Strategic management

10 October 2016

Become aware of what a company must do to achieve operating excellence and to execute its strategy proficiently. LO5 Become aware of the role and responsibility of a company’s board of directors in overseeing the strategic management process. 2-2 What Does the Strategy-Making, Strategy-Executing Process Entail? 1. 2. 3. 4. Developing a strategic vision Setting objectives Crafting a strategy Implementing and executing the chosen strategy 5. Monitoring developments, evaluating performance, and initiating corrective adjustments 2. 1 The Strategy-Making, Strategy-Executing Process 2-4 TABLE 2. Factors Shaping Decisions in the Strategy-Making, Strategy-Executing Process Internal Considerations Does the company have an appealing customer value proposition? What are the company’s competitively important resources and capabilities and are they potent enough to produce a sustainable competitive advantage? Does the company have sufficient business and competitive strength to seize market opportunities and nullify external threats? Are the company’s prices and costs competitive with those of key rivals? Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals? External Considerations

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Does sticking with the company’s present strategic course present attractive opportunities for growth and profitability? What kind of competitive forces are industry members facing and are they acting to enhance or weaken the company’s prospects for growth and profitability? What factors are driving industry change and what impact on the company’s prospects will they have? How are industry rivals positioned and what strategic moves are they likely to make next? What are the key factors of future competitive success and does the industry offer good prospects for attractive profits for companies possessing those capabilities? 2-5

Factors Shaping Strategic Decisions External Considerations What are the industry’s economic characteristics? How strong are the competitive forces at play? What forces are driving change in the industry? What market positions do rivals occupy and what moves are they likely to make next? What are the key factors for future competitive success? What are the company’s external opportunities? 2-6 Factors Shaping Strategic Decisions Internal Considerations How well is the present strategy working? What are the company’s competitively valuable resources, capabilities, and internal weaknesses? Are the company’s prices and costs competitive?

Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals? 2-7 Stage 1: Developing a Strategic Vision, a Mission, and Core Values Strategic Vision Is top management’s views about the firm’s direction and future product-market-customer-technology focus Provides a panoramic view of “where we are going” Is distinctive and specific to a particular organization Avoids use of innocuous uninspiring language that could apply to most any firm Definitively states how the company’s leaders intend to position the firm beyond where it is today 2-8 Characteristics of Effectively Worded Vision Statements Graphic

Paints a picture of the kind of firm that management is trying to create Flexible Is not so focused that it makes it difficult to adjust Feasible Is within the realm of what is possible Directional Is forward looking to change Desirable Indicates why the directional path makes sense Focused Is specific enough to provide guidance in decision making Easy to Communicate Can be explained in simple terms 2-9 TABLE 2. 2 Characteristics of Effectively Worded Vision Statements Paints a picture of the kind of company that management is trying to create and the market position(s) the company is striving to stake out.

Is forward looking; describes the strategic course that management has charted and the kinds of product-market-customer-technology changes that will help the company prepare for the future. Is specific enough to provide managers with guidance in making decisions and allocating resources. Is not so focused that it makes it difficult for management to adjust to changing circumstances in markets, customer preferences, or technology. Is within the realm of what the company can reasonably expect to achieve. Indicates why the directional path makes good business sense.

Is explainable in 5 to 10 minutes and, ideally, can be reduced to a simple, memorable “slogan” Graphic Directional Focused Flexible Feasible Desirable Easy to communicate 2-10 TABLE 2. 3 Common Shortcomings in Company Vision Statements Short on specifics about where the company is headed or what the company is doing to prepare for the future. Doesn’t indicate whether or how management intends to alter the company’s current product-market-customer-technology focus. So all-inclusive that the company could head in most any direction, pursue most any opportunity, or enter most any business.

Lacks the power to motivate company personnel or inspire shareholder confidence about the company’s direction. Provides no unique company identity; could apply to firms in any of several industries (including rivals operating in the same market arena). Doesn’t say anything specific about the company’s strategic course beyond the pursuit of such distinctions as being a recognized leader, a global or worldwide leader, or the first choice of customers. Vague or incomplete Not forward looking Too broad Bland or uninspiring Not distinctive Too reliant on superlatives 2-11

Concepts and Connections 2. 1 Examples of Strategic Visions—How Well Do They Measure Up? 2-12 Concepts and Connections 2. 1 Examples of Strategic Visions—How Well Do They Measure Up? 2-13 Examples of Vision Statements To be the global leader in customer value. Provide a global trading platform where practically anyone can trade practically anything. Red Hat To extend our position as the most trusted Linux and open source provider through a complete range of enterprise software, a powerful Internet platform, and associated support and services. 2-14 Core Concept Strategic Inflection Points

A change in vision is required when it becomes evident to management that the industry has changed in a significant way that renders the company’s current vision obsolete. 2-15 The Importance of Communicating the Strategic Vision An engaging, inspirational vision Challenges and motivates the workforce Articulates a compelling case for “where we are going and why” Evokes positive support and excitement Arouses a committed organizational effort to move in a common direction 2-16 Expressing the Essence of the Vision in a Slogan Nike To bring innovation and inspiration to every athlete in the world The Mayo Clinic

The best care to every patient every day Greenpeace To halt environmental abuse and promote environmental solutions. 2-17 Why a Sound, Well-Communicated Strategic Vision Matters 1. It crystallizes senior executives’ own views about the firm’s long-term direction. 2. It reduces the risk of rudderless decision making by management at all levels. 3. It is a tool for winning the support of employees to help make the vision a reality. 4. It provides a beacon for lower-level managers in forming departmental missions. 5. It helps an organization prepare for the future. 2-18 Strategic Vision versus Mission Statement

A strategic vision concerns a firm’s future business path—“where we are going” Markets to be pursued Future product/ market/customer/ technology focus The mission statement of a firm focuses on its present business purpose—“who we are and what we do” Current product and service offerings Customer needs being served 2-19 Developing a Company Mission Statement Ideally, a company mission statement is sufficiently descriptive to: Identify the company’s products or services. Specify the buyer needs it seeks to satisfy. Specify the customer groups or markets it is endeavoring to serve.

Specify its approach to pleasing customers. Give the company its own identity. 2-20 Example of a Mission Statement The mission of Trader Joe’s is to give our customers the best food and beverage values that they can find anywhere and to provide them with the information required for informed buying decisions. We provide these with a dedication to the highest quality of customer satisfaction delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, fun, individual pride, and company spirit. 2-21 Examples of Mission Statements To help people and businesses throughout the world realize their full potential.

To organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful. 2-22 Strategic Mission, Vision, and Profit Firms sometimes state that their mission is to simply earn a profit. Profit is the obvious intent of every commercial enterprise. Profit is not “who we are and what we do. ” Profit is more correctly an objective and a result of what a firm does. 2-23 Linking the Strategic Vision and Mission with Company Values CORE CONCEPT A firm’s values are the beliefs, traits, and behavioral norms that the firm’s personnel are expected to display in conducting the firm’s business and pursuing its strategic vision and mission. -24 CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS 2. 2 ZAPPOS MISSION AND CORE VALUES Deliver Wow through Service Embrace and Drive Change Create Fun and a Little Weirdness Be Adventurous, Creative, and Open Minded Pursue Growth and Learning Build Open and Honest Relationships with Communication Build a Positive Team and Family Spirit Do More with Less Be Passionate and Determined Be Humble 2-25 Stage 2: Setting Objectives Why set objectives? To convert the strategic vision into specific performance targets To create yardsticks to track progress and measure performance Objectives should:

Be well-stated (clearly worded) Be challenging, yet achievable in order to stretch the organization to perform at its full potential Be quantifiable (measurable) Contain a specific deadline for achievement 2-26 Core Concept Objectives are an organization’s performance targets—the results management wants to achieve. 2-27 Stage 2: Setting Objectives (cont’d) What Kinds of Objectives to Set Financial objectives Communicate management’s targets for financial performance Are lagging indicators that reflect the results of past decisions and organizational activities Relate to revenue growth, profitability, and return on investment -28 Stage 2: Setting Objectives (cont’d) What Kinds of Objectives to Set Strategic objectives Are related to a firm’s marketing standing and competitive vitality Are leading indicators of a firm’s future financial performance and business prospects. If achieved, indicate that a firm’s future financial performance will be better than its current or past performance. 2-29 Core Concept The balanced scorecard is a widely used method for combining the use of both strategic and financial objectives, tracking their achievement, and giving management a more complete and balanced view of how well an organization is performing. -30 TABLE 2. 4 The Balanced Scorecard Approach to Performance Measurement Strategic Objectives • Winning an x percent market share • Achieving customer satisfaction rates of x percent • • • • Increase percentage of sales coming from new products to x percent Financial Objectives • An x percent increase in annual revenues • Annual increases in earnings per share of x percent • An x percent return on capital employed (ROCE) or shareholder investment (ROE) • Bond and credit ratings of x • Internal cash flows of x to fund new capital investment • Improve information systems capabilities to give frontline managers Achieving a customer defect information in retention rate of x percent x minutes Acquire x number of new • Improve teamwork by customers increasing the number of Introduction of x number projects involving more of new products in the than one business unit next three years to x Reduce product development times to x months 2-31 Examples of Financial Objectives

X% increase in annual revenues X% increase annually in after-tax profits Profit margins of X% X% return on capital employed Sufficient internal cash flows to fund 100% of new capital investment 2-32 Examples of Strategic Objectives Winning an X% market share Achieving a customer retention rate of X% Acquire X number of new customers Reduce product defects to X% Introduction of X number of new products in the next three years Increase employee training to X hours/year Reduce turnover to X% per year 2-33 Examples of Company Objectives

General Motors Reduce the percentage of automobiles using internal combustion engines through the development of hybrids, range-extended electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell electric engines. Reduce automotive structural costs to benchmark levels of 23% of revenue by 2012 from 34% in 2005. Reduce annual U. S. labor costs by an additional $5 billion by 2011. 2-34 Examples of Company Objectives The Home Depot Be the number one destination for professional contractors. Improve in-stock positions so customers can find and buy exactly what they need.

Deliver differentiated customer service and the know-how that our customers have come to expect. Repurchase $22. 5 billion of outstanding shares during 2008. Open 55 new stores with 5 store relocations in 2008. 2-35 Short-Term and Long-Term Objectives Short-Term Objectives Targets to be achieved soon Milestones or stair steps for reaching long-range performance Long-Term Objectives Targets to be achieved within 3 to 5 years 2-36 The Need for Objectives at All Organizational Levels Objectives Are Needed at All Levels 1. Set business-level objectives 2.

Establish functional-area objectives 3. Set operating-level objectives last Long-term objectives take precedence over short-term objectives 2-37 Stage 3: Crafting a Strategy Crafting a strategy means asking: How to attract and please customers How to compete against rivals How to position the firm in the marketplace and capitalize on attractive opportunities to grow the business How best to respond to changing economic and market conditions How to manage each functional piece of the business How to achieve the firm’s performance targets 2-38

A Firm’s Strategy-Making Hierarchy A firm’s strategy is a collection of initiatives undertaken by managers at all levels in the organizational hierarchy Crafting strategy is a collaborative effort that: Involves managers from various levels of the organization Is rarely something only highlevel executives engage in Requires choosing among the various strategic alternatives 2-39 Concept to Action In most firms, crafting strategy is a collaborative team effort that includes managers in various positions and at various organizational levels.

Crafting strategy is rarely something only highlevel executives do. 2-40 Concept to Action Corporate strategy establishes an overall game plan for managing a set of businesses in a diversified, multibusiness firm. Business strategy is primarily concerned with strengthening the firm’s market position and building competitive advantage in a single business company or a single business unit of a diversified multibusiness corporation. 2-41 FIGURE 2. 2 A Company’s Strategy-Making Hierarchy 2-42 Corporate Strategy versus Business Strategy

Corporate strategy is orchestrated by the CEO and other senior executives and establishes an overall game plan for managing a set of businesses in a diversified, multibusiness company. Business strategy is primarily concerned with building competitive advantage in a single business unit of a diversified company or strengthening the market position of a nondiversified single business company. 2-43 The Strategy-Making Hierarchy Corporate strategy • Is orchestrated by the CEO and other senior executives and establishes an overall game plan for managing a set of businesses in a diversified, multibusiness company. Addresses the questions of how to capture cross-business synergies, what businesses to hold or divest, which new markets to enter, and how to best enter new markets—by acquisition, creation of a strategic alliance, or through internal development. Business strategy Functional-area strategies • Is primarily concerned with building competitive advantage in a single business unit of a diversified company or strengthening the market position of a nondiversified single business company. Are concerned with the strategies specifically related to particular functions or processes within a business (marketing strategy, production strategy, finance strategy, customer service strategy, product development strategy, and human resources strategy). • Are relatively narrow strategic initiatives and approaches of limited scope for managing key operating units (plants, distribution centers, geographic units) and specific operating activities such as materials purchasing or Internet sales. 2-44 Operating strategies Stage 4: Implementing and Executing the Chosen Strategy

Managing the strategy execution process involves: Staffing the organization to provide needed skills and expertise. Allocating ample resources to activities critical to good strategy execution. Ensuring that policies and procedures facilitate rather than impede effective execution. Installing information and operating systems that enable personnel to perform essential activities. 2-45 Stage 4: Implementing and Executing the Chosen Strategy (con’d) Managing the strategy execution process involves: Pushing for continuous improvement in how value chain activities are performed.

Tying rewards and incentives directly to the achievement of performance objectives. Creating a company culture and work climate conducive to successful strategy execution. Exerting the internal leadership needed to propel implementation forward. 2-46 Stage 5: Evaluating Performance and Initiating Corrective Adjustments Triggering change as needed: Monitoring new external developments Evaluating the firm’s progress Making corrective adjustments Managing strategy is an ongoing process, not an every-now-and-then task A firm’s vision, objectives, strategy, and approach to strategy execution are never final -47 Corporate Governance: The Role of the Board Of Directors The Role of the Board Of Directors in the StrategyMaking, Strategy-Executing Process: 1. Oversee the firm’s financial accounting and reporting practices. 2. Diligently critique and oversee the company’s direction, strategy, and business approaches. 3. Evaluate the caliber of senior executives’ strategy-making and strategy-executing skills. 4. Institute a compensation plan for top executives that rewards them for actions and results that serve shareholder interests. 2-48 Strong Boards Lead to Good Corporate Governance

A Strong, Independent Board of Directors: Is well informed about the company’s performance Guides and judges the CEO and other top executives Has the courage to curb management actions it believes are inappropriate or unduly risky Certifies to shareholders that the CEO is doing what the board expects Provides insight and advice to management Is intensely involved in debating the pros and cons of key decisions and actions 2-49 Leading the Strategic Management Process The Strategic Management Process calls for six managerial actions: 1.

Making sure the company has a good strategic plan 2. Stay on top of what is happening (MBWA) 3. Putting constructive pressure on organizational units to achieve good results 2-50 Leading the Strategic Management Process (cont’d) The Strategic Management Process calls for six managerial actions: 4. Pushing corrective actions to improve both the firm’s strategy and how well it is being executed 5. Leading the development of better competitive capabilities 6. Displaying ethical integrity and leading social responsibility initiatives 2-51 Making Sure a Firm Has a Good Strategic Plan

Responsibility of CEO Effectively communicate the vision, objectives, and major strategy components Exercise due diligence in reviewing lower-level strategies for consistency with higher-level strategies 2-52 Staying on Top of How Well Things Are Going Stay connected to the field by managing by walking around (MBWA) Insist that top managers spend time in the trenches to exchange information and ideas through face-to-face contact with employees Prevent overly abstract thinking and getting disconnected with reality of what’s happening 2-53

Pushing for Good Results and Operating Excellence Fosters a results–oriented, high-performance culture Treat employees with dignity and respect Encourage employees to use initiative and creativity in performing their work Set stretch objectives and clearly communicate expectations Focus attention on continuous improvement Reward high performance Celebrate successes 2-54 Initiating Corrective Actions to Improve Strategy and Execution The leadership challenge of making corrective adjustments is twofold: Deciding when adjustments are needed Deciding what adjustments to make

Leader’s responsibility is to step forward and push corrective actions 2-55 Leading Social Responsibility The strength of management commitment determines whether a company will implement and execute a full-fledged strategy of social responsibility that: That protects the environment Actively participates in community affairs Supports charitable causes Supports workforce diversity and the overall well-being of employees 2-56 Displaying Ethical Integrity The CEO and other senior executives must set an excellent example in their own ethical behavior.

Top management must declare unequivocal support of the company’s ethical code. Top management must be prepared to act swiftly and decisively in punishing ethical misconduct. 2-57 Leading the Development of Better Competitive Capabilities Lead efforts to strengthen existing competitive capabilities Anticipate changes in customer-market requirements Proactively build new competencies and capabilities that hold promise for building an enduring competitive edge 2-58

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