Studies of Negative Pragmatic Transfer in Interlanguage
Besides , in terms of internal and external modifications , analyses of the data suggested that negative pragmalinguistic transfer should be observed in that both learners use fewer syntactic downgraders . Finally , transfer operated differently between these two groups of learners in that more supportive moves by the Danish learners of English were identified in cases where the German learners of English employed frequently consul 2 tative devices. Trosborg ( 1987 ) conducted another study among the Danish learners of English relative to apolo 2 gy realization by way of role 2play technique .
In spite of the fact that he did not find any clear cases of negative L 1 pragmalinguistic transfer , yet he discovered certain evidences showing a direction in the frequency of apology semantic formulas identical to Danish native speakers . House (1988) showed that her German students of English over 2used the formal L 2 equivalent of zuexcuse me zhin cases which did not entail needs for apologetic acts. This was due to the fact that in German the high rate of using zuEntschuldgen zh( = excuse me ) was wholesome acceptable .
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By observing the speech act realization of request , Faerch & Kasper ( 1989 ) probed into the inter 2 among Danish learners of English and German as against respectively the English and German speakers . They reported that the Danish learners turned to map formally the Danish modal verbs and consultative device into their L 2 of English and German. In addition , the Danish learners were speculated to be following the Danish negation rule in realizing requests in Ger 2 man . The Japanese heavily utilized indirect strategies in their speech.
Takahashi & Dufon ( 1989 ) car 2 ried out a test just to examine whether Japanese learners of English as L 2 would negatively transfer their pragmalinguistic features in the case of request strategy . Role – play was used , and it was dis 2 played that the transfer had much association with specific goals of interaction . In cases with a strong desire for something , the Japanese depended on more directness strategies than the Americans do; while in cases when a desire was implicit , they used fewer indirect request strategies than the Ameri 2 cans. DeCapua ( 1989 ) studied the choice of directness level.
Her German learners of English as L 2 were assigned to do five service 2counter situational interactions concerning complaints . She showed that the German learners often directly transferred linguistic forms identical to their German into Eng 2 lish. Beebe , Takahashi , & Uliss 2 Weltz ( 1990 ) specifically explored into the use frequency ofzuexcuse zh among the Japanese learners of English as L 2. They reported that , in terms of variables such as place , time , and parties , the Japanese , different from the Americans , seemed less specific in pleading for an excuse.
However , in the speech act of refusals , the Japanese appeared to pose more frequency of negative pragmalinguistic a pragmalinguistic transfer . Thus it was concluded that the chance of negatively transferring feature into the TL was determined by the contents of semantic formula . B ergman & Kasper ( 1993) scrutinized apology realiz ation by Thai learners of English by means of 20 D CT situa tions . The re sult dem onstra te d that 50% o f the r esponses cluster on the tr ans fe r side. 73 nal and external modifications Among these transfer f eatures the Thai learners mapped into English included six situations of the