration in the monetary value of rough oil.
3.6- Corruption Perception Index
The end of corruptness index is to mensurate the prevalence of corruptness among authorities functionaries ensuing from the abuse of public power for private benefit ( Gatlung, 2006 ) . The most prevailing corruptness index is Transparency International ‘s Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI ) which is produced by appraising experts affiliated with taking establishments such as the World Bank, the World Economic Forum and others. All 180 surveyed states are ranked on a graduated table of 10, 1 being extremely corrupt and 10 being really clean. An addition in this index is a mark of advancement on the path to good administration, an indispensable constituent for sustainable development.
Based on the CPI index, Saudi Arabia has made some advancement with its CPI increasing from 3.3 in 2006 to 4.7 in 2011 and its worldwide rank leaping from 80th in 2007 to 57th in 2011 ( Figure 8 ) . The CPI may give a general indicant about the corruptness position in a state but it surely has its ain flows. The CPI is based on people ‘s perceptual experience which is extremely affected by public sentiment ( Byrne et al, 2010 ) . The job with public sentiment is that it is extremely volatile and susceptible to people ‘s prejudgements. Rumors about corruptness instances can be easy circulated in the media for political grounds, without holding consistent evidences, but will nevertheless still be impacting public sentiment. Consequently, perceptual experience based indexes lead to big border of mistakes as they do non account for the indirect effects of subjective factors ( Bertrand and Mullainathan 2001 ) .
Furthermore, junior-grade corruptness and societal favouritism are normally non accounted for in those indexs. Citizens in many states tend to pay modest bureaucratic progresss to civil retainers presuming this is normal behaviour for paperwork processing ( Byrne, 2007 ) . These little recurrent payments are barely accounted for in the CPI and other corruptnesss indexs because they are really hard to mensurate. Likewise, societal favouritism is besides difficult to unwrap and does well affects the quality of CPI. It ‘s happen its roots when a determination shaper favors a individual or company over others based on societal connexions such as household links, affinity or personal penchant and non based on professional makings ( Nadler and Schumann, 2006 ) .Unlike bribing and other signifier of corruptness, it does non include any fiscal compensation or exchange of goods. Social favouritism is reasonably much inherent to the middle-eastern society particularly in work environment, survey by Loewe et Al ( 2008 ) about Jordan ‘s concern clime showed that more than 60 % of concern determinations do conceal some signifier of societal favouritism.
Figure 8: Corruptness Perception Index and Worldwide ranking for Saudi Arabia
Beginning: Transparency International, CPI ( 2011 ) & A ; Author Analysis
3.7-Crime and safety index
Crime and safety indexs are worthy metres of sustainable economic development and are a good contemplation of increased criterion of life and better economic tendencies. Previous findings did correlate the condemnable motive theory which suggests that economic emphasis may be an inducement for persons to prosecute in illicit behaviours ( UNODC, 2009 ) .
As defined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ( UNODC ) , the offense index histories for the figure of recorded knowing homicide, robbery and vehicle per hundred 1000 individuals. It aims to mensurate the development of offense over clip in order to reflect a state ‘s attachment to the regulation of jurisprudence. A high offense rate has considerable negative reverberation on the sustainable development of an economic system, as it cut down the sense of safety while undertaking the quality of life. A high offense index is normally synonym with bad administration and an inhibitor to the flow of foreign investing ( UNCSD, 2007 ) .
Saudi Arabia has had usually a low offense rate accompanied by a high perceptual experience of personal safety in the state. It was ranked 32nd among the 50 most industrialised states by figure of entire offenses committed ( 84599 entire offenses in 2002 )[ 13 ].However, when sing Saudi Arabia, offense statistics have to be carefully taken as an index of sustainable economic sciences. Many research workers consider these as better indexs of jurisprudence enforcement and temperament to describe offense than the existent offense prevalence. Sheptycki and Wardak ( 2005 ) emphasized on the tribal construction of the Saudi society to explicate how condemnable ailments are often resolved outside formal judicial establishments later staying undocumented by jurisprudence enforcement agents. Furthermore, offense indexs do non by and large differentiate between offenses committed by locals and those committed by exiles. In the instance of Saudi Arabia a considerable sum of offense is committed by low income exiles ( 45 % in 2008[ 14 ]) . Taking into history these statistics for long-run surveies such as is the instance for economic sustainability can be deceptive, as most of the blameworthy exiles are impermanent short-duration workers who are normally deported after functioning their sentences.
A fact to be considered is that the Saudi Legal System is based on Islamic Shariah jurisprudence which has different positions on many immoral or illegal activities compared to the common jurisprudence legal system under which the offense indexs were foremost introduced. Large differences between the two systems may take to difference when bring forthing offense statistics taking to fluctuations in indexs even when the same type and measures of events occur.
3.8-Health-care bringing index
The health-care bringing index relies on measuring the per centum of population with entree to primary health-care services ( UNCSD, 2007 ) . Primary health care is defined as the needed indispensable wellness attention offered at an accessible cost. The provided health-care system has to be dependable and using methods that are practical, socially acceptable and scientifically sound.
The health-care bringing index integrate a set of sub-indicators such as the figure of hospital beds and physician per 10 000 people, per centum of kids immunized against childhood diseases and the morbidity of major diseases such as AIDS, malaria and TB ( UNCSD,2007 ) .
The Saudi authorities provides free health care services to all its citizens apportioning in 2010 more than 4.3 % of the GDP for such activities ( World Bank, 2011 ) or about 967 $ per capita ( WHO, 2011 ) . The state had 22 infirmary beds per 10,000 people in 2009 ( NCB, 2010 ) , 9.42 physician per 10 000 people ( WHO, 2007 ) while 98 % of its kids are immunized against childhood diseases ( World Bank, 2011 ) . The TB rate was really low in 2010 at around 18 instances per 100,000 peoples while there were 32 instances of malaria per 100,000 people for the same twelvemonth ( WHO, 2011 ) . There have been 15,213 instances of AIDS in Saudi Arabia from 1984 to 2009 with merely 23 % being Saudis and the remainder expatriates.[ 15 ]
Figure 9 below shows the development of the figure of doctors, infirmary beds and governmental outgo per capita in Saudi Arabia from 1970 to 2009. We can detect from the graph that the figure of doctors and hospital beds increased steeply from 1970 to its extremum in the early 1990s before get downing holding a slow downward tendency. Faced with this state of affairs, the Saudi authorities allocated in its 9th development program 273.9 billion riyals to develop the health care substructure from 2009 toward 2014 ( MEP, 2011 ) . A big portion of this amount, 67.5 billion SAR will be apportioned toward edifice and restituting infirmary adding an excess 41,000 bed by 2014 with the purpose of making the threshold of 3.5 infirmary beds per 10,000 people.[ 16 ]
Figure 9: Development of the Number of Physicians, Hospital Beds and Per Capita Expenditure fin KSA from 1970 to 2009. Beginning: World Bank ( 2012 ) , CDSI Annual Report ( 2011 ) and Author Analysis.
Calculating the wellness attention bringing index is indispensable in measuring the society ‘s well-being, one of the pillars of economic sustainability. However, this index can be sometimes misdirecting when matched with the world. It may be interesting to quantify the figure of doctors and infirmary bed available to the population, yet more focal point has to be concentrated on the quality of the service provided. One sub-component that may be inserted is the intervention success rate index or possibly the figure of patients deceasing while or after having a certain intervention. In add-on, more attempt has to be made to research any inequalities between genders physical handiness to healthcare ( Klasen, 2011 )
Another issue affecting the index is the inaccessibility and inaccuracy of Saudi statistics refering to major diseases. One ground may be the social stigma still environing the sexually familial diseases, where the patient is ashamed uncovering its status in fright of equal favoritism. In the instance of HIV, expatriates who account for 75 % of the reported instances are non entitled to liberate health-care and are really loath to unwrap their infection as this will about ever consequences in their ejection outside the state ( Walker, 2009 ) .
3.9-Natural Resource productiveness:
The Natural Resource Productivity index ( NRP ) was first developed by Eurostat ( EU SDS, 2000 )[ 17 ]with the aim to border an rating procedure for sustainable ingestion and production. It is the ratio between Gross Domestic Product and the Domestic Material Consumption. As defined by Bleischwitz and Hennicke ( 2004 ) , the Domestic Material Consumption ( DMC ) is the one-year measure of natural stuffs extracted from the economic system ‘s domestic district ( DRM ) adding to it all physical imports ( MI ) so deducting from it all the physical exports ( ME ) .
The importance of the NRP as an index lies in its ability to separate autochthonal economic growing from the economic impact of natural resource extraction. Accounted natural stuffs consist of cereal, feedstock, veggie, minerals ( cement included ) and hydrocarbons resources. The NRP is a step of the material strength of the studied economic system ( Dahlstrom and Ekins 2005 ) . The highest the NPR, the best it is as lower energy strength means more efficient usage of natural resources in primary production, enhanced waste disposal and decreased environmental debasement ( Weizsacker et al, 1992 ) .
Using Equation 5 above, we have calculated the Natural Resource Productivity for Saudi Arabia showed in Figure 10 below. We can detect that from 2003 to 2008, the NPR has been steadily increasing in analogue with the GDP. Since the spread between the two curves is reasonably changeless, it can be concluded that the rush in the value of the NPR is due to the GDP growing with the Domestic Material Consumption ( DMC ) staying stable. In 2009, due to the 2007-2008 planetary fiscal crises, Saudi NPR stopped it growing due to the decreased growing of the GDP.
Figure 10: Development of the Resource Productivity in Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2009
Beginning: Writer Analysis based on Statisticss from CDSI, Annual Report ( 2011 ) ; Data from the Saudi ministry of Oil and the World Bank Databank ( 2012 ) .
As seen in figure 11 below, Saudi Arabia natural resource productiveness is really low ( 0.31 $ per kilogram ) when compared to other states. This may due to the fact that energy and natural stuffs are subsidized by the authorities for the local market to the point where resource and energy efficiency measures become wasteful[ 18 ]. Furthermore, the Saudi NPR is about one tierce of the mean universe NPR ( 1.15 $ per Kg ) reflecting the state ‘s small attempts in resource direction efficiency.
Figure 11: Comparison of Natural Resource Productivity between selected states in 2004
Beginning: Writer Analysis based on informations from Wuppertale Institute, The relation between resource productiveness and fight ( 2007 ) and old figure.
The resource productiveness attack has so some advantages but besides ample failings. Bing a ratio of GDP over DMC, the NPR is affected by both their defects. As exposed in subdivision 3.1, the GDP encompasses multiple bugs that makes it an undependable index for sustainable economic development such as its treating of natural catastrophes, societal dislocation ( offense, divorceaˆ¦ ) and fouling activities as economic addition ( Cobb, 2006 ) . An addition in the GDP for any of the above ground will take to an addition in the NPR which can be wrongly interpreted as an addition in the resource efficiency of the studied economic system. Furthermore, a big constituent of the GDP is generated from the services sector ( 38 % in the instance of KSA[ 19 ]) , a section of the economic system which has traditionally been the least dependant on natural resources. Any growing in this sector will take to a higher GDP and accordingly a higher NPR wrongly relaying that the economic system has been germinating toward a more resource efficient way.
Similarly, the DMC counts the natural resources as a majority, taking history of their weight alternatively of their public-service corporation to the society. All type of resources are treated the same irrespective of their intrinsic value ; a kilogram of gold is treated the same as a kilogram of tomatoes which can be overly deceptive as it is manner harder to bring forth gold than tomatoes. If, for a specific twelvemonth, a state ‘s agribusiness result was unusually high, it will blow up its DMC at the disbursal of other resources, particularly minerals, whose production did non proportionately increase. Another job with the DMC is the trouble of right measuring the physical imports of natural stuffs as many merchandises labeled as semi-finished manufactured merchandises for a certain industry are still sometimes considered as natural stuffs for another one.
3.10-Research and Development
The research and development index has been proponed by the UNCSD who included it consecutively in it 2001 and 2007 guidelines. It is calculated as the per centum of GDP spent on research and development on the national district during a specific financial twelvemonth ( UNCSD, 2007 )
The R & A ; D index is helpful to reflect a state ‘s committedness to invention. Research is aboriginal in developing new improved merchandises and services organizing the footing for uninterrupted economic growing ( Pessoa, 2007 ) . In the instance of sustainable development, R & A ; D forms a scientific cognition base for informed determination devising ( UNCSD, 2007 ) .
Figure 12 below show a comparing of research outgo between four states ( Sweden, USA, Argentina and Saudi Arabia ) as a per centum of their GDP in 2008. All states except USA had really close GDPs in the scope of 500 billion USD ( IMF, 2009 ) . However when looking at their R & A ; D expenditures per centums, we notice the big disparity with Sweden ‘s R & A ; D investings ( 3.62 % ) accounting for 45 times the Saudi R & A ; D investings ( 0.08 % ) in 2008. Furthermore the Saudi outgo per centum is about 25 times lower than the universe norm. Such a contrast reinforces the demand for variegation of the Saudi economic system by transforming itself from a rentier economic system to a knowledge-oriented 1. This transmutation is critical for maintaining a sustainable economic growing way.
However, the declared index has to be treated with attention. The outgo per centum does non do any difference between researches for military or humanitarian/social intents. Many top research disbursement states are really passing on military research ( China, Russia, and USA ) instead than research directed toward societal development which may endanger the function of research as a beginning for well-being betterment. For such, a high research index based on high military outgo will be giving a false acceptance of sustainable development while it is really making the antonym.
Another job with this index is that it disfavors economic systems with big GDPs. For illustration, the USA and China are the two largest states passing the most on research and development severally passing 405 and 250 Billion USD in 2011 ( Batelle, 2012 ) . However every bit high as their R & A ; D budget may be, it is ne’er more than 2.5 % of their GDP. In contrast, Sweden and Israel were each puting 10 billion USD each ( Batelle, 2012 ) ne’er holding their research outgo per centum lower than 3.5 % of GDP.
Figure 12: Research outgo in % of GDP for selected states in 2008.
Beginning: World bank 201 DatasetA solution for the job above stated may be accommodating the index to be based on the state ‘s R & A ; D outgo per capita adjusted to the purchase power para. This will ease any trouble faced when comparing states with assorted GDPs and criterions of life. The index can farther be divided into two constituents one including financess committed to military research and the 2nd one financess associated with development research.
A comprehensive guideline of energy indexs for sustainable development was introduced in 2005 by a pool of international bureaus led by the International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA )[ 20 ]. The concluding set of energy indexs exceed 30 of which we will on discourse the three chief: The strength of energy usage by economic activity, the one-year energy ingestion of a state per capita and the portion of renewable energy beginnings in the specified state ‘s energy mix.
Analyzing the energy strength of a state reflects the position of the energy efficiency of its economic system and the consequence of its economic activities on the environment ( IAEA, 2005 ) . The energy strength ( BTU/ $ ) is defined as the ratio of entire energy ingestion for a specific state ( MJ ) over the gross domestic merchandise ( $ ) .
High energy strength reflects a high cost for change overing energy into GDP ( UNDESA, 2006 ) . High energy strength can besides unwrap a certain betterment in the criterion of life of a population as it seeks more and better consumer goods which lead to higher energy ingestion ( air conditioner, warmers, autos ownership, etc. ) .
However, this thought has its restrictions. As Saudi Arabia to a great extent subsidies energy beginnings ( gasolene, electricity and gas ) , its population has no inducement to use energy efficiency solutions which may take to increase in energy strength without really reflecting an betterment in criterion of lifes. For this, the energy strength of Saudi Arabia doubled from 4980 BTU/05 $ in 1980 to around 12000 BTU/05 $ in 2000.In contrast, the GDP in 2000 is rather comparable to the 1 in 1980 averaging about 180 Billions 05 $ ( Refer to calculate xx below ) . Furthermore, the contrast is even more evident if we consider the GDP per capita which really decreased from 17600 05 $ in 1980 to 9200 05 $ in 2000 ( IEA, 2012 ) .Saudi Arabia energy strength index reflect major lacks that need to undertake to continue sustainability.
Furthermore, the energy strength index should be farther divided by the type of economic activities in order to place which sectors of the economic system are non energetically sustainable. The petrochemical sector in Saudi Arabia is an apparent illustration. In 2010, it exhausted 19 % of the state ‘s energy while merely bring forthing about 3 % of the national GDP.[ 21 ]
Figure 13: Development of Saudi Arabia ‘s Energy Intensity from 1980 to 2009.
Beginning: International Energy Agency 2012, Author Analysis.
The two other energy indexs do besides supply some penetration. Analyzing the energy ingestion per capita enables us to mirror the energy-use forms of an economic system and the degree of its dependance on energy for its economic growing ( IAEA, 2005 ) . In the same manner, the development of energy ingestion can assist exemplifying the environmental effects of economic growing such as addition in pollution degrees and resource depletion ( UNCSD, 2007 ) . Mentioning to calculate XX below Saudi Arabia one-year energy ingestion increased approximately 5 times between 1980 ( 31100 ktoe ) and 2009 ( 157855 ktoe ) while it GDP per capita remained changeless at around 15,000 $ for the considered period ( World Bank, 2012 ) . This underlines the pressing demand for action to cut down Saudi energy ingestion in order to safeguard the economic system from the reverberations of any possible hereafter energy crisis.
Additionally, the renewable energy production is besides an of import energy index. A high per centum of portions of renewable energy in energy production are extremely correlated with sustainable economic development ( IAEA, 2005 ) . Renewable energy should be an indispensable portion of a state ‘s energy mix as it increases its energy security, cut down its dependance on a individual beginning of energy supply and cut down environmental debasement. Saudi Arabia current energy production of renewables is in pattern non-existent ( about 0.01 % in 2010, World Bank ) . However the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy ( K.A.CARE ) has been established in 2010 with the purpose to change by reversal this state of affairs. By 2032, K.A.CARE program to duplicate the Kingdom ‘s power works coevals capacity to about 120 GW with approximately 35 % generated by solar energy ( CSP and PV ) and another 15 % by atomic energy.[ 22 ]
Figure 14: Development of Primary Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia and the World from 1980 to 2009. Beginning: World Bank, 2012
3.12-Land and H2O usage
Pull offing the land usage for ecological agricultural development and continuing the H2O security is aboriginal to sustainable economic system. The UNCSD uses the land debasement index to measure the sustainability of land use. The index assesses the portion of land which is no longer a proper economic or ecological map due to human activity ( UNCSD, 2007 ) . Such activities include the inordinate usage of man-made fertilisers, pesticides, cultivated land and irresponsible irrigation and are frequently caused by industrial agricultural production. In add-on, the helter-skelter enlargement of agricultural land is besides beginnings of land debasement as they impact environmental biodiversity by lending to deforestation and loss of natural home ground. Biodiversity loss can take to considerable environmental debasement in the biosphere increasing an economic system ‘s exposure to nutrient deficit in the long-run.[ 23 ]Environmental debasement in the Amazonian rain-forests and African tropical parts is an illustration how land misdirection can be a beginning of constraining or even extinguishing regional development ( Faminow, 1998 ) .
On the other side, H2O supply security is imperative for uninterrupted economic development. The most normally used index is the proportion of renewable vs. non-renewable H2O used as a sum of H2O resources used ( UNCSD, 2007 ) . This index aid exemplifying the grade to which renewable H2O resources are exploited through the hydrological rhythm to run into the state ‘s H2O demands. A high use rate of renewable H2O resources is a good gage of the attempts made in contending H2O scarceness and is an of import step of a state ‘s exposure to H2O lack. Non-renewable H2O beginnings include groundwater from the deep dodo aquifers and H2O desalinization while renewable beginnings include surface alluvial H2O and renewable groundwater from shallow aquifers.
Less than 10 % of Saudi Arabia ‘s H2O ingestion is from renewable beginnings. The staying is produced from non-renewable beginnings such as desalinization ( 50 % ) and deep ground-water aquifers ( MOWE, 2010 ) . Water security is a critical issue for the land, particularly as H2O retail monetary values are extremely subsidized by the authorities which leads to disproportionate H2O ingestion and high escape in H2O conduits making about 30 % ( Avancena, 2010 ) . Because of this, the Saudi H2O ingestion per capita is 91 % more than planetary mean ingestion[ 24 ]while the one-year demand addition is averaging an dismaying 1.8 % ( MOWE, 2010 ) . In order to make more sustainable H2O ingestion degrees, Saudi Arabia has to implement critical reforms, particularly in the agricultural sectors which encompassed more than 86 % of H2O ingestion in 2010 ( MEP, 2010 ) .
The same complexness does use for the sustainability of the agricultural sector from an economic position. The Saudi authorities has subsidized more than 34 % of the value of all local agricultural merchandises between the old ages 1991 to 2008 accounting for more than 146.3 billion riyal ( refer to Figure 15 below ) . Agricultural developers used this aid to import big measure of fertilisers, equipment, and labour sizably increas