Study Guide

7 July 2016

Multiple Choice

1. In ancient cultures, the concept of victim was connected to: a. the notion of sacrifice. b. receiving payment for injuries. c. crime. d. natural disasters.

Study Guide Essay Example

2. Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between victimology and criminology? a. Victimology encompasses several sub-disciplines, including criminology. b. Victimology can be considered an area of specialization within criminology. c. Victimologists only study the victims of crimes, and criminologists only study the offenders. d.The two disciplines are similar but there are clearly-defined boundaries between them.

3. In contemporary times, the term victim refers to individuals who experience: a. injury. b. loss. c. hardship. d. any or all of the above

4. People can become victims of which of the following? a. accidents b. natural disasters c. diseases d. all of the above

5. _________________ is a one-sided interpersonal relationship in which one party causes harm or injury to the other. a. Victimization b. Victimism c. Subjectivity d. Stockholm Syndrome

6. The scientific study of the physical, emotional and financial harm people suffer because of illegal activities is known as which of the following? a. criminology b. victimology c. sociology d. psychology

7. Which of the following is the major function of victimologists? a. investigating the victim’s plight b. carrying out research on the public’s reaction to victims’ plight c. studying how victims are handled by officials and agencies in the criminal justice system d. all of the above

8. Those who experience the criminal act and its consequences firsthand are called: a. indirect victims. b. primary victims. c. secondary victims. d. direct impactees.

9. Those who suffer emotionally or financially from a crime but are not immediately involved or physically injured by it are known as: a. direct victims. b. primary victims. c. secondary victims. d. social workers.

l0. Which of the following are victimologists? a. researchers b. therapists c. case workers d. volunteers

l1. Which of the following involves approaching a subject from the standpoint of morality, ethics, philosophy, personalized reactions, and intense emotions? a. objectivity b. subjectivity c. social science research d. observation

12. Which of the following requires the observer to attempt to be fair, open-minded, even-handed, dispassionate, neutral, and unbiased? a. objectivity b. subjectivity c. intelligence d. observation

13. People who routinely engage in lawbreaking are: a. less likely to be victimized than others. b. more likely to be victimized than their law-abiding counterparts. c. seldom on the receiving end of victimization. d. protected because they know how offenders think.

14. Which of the following is a term for the type of media coverage also known as scandal-mongering, pandering, yellow journalism, and tabloidism? a. victimism b. sensationalism c. ideal type d. just deserts

15. The suffix “ology” merely means: a. a set of known facts. b. hard to understand. c. the study of. d. all of these

16. ___________ is a coherent, integrated set of beliefs that shapes interpretations and leads to political action. a. Victimology b. Victimism c. Ideology d. Criminology

17. __________ is a widely held outlook of people who share a sense of common victimhood. a. Victimology b. Victimism c. Ideology d. Criminology

18. People who oppose a victim-centered outlook do so based on their belief that: a. most so-called “victims” deserved the harm they received. b. it impedes progress due to its preoccupation with the past. c. once offenders have paid their debt to society they should be left alone. d. it distorts the interpretation of the law.

19. People who accept a victim-centered outlook believe that: a. insight results from understanding history. b. much of our economy and legal system depend upon the existence of offenders and victims. c. once offenders have paid their debt to society they should be left alone. d. most so-called “victims” deserved the harm they received.

20. Which of the following can undermine the ability of social scientists to achieve objectivity? a. personal experiences b. the discipline itself c. the mood of the times d. all of the above

21. The academic discipline of victimology can be traced back to: a. articles and research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s. b. a series of Supreme Court decisions in the early 20th Century. c. legislation passed by Congress in response to rising crime rates in the 1970s. d. the feminist movement of the 1960s.

22. Embezzlement by employees against their employers is an example of: a. vice. b. white-collar crime. c. street crimes. d. organized crime.

23. Drug smuggling and gun trafficking rackets run by mobsters are examples of: a. vice. b. white-collar crime. c. street crimes. d. organized crime.

24. Hostages often identify with their captors and develop anger toward the law enforcement officers who are trying to rescue them. This phenomenon is known as: a. reverse victimization. b. the Stockholm Syndrome. c. the Heisenberg Principle. d. identity transference.

25. Which of the following is true of street crime? a. it scares the public b. it preoccupies the media c. it keeps police busy d. all of the above

26. The first scholars who considered themselves victimologists studied: a. the resistance put up by rape victims. b. the presumed vulnerabilities of the very young. c. the presumed vulnerabilities of the very old. d. all of the above

27. Victimology is an interdisciplinary field that benefits from the contributions of: a. sociologists. b. criminologists. c. psychologists. d. all of the above

28. Victimology evolved as an area of specialization within: a. social work. b. criminology. c. sociology. d. psychology.

29. _______ embraces the scientific study of crimes, criminals, criminal laws, and the criminal justice system. a. Psychology b. Social work c. Criminology d. Penology

30. Which of the following are most likely to ask why certain individuals become involved in lawbreaking while others do not? a. criminologists b. victimologists c. psychologists d. penologists

31. Which of the following are most likely to ask why some individuals, households, and entities are targeted for crime while others are not? a. social anthropologists b. victimologists c. psychologists d. penologists

32. One similarity between criminologists and victimologists is that they: a. have existed for about the same amount of time. b. share a pro-police viewpoint. c. rely on the same methods used by other social scientists to conduct research. d. all of the above

33. The belief that lawbreakers must be strictly punished, in accordance with the “crime control” model of criminal justice, is known by which of the following labels? a. victimism b. profile c. needs assessment d. just deserts

34. The _________ refers to how often a type of victimization takes place during a given time period. a. incidence rate b. profile c. needs assessment d. just deserts

35. The ____________ refers to the fraction of the population that has ever experienced victimization. a. incidence rate b. profile c. needs assessment d. prevalence rate

36. ______________ refers to the odds that a person or portion of the population will someday suffer victimization if current rates prevail. a. Incidence rate b. Lifetime likelihood c. Needs assessment d. Prevalence rate

37. A ____________ is a kind of statistical portrait. a. profile b. ideal type c. survivor d. victim

38. A __________________ is an attempt to discover what type of help is required for crime victims to resolve problems and return to their life as before the crime. a. plea negotiation b. prevalence rate c. needs assessment d. lifetime likelihood

39. A __________________ is a process by which offenders are offered some concession in return for a guilty plea. a. plea negotiation b. prevalence rate c. needs assessment d. plea exchange

40. In contemporary terms, an individual who experiences injury, loss, or hardship for any reason is known as a: a. profile. b. ideal type. c. survivor. d. victim.

True/False

1. Because of the emotional toll of dealing with injured victims, first responders and rescue workers can be considered secondary victims. a. trueb. false

2. Victimologists include practitioners who directly assist parties to recover from their ordeals or who advocate on their behalf. a. trueb. false

3. People who routinely engage in lawbreaking are more likely to be victimized than their law-abiding counterparts. a. trueb. false

4. It is possible for people engaged in illegal activities to be genuine victims deserving of protection and redress through the courts. a. trueb. false

5. Being harmed at an early age has no impact on the odds of future delinquency and criminality. a. trueb. false

6. Victims of highly publicized crimes are often outraged by the way the news media portrays them. a. trueb. false

7. Victimology has been enhanced by those who equate it with victimism. a. trueb. false

8. Both criminologists and victimologists place a great emphasis on following the proper ways of gathering and interpreting data. a. trueb. false

9. Criminologists and victimologists seldom use the same methods as other social scientists to collect and analyze data. a. trueb. false

10. Both criminologists and victimologists study how the criminal justice system actually works. a. trueb. false

11. In ancient cultures, the concept of victim was connected to the practice of religious sacrifice. a. trueb. false

12. In the original meaning of the term, a victim was a person who had been negatively impacted by crime. a. trueb. false

13. In contemporary times, the term victim refers to individuals who experience injury, loss, or hardship. a. trueb. false

14.Victimization is a one-sided relationship in which one party causes harm to the other. a. trueb. false

15. Criminology is the scientific study of physical, emotional, and financial harm people suffer because of illegal activities. a. trueb. false

16. Victimologists study how victims are handled by officials and agencies in the criminal justice system. a. trueb. false

17. Indirect victims are those who experience the criminal act and its consequences firsthand. a. trueb. false

18. Subjectivity is the approach of victimology from the standpoint of morality, ethics, philosophy, personalized reactions, and intense emotions. a. trueb. false

19. Subjectivity requires that the observer try to be fair, open-minded, even-handed, dispassionate, neutral, and unbiased. a. trueb. false

20. People who routinely engage in lawbreaking are seldom on the receiving end of victimization. a. trueb. false

21. Sensationalism is a kind of media coverage that can be branded as scandal-mongering, pandering, yellow journalism, and tabloidism. a. trueb. false

22. The suffix “ology” merely means hard to understand. a. trueb. false

23. An ideology is a coherent, integrated set of beliefs that shapes interpretations and leads to political action. a. trueb. false

24. Victimism is a widely held outlook of people who share a sense of common victimhood. a. trueb. false

25. People who oppose a victim-centered outlook do so based on the belief that it keeps victims from being able to move on with their lives. a. trueb. false

26. People who accept a victim-centered outlook do so based on the belief that insight results from understanding past events. a. trueb. false

27. The academic discipline of victimology can be traced back to articles, books, and research produced by criminologists in the 1940s and 1950s. a. trueb. false

28. Embezzlement by employees against their employers is an example of a vice. a. trueb. false

29. Drug smuggling and gun trafficking rackets run by mobsters are examples of white collar crime. a. trueb. false

30. The Stockholm Syndrome is a phenomenon that occurs when an abused spouse sympathizes with the attacker. a. trueb. false

31. The first scholars who considered themselves victimologists studied the resistance put up by robbery victims. a. trueb. false

32. Victimology is an interdisciplinary field. a. trueb. false

33. Victimology evolved as a specialization within criminology. a. trueb. false

34. Social work embraces the scientific study of crimes, criminals, criminal laws, and the criminal justice system. a. trueb. false

35. One similarity between criminologists and victimologists is that they both rely on the same methods used by other social scientists to conduct research. a. trueb. false

36.In accordance with the crime control model of criminal justice, just deserts is the belief that lawbreakers must be strictly punished. a. trueb. false

37. Incidence rates tell us how often a type of victimization takes place during a given time period. a. trueb. false

38. Prevalence rates are the fraction of the population that has experienced victimization. a. trueb. false

39. A plea negotiation is an attempt to discover what type of help is required for crime victims to resolve problems and return to their life as it was before the crime. a. trueb. false

40. The mechanism by which assailants admit their guilt in return for some concession is called a needs assessment. a. trueb. false

Essay Questions

1. The term “victimology” is often mistakenly used in place of “victimism.” Explain the differences between these terms and show how each should be used. Source: Page 14

2. Discuss the concept of offenders as victims. What is the likelihood that people who routinely engage in lawbreaking can be hurt by their lawbreaking counterparts? Should people engaged in illegal activities be considered genuine victims when they are on the receiving end of criminal acts? Explain.

Source: Page 7

3. Discuss the concept of sensationalism and the role of the media in victimology. Source: Page 8

4. Compare victimology and criminology. Be sure to outline both the similarities and differences between the disciplines. Source: Pages 16-19

5. Outline and discuss the role of victimologists. Be sure to include the step-by-step reasoning process that victimologists follow when carrying out their research. Source: Pages 18-22

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