The change process encompasses all activities aimed at helping the organization to successfully adopt new attitudes, new technologies and new ways of doing business . Effective change management enables the transformation of strategy, processes , technology and people to refocus the organization to achieve its objectives, maximize performance and ensure continuous improvement in an environment of ever-changing business . Forces for and against change .
New technology competition Forecasts of supervisors FORCES TO KEEP THE INITIAL STATE: Complacency of group members Fear of change Well-learned skills Organizational Change It is defined as : the ability to adapt to different organizations transformations suffered by the average internal or external environment through learning . Another definition is: the set of structural changes suffered by organizations and that result in a new organizational behavior.
The changes are caused by the interaction of forces , these are classified as: • Internal : those that come from within the organization , from the analysis of organizational behavior and are presented as alternative solutions , representing equilibrium conditions, creating the need for structural change order; example of which is the technological upgrades , change of methodological strategies , policy changes , etc.
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External : those that come from outside the organization , creating the need for changes in internal order, are examples of this force : Government regulations , quality standards , limitations in physical and economic environment. Models of Organizational Change Regarding change models , ie , processes or procedures by which the changes are put into practice , there are various classifications Moreno ( 2007) , outlines three models of change , Change Model Lewis Model of change Models systematic change Organizational Development , among others.
Kurt Lewin, considered one of the pioneers in the development of models of organizational change, which laid the foundation for many years has supported research and action systems in the field, makes the three-step model ( Sandoval, 2011) Process of change model Kurt Lewin Change model Lewis Defrost , change movement refreeze For Lewin thaw the term refers to the time at which or the persons or organizations are convinced the change and decide to enter the transformation process.
Therefore, the results from evaluating defrost settings the company to the current environment and preparing for the future, which will establish the diagnosis change. As mentioned Sandoval (2011 ) Grourad , Meston and Schein (1996 ) can be divided into three sub-phases defrost : breakdown , anxiety and security. The purpose of the change or movement as proposed by Lewin model is to guide the organization towards the desired state .. The passage mentions refreeze Lewin is the institutionalization of the changes so that all people know them, meet them and take in their daily activity.
Instilling a sense of urgency . Talk about the importance of knowing in advance the motivation that led the company to make the change, Create the guiding coalition . a large number of people , eliminate key obstacles, generate short -term wins, lead and manage dozens of change projects and new approaches rooted in the culture of the organization, which requires a strong guiding coalition that has the suitable trust and shared purpose (Moreno 2007). Developing a strategic vision. For Kotter Vision refers to a picture of the future with some implicit or explicit about why people should strive to create that future reviews.
Communicate the change vision . Those leading change must find the best communication strategies to facilitate their transition. Barriers Blocking . Attack four major obstacles : the structures , skills , systems and supervisors Short-term gains , whose objectives are to provide evidence that the sacrifices are appreciated , reward change agents Support change. What is going to be implanted with achieving strong links and look ahead to keep getting achievements Embed new approaches to culture.
According to Kotter only change when filtered prevails in organizational corporate culture , culture is powerful for three main reasons: individuals carefully selected , because states through the actions of hundreds or thousands of people , and because all this happens without a conscious intention and therefore difficult to challenge or even discuss the fact . Exchange Structure . : Reorder your internal systems . Changes in technology Changes in people Changing the organizational culture Change of structure : Reorder internal systems
– Classic Organizational Design : responsibilities , divisions, lines Performance . – Decentralization : smaller organizational units , structures and technologies Adaptation – Amendment of workflow and specialties Grouping ” function meeting people different Technological change : • Change equipment : tools, equipment, process engineering , production techniques , etc. . • Automation and computerization – Diagnosis – Engineering work – Rotation of jobs – Extension of work – Enrichment Task Change in people At first it is only an intellectual understanding , a concept incorporated in the mind.
But sometimes requires long long time for this new knowledge to penetrate the emotions and heart . While intellectual understanding is crucial , the change can only be completed when and what is understood by intellectual means is captured emotionally and begins to penetrate ever deeper into the psyche. And to take this step , it is very common to see that when someone exceeds an affective blockade discover that behind him others are hidden . Cultural Change • Organizational culture : shared meanings among members of an organization that dictates how they should behave .
Cultural Analysis – Threatened Survival – New Leadership – Reorganization – New story and ritual – Change selection processes , and systems evaluation socialization Causes of Resistance to Change Uncertainty about the wedges and effects of change, fear of losing something currently aware of weaknesses in the proposed changes has Techniques for reducing resistance to change 1. Education and communication Two . Participation and active intervention Three . Facilitation and support ( counseling , therapy, new skills training , leave of absence , early retirement ) April . Negotiation .
Handling ” covert attempts to influence others (change the facts , create false rumors 6 – . Coercion Change management : 1. Diagnosis of the situation a. Formulation of the problem b . Getting information c . Analysis of information d . Derivation of suggestion Two . Selection rate Three . Strategy to use a. facilitators b . informative c . attitudinal d . policies conclusion Organizational change is a signature required in our times required for the new globalizing world scheme ; companies have been facing for some time to situations that we would never have imagined ago.
The disadvantages of this new model are for developing countries like ours ; is difficult to compete with the economies of the first world, where deprives a different culture and more attached to the current economic requirements ; who are leading companies are now required to prepare more and better to do battle in the war of survival; is a priority awareness regarding the need for change in organizations, a shift that points to the fundamental axis : human capital. It is important to adopt our philosophy considering that the only thing that should remain unchanged in the universe is change.