Student Registration System

4 April 2017

Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/Dissertation DEFINITION: A thesis/dissertation is a primary publication that describes new original research and contains information that enables peers to identify objectives, repeat experiments, assess observations and evaluate conclusions. The content should be new, correct, significant and comprehensible. To achieve this, the thesis/ dissertation should be written in accordance with the guidelines stated in the first chapter of this guide. Webster’s definition of a thesis is that it is “a research paper, especially one written by a candidate for a master’s degree”.

A dissertation, on the other hand, is defined by the same dictionary as “a formal discourse of treatise especially one written to fulfill the requirements for a doctorate from a university”. ORGANIZATION: The thesis/dissertation is organized to comprise the same chapters or elements included in the proposal in addition to two chapters on the results of the study and a discussion of these results. It also includes some primary pages at the beginning of the manuscript and references and appendices at the end. The elements of a thesis/dissertation should be arranged in the following order:

Student Registration System Essay Example

ELEMENTS OF A THESIS/DISSERTATION: 1. Preparatory Pages: a) Title page b) Committee page c) Dedication page (if applicable) d) Acknowledgement page (if applicable) e) List of contents page f) List of tables page g) List of figures page h) Abstract page including key words (In English for manuscript written in English). A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations 27 Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation 2. Chapter one: Study Background: 1. Introduction 2. Statement and purpose of the problem: 3. Study questions and hypothesis 4. Significance of the Study 5.

Definition of terms 6. Limitations of the study 3. Chapter two: Literature Review 4. Chapter Three: Methodology: 1. Samples 2. Instruments 3. Procedures 4. Design and Statistical Procedure 5. Chapter four: Results 6. Chapter five: Discussion (including conclusions and recommendations). 7. List of references 8. Appendices (if applicable). 9. Abstract in Arabic with a title and key words. The content of the first three chapters were described in chapter 3 above. The following discussion will be devoted to the other components. PREPARATORY PAGES: Preparatory pages precede the “Introduction”.

Pagination here is by using Roman numerals (I, II, III…), starting with the title page that follows the thesis/dissertation cover. Introduction (Chapter 1 begins with page 1). Preparatory pages are: 1. Title Page: It includes the thesis/dissertation title centered on the page, the student’s full name, the institutional affiliation name, the supervisor’s and co-supervisor’s names, the field of specialization and date of presentation (day, month, year) as shown in sample 1. 28 A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation 2.

Committee Page: It includes the thesis/dissertation title, the student’s full name and his/her previous degree, major, university, year of graduation, and the following statement: Thesis/Dissertation submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master/Ph. D. in …………. … at Sharjah University. The statement should be followed by the words “Approved by” and followed by the names and titles of the examination committee members starting with the supervisor (as chairman of the committee), and the date of thesis/dissertation presentation (Day/Month/ year) as shown in sample 2.

Sample 1: Title Page A Randomized Pursuit -Evasion Approach in Polygonal Environments: Detection & Tracking by AMNA ALDAHAK University of Sharjah College of Arts and Sciences Computer Sciences Department Supervisor Dr. Ashraf Al-Najjar Program: Computer Science 23-12-2005 A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations 29 Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation Sample 2: Committee Page A Randomized Pursuit -Evasion Approach in Polygonal Environments: Detection & Tracking by Amna Aldahak

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Computer Science, Sharjah University Approved by: Ashraf Al-Najjar ……………………………………………………….. ……………. Chairman Associate Professor of Computer Sciences, Sharjah University Abdelaziz Araar …………………………………………. …………….. ………………. Member Associate Professor of Computer Sciences, UAE University Abdullah M . Hussein ………………………………………………………………. Member Associate Professor of Computer Sciences, Sharjah University 23-12- 2005 3. Dedication page and acknowledgement page (if applicable):

The content of these pages should be presented briefly and precisely, and only when necessary. 4. Table of contents: List the chapters and main topics only and their pages as shown in sample 3: 30 A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation Sample 3: Table of Contents Table of Contents Page Acknowledgment ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …… I Table of contents ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………VI List of tables ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… VII List of figures ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …………… VIII Abstract ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …………………… IV Introduction ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………… 1 Statement of the problem ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… 7 Purpose of the study ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………………… 8 Study questions and hypothesis ……………………….. ……………………….. ………………………. 9 Significance of the study ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… 10 Literature review ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …… 11 Biology of Sponges ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …………………… 17 Sponge skeleton ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. … 23 Collagenous (organic) structures ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………… 34 Methodology ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …………… 40 Samples ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………… 41 Instruments ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… 42 Procedures ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… 45 Design and Statistical Procedure ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………… 50 Results ……………………….. ……………………….. …………………….. ……………………….. ……………………… 55 DISCUSSION ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… 65 Conclusions and recommendations ……………………….. ……………………….. ………………… 69 References ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………………… 75 APPENDICES ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ………… 80 Appendix 1: Abbreviations ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. …………… 81 Appendix 2: Glossary ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………… 82 Appendix3: Representative Spicules ……………………….. ……………………….. ……………………… 83 A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations 1 Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation 5. List of tables page: List all table titles in the manuscript as shown in sample 4. Sample 4: Tables Pages List of Tables Page Table 1: The distribution, GPS position and description of the collection sites ……… 15 Table 2 : Araldite: embedding medium gradients ……………………….. ……………………………… 18 Table 3: Distribution of identified sponge specimens along the collection sites ……… 25 Table 4: ……………………….. ……………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. …………………… 6. List of figures page: List the figures in the manuscript as shown in sample 5.

Sample 5: List of Figures List of Tables Page Fig. 1: Aerial-map of Sharjah; showing the major seven collection sites …………………… 18 Fig. 2: The three orders of the identified Tetractinomorpha ……………………….. ………………… 19 Fig. 3: Orders, families and genera composition within subclass Ceractinomorpha …… 25 Fig. 4: ……………………….. ……………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. …………………………. 7. Abstract page: The thesis/dissertation should include two abstracts, one in Arabic and one in English. One of these abstracts should come at the beginning of the manuscript, the other one at the end of it.

The former should be written in the same language as that of the manuscript, the latter in the other. Each abstract, should be followed by 5-8 index words to be used in indexing. The “Abstract” summarizes the information in the thesis/ dissertation. It is printed as a single paragraph following the proper citation of the author, title, year of the thesis presentation and supervisor’s name. The abstract should not exceed 350 words (for a thesis) 32 A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation and 400 words (for a dissertation).

It should be written following the completion of the thesis. The abstract is one of the most important components, next to the title, of the thesis/dissertation as it appears in indexing publications. The abstract should include in sequential order: (a) The main objectives of the study. (b) The methods used. (c) Summary of the results. (d) Principal conclusions. Abstract should not include any references, figures, tables, or numbered sentences. It should not include any information or conclusions not mentioned in the text of the thesis/dissertation. Abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible (see sample 6).

Sample 6: Abstract ABSTRACT Bani Ata, Zaid Saleh Ibrahim. (2005). Using Binomial Trials Model for examining the judge’s ratings of cut scores for a test in terms of the number of item alternatives. Master Thesis, Yarmouk University. (Supervisor: Professor Yousef Mohammad Sawalmeh). This study aimed at investigating the quality of judges’ ratings of the cut score for a criterion-referenced test according to Angoffs Method using Binomial Trials Model. It also aimed at investigating the effect of the number of item alternatives, and judgments rounds on the quality of judges’ ratings.

To achieve the aim of the study, a criterion- referenced test was constructed to measure students’ competencies in analytical geometry. The test consists of 30 multiple-choice items. Three test forms with five, four and three alternatives were used. The sample of the study consisted of 343 10th graders from six randomly selected public schools in Ajloun district during the scholastic year 2003/2004 and 45 10th grade mathematics teachers. Teachers were randomly divided into three equivalent groups. The results of the study indicated that there were significant differences (? =0. 5) among cut scores estimates due to judgments round but there were no significant differences A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations 33 Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation due to the number of alternatives. The results also indicated that the cut score estimates for all forms of the test in the three rounds were more than 50%. The results also indicated that there were high correlation coefficients between item difficulty estimates and the real item difficulty. This result was supported by the item distance accuracy index, and the Kappa and hit rate coefficients.

Binomial Trials Models were used to evaluate the quality of judge’s ratings. The results showed that there was a significant-improvement in the number of judges whose ratings were in congruence with the model in the third round. Analysis of the standardized residuals showed significant differences among judges’ ratings of the cut score. The results also indicated that the cut scores in the third round were consistent for all test forms. After eliminating the judges’ ratings which did not fit the Model expectations, the cut scores estimated for the test forms were similar in the three rounds with high reliability coefficients.

It also indicated that there was an increase in the hit rate for students’ classification for all test forms. Key Words: Angoff Method, Cut Score, Criterion- Referenced Test, Binomial Trails Model, Performance Standard 8. Results: Results describe the observations made and findings obtained. The purpose of the “Results” chapter is to present the data of the study clearly and meaningfully. However, this does not imply that it is a simple transfer of the data from the laboratory or field notebook to manuscript. Tables, figures, photos and other forms of illustrations pertaining to the data are appropriately incorporated here.

If presented properly, these form the bulk of the results with few descriptive paragraphs and statements. Statistical analysis of the data should be meaningful. In short, the results should be presented clearly, accurately, and concisely in a way that answer the study questions or define the hypotheses. 9. Discussion: The “Discussion chapter” is the most important part of the thesis/dissertation. It describes the meaning of observations and findings in light of previous findings made by other researchers. Its purpose is to present the principles, relationships and generalizations that come out of the results of the study comes up with.

Do not repeat your results here. Instead, 34 A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations Chapter 4: Writing a Thesis/ Dissertation interpret them and show how they agree or disagree with previously published work. Any exceptions or lack of contrast correlations should be pointed out. Discuss theoretical implications and practical applications of the results. That is why you also need to mention the limitations and weaknesses of the proposed research, which may be justified by time and financial constraints as well as by the early developmental stage of your research area.

Conclusions and Recommendations describe point by point the major conclusions reached and the recommendations put forward for further studies or applications. The purpose of this section is to present the major conclusions revealed by the research work in an attempt to highlight the significance of the present results in the crystallization of an idea, a law, a generalization or a direct application. Conclusions must be based on the actual results mentioned in the thesis only. Recommendations are based on conclusions made and refer to further studies to be followed based on what has been accomplished in the present work. 0. References: List all research papers, review articles, books and other publications referred to throughout the thesis/ dissertation. They are organized alphabetically according to standard methods of citation as descried early in this guide. 11. Appendices: The purpose of appendices is to provide a detailed description of items that are not suitable for full presentation within the main components of the thesis. A Guide to the Preparation and Writing of Theses and Dissertations 35

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