Stoichiometry and Limiting Reagents
The precipitate was filtered out of the remaining aqueous solution of stoichiometry. In our case, all four tests yielded more mass than should have occurred. Experimenters attribute this completely evaporated from the filtered precipitate, which would add excess mass. By dealing with such small quantities of reagents, any small inaccuracy in measurement creates a large difference in actual yield from theoretical yield.
Through simple molar calculations, using the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation( CaCl2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Ca(OH)2 + CaCl2), the limiting reagent could be determined from the volumes of reactants used. The number two to four tests turned out as expected, NaOH and CaCl2 respectively being the limiting reagents. In the second test, according to our calculations, the products should have completely reacted, leaving pure water after filtration.
In the test, the addition of NaOH to the filtered solution yielded more precipitate, which should not have occurred if the filtrate was pure water. We hypothesize that either the products were not measured in exact quantities, or in the test the products did not completely react with one another, leaving some CaCl2 in solution. In conclusion, by measuring reactants accurately, the products of a chemical reaction can be created to precise standards.