Study of the Effect of Lead
Controlled and uncontrolled disposal Of waste, accidental and process spillage, mining and smelting of metallurgists ores, sewage sludge application to agricultural soils are responsible for the migration of contaminants into non- intimidated sites as dust or lactate and contribute towards contamination of our ecosystem. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of heavy metals on the growth of Barbaric jounce and thereby its utilization for phototypesetting.
The minimum amount of lead (0 MGM/GM) was found in plant treated in O % concentration of lead acetate and maximum amount of lead (0. 001 1 MGM/GM) was found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate. The percentage germination for control, 0. 2, 0. 4, 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling was 89%, 88%, 86.
66% and 83% respectively. The length of shoot was found much less in plant treated in 0. 6% concentration of lead acetate (10 CM), as compared to the length of shoot in plant treated with 0% concentration of lead acetate (8 CM).Length of roots was found maximum in 0. 6% concentration of lead acetate (2 CM), as compared to the length of shoot in plant treated with 0% concentration of lead acetate (0. 5 CM). It was found that Brasilia jounce tolerated highest concentration of heavy metals and can accumulate lead.
Key Words: lactate, heavy metals, lead, phototypesetting, Barbaric jounce. Introduction Heavy metal contamination of soil, water and air has caused serious environmental hazard in the biosphere due to rapid industrialization and arbitration.Lead is probably one of the most frequently encountered heavy metals in polluted environment. The primary sources of this metal include mining and smelting of metallurgists ores, burning of leaded gasoline, disposal Of municipal sewage and industrial wastes enriched in lead as well as using of lead-based paint (Cabala-Pending and Pending 1984; Seaward and Richard-son 1990). Relatively high levels of lead concentrations were recorded s high as 7,000 pig/ GM in roadside soil (Cabala-Pending and Pending 1984) and 13,380 pig/GM in mining district soil (Wick land 1990).In recent years it has been reported that some plant species known as hyper accumulator derived from heavy metal-contaminated areas have the ability to accumulate unusually high content of heavy metals without dramatically being impacted in their growth and development. (Reeves, Brooks and Malaises 1 985; Baker and Brooks 1989).
This raises the suggestion that these hyper accumulators may provide the basis for phototypesetting of heavy metal-contaminated sites (Baker et al. 991 Phototypesetting potential off few such species for heavy metal-contaminated soil and water has recently been detected (Brown et al. 994; Kumar et al. 1995; Duskiness teal. 1995; Hang et al. 1997; Playback et al. 1997).
Lead as a Heavy metal: Lead (BP) exists naturally in many forms throughout the world & has a soil retention time of 150-5000 yr. Lead is among those heavy metals which have no known biological function. Never the less, numerous investigations show that plants can accumulate lead via root and shoot, and that the lead concentrations in plant tissues are significantly related to the lead levels in environment (Cabala-Pending and Pending 1984; Knows et al. 1 995; Sadism et al 1 995; Going 1998).Excessive lead accumulated in plant tissue can be toxic to most plants, leading to decrease in seed germination, root elongation and biomass, inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesize, as well as cell disturbance and chromosome lesion (Blabbers Paulson 1989; Kumar et al. 1991; Farragoes 1 994; Going chic). In lead and other heavy metal-contaminated sites, the vegetation structure and biodiversity are usually reduced barren patches of soil occurring and trees are sparse or absent (Wickedly 1990).
Material and Method Barbaric jounce seeds obtained from nursery were treated with lead acetate solution of concentrations ranging from 0. %, 0. 2%, 0. 4% & 0. 6% for control the seed were soaked in distilled water. After 24 hrs the seeds were transferred on wet filter paper (wet by the solutions of respective con. ) in plastic trays.
Seedlings were harvested after ј.NET days, the germination rate and the length of root and shoot was recorded. The amount of lead accumulated in the seedlings was also calculated. Stock solution of 0. 2%, 0. 4% and 0. 6 % was prepared in the following way: 20 MGM of lead acetate in 000 ml distilled water in volumetric flask gave 0.
% of lead acetate solution. In the same way 40 MGM & 60 MGM lead acetate salt were dissolved to prepare 0. 4% & 0. 6%. Stock solutions respectively. The DNA in control and the treated seedlings was estimated by Deployment reaction. Optical density was read at 595 NM on a photoelectric colorimeter.
Standard graph of O. D. On Y-axis and concentration of standard DNA on X-axis was plotted. DNA from sample was estimated with the help of standard graph. The Folio Lowry method of protein assay was used for protein estimation in control and treated dwellings.Optical density was read at 625 NM on photoelectric colorimeter. For the estimation of lead from the treated seedlings, 10 GM of the plant material was crushed in mortar and pestle in 40 ml distilled water and the solution was filtered.
Another series was made by taking 10 ml sample solution from filtrate of all concentrations from 0. 2%, 0. 4%, 0. 6% and control. 25 ml of freshly prepared Ammonium solution and 0. 5 ml of Sodium sulfide solution was added to all the above test tubes. Similarly for standard graph, varying concentration (0.
25 – 1. Ml) of working lead solution was prepared.To this 25 ml of freshly prepared Ammonium solution to make it alkaline was added; also 0. 5 ml of Sodium Sulfide was added. The volume of all solutions was equalized with distilled water. A blank was also prepared in the same manner without adding lead solution. Optical density was read at 430 NM on photoelectric colorimeter.
The concentration of lead was calculated in terms of MGM/liter from standard graph. Result & Discussion The minimum amount of DNA (4. 350 MGM/GM) was found in seedlings treated in (0%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment, and maximum minimum amount of DNA (4. 5 MGM/GM) found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment. The graph shows that the amount of DNA increases as the concentration of lead acetate goes on increasing. The minimum amount of Protein (86 MGM/GM) was found in plant treated in (0%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment, and maximum amount Protein (93.
5 MGM/GM) found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate after 20 days of treatment 89. OMG and 91. OMG of protein was estimated in the seedlings treated with 0. 4% and 0. 6% lead acetate.From the graph it can be concluded that the mount of protein Increased with the increase in the concentration of lead.
The graphical representation was done for calculating the concentration of lead in the treated seedlings. The optical density was read at 430 NM for control, 0. 2%, 0. 4% and 0. 6% lead acetate treated seedlings was O, 0. 013, 0. 016 and 0.
019 respectively. The graph plotted resulted into a straight line, indicating the increased accumulation of lead in the seedlings. The concentration of lead was calculated using graph. In leg of control, 0. 2, 0. And 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling sample had O MGM, 0.
00078 MGM, . 00094 MGM and 0. 001 1 MGM of lead respectively. The minimum amount of lead (O MGM/GM) was found in plant treated in (0%) concentration of lead acetate and maximum amount of lead (0. 0011 MGM/GM) was found in plant treated in (0. 6%) concentration of lead acetate. This suggests that Barbaric jounce could accumulate comparatively high doses lead.
The percentage germination for 1 GM each of control, 0. 2, 0. 4, 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling was 89%, 88%, 86. 66% and 83% respectively.The germination with increase in concentration Of lead acetate did not show any inhibitory effect on the orientation of seeds but a steady decrease in the percentage of germination was observed. Maximum percentage of germination was found in control seeds.
Out of 300 seeds soaked in 0. 2%, 0. 4% and 0. 6% solution of lead acetate showed 264, 260 and 249 seeds germinating respectively. When compared to the control the germination percentage of the treated seeds did not differ much. This indicated the capability of Barbaric jounce in tolerating the presence of heavy metals like lead.The shoot length for 1 GM each of control, 0.
2, 0. 4 and 0. 6 percent lead acetate treated seedling was 8 CM, 8. 5 CM, 8. CM, and 10 CM respectively; also the root length for 1 GM each of control, 0. 2, 0. 4 and 0.
6 percent lead acetate treated seedling was 0. 5 CM, 0. 8 CM, 1. 0 CM and 2. 0 CM respectively. The length of shoot was found maximum in plant treated in 0. 6% concentration of lead acetate (10 CM), as compared to the length of shoot in plant treated with 0% concentration of lead acetate (8 CM).
Length of roots was found maximum in 0. % concentration of lead acetate (2 CM), as compared to the length of shoot in plant treated with 0% concentration of lead acetate (0. 5 CM). This indicates that Barbaric jounce was blew to utilize the increased amount of lead to its advantage, suggesting the use of Barbaric jounce as a natural alternative for phototypesetting. Conclusion The present study indicates that plant species like Barbaric jounce can tolerate wide range of heavy metals concentration, it utilizes the heavy concentration for its all round growth . It can be used in removal of lead; and hence its use in phototypesetting in future.Phototypesetting is a fast developing field, since last ten years lot of field application were initiated all over the world, it includes Phototypesetting of Organic, Inorganic and Radio slides.
This sustainable and inexpensive process is fast emerging as a viable alternative to conventional remediation methods and will be most suitable for a developing country like India. Most of the studies have been done in developed countries and knowledge of suitable plants is particularly limited in India. In India commercial application of Phototypesetting of Soil heavy metal or Organic compounds is in its earliest phase.