Study on Successful and Unsuccessful Leader

He also involves in many scandals and controvercies. Kenneth Lay was a CEO of Enron, which is one of big company in United States . He was a responsible person for Enron fall and bankcruptcy because of his careless and lack of skill in leadership. SUCCESSFUL LEADER Mahatma Ghandi Mahatma Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of India who led the country in the non-cooperation movement in 1922 and Salt march in 1930 and later in Quit India movement in 1942 during its struggle for independence.

Known as Beloved Baapu in India, Mahatma Gandhi adopted the policy of mass disobedience and non-violent resistance as weapons against the British Rule in India and followed a principle of Ahimsa (total Non-Violence). He endured several hardships, was arrested and occasionally beaten in his journey and struggle to Justice and Freedom. However, his struggle does not restrict to India itself, as the leader played a key role in the Civil Rights movement in South Africa and secured them the right to justice and equality.

His birthday 2 October is commemorated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday and as the International Non-Violence day across the world. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar, a town in Gujarat in western India on 2 October 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Diwan of Porbandar state of British India. His mother Putlibai was Karamchand’s fourth wife. Having born in a Hindu family Gandhi strictly followed vegetarianism and fasting as means of self-purification. At the age of 13 he was married to one year older kasturba.

In 1885, Kasturbai gave birth to their first child who survived only few days. Later the couple had four sons. All along his schooling days Gandhi was an average student and passed his matriculation exam from Samaldas College, Gujarat with some difficulty. On 4th September 1888, he traveled to England to study law at the university College London and to train as a barrister, as his family wanted him to be a barrister. SUCCESSFUL LEADER Jeff Bezos Jeffrey P. Bezos, who was the founder of Amazon. om, he was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico. His mother was still in her teens, and her marriage to his father lasted little more than a year. She remarried when Jeffrey was four. Jeffrey’s stepfather, Mike Bezos, was born in Cuba; he escaped to the United States alone at age 15, and worked his way through the University of Albuquerque. When he married Jeffrey’s mother, the family moved to Houston, where Mike Bezos became an engineer for Exxon. Jeffrey’s grandfather was a regional director of the Atomic Energy Commission in Albuquerque.

He retired early to the family ranch, where Jeffrey spent most of the summers of his youth, working with his grandfather at the enormously varied tasks essential to the operation. From an early age, Jeffrey displayed a striking mechanical aptitude. Even as a toddler, he asserted himself by dismantling his crib with a screwdriver. He also developed intense and varied scientific interests, rigging an electric alarm to keep his younger siblings out of his room and converting his parents’ garage into a laboratory for his science projects. When he was a teenager, the family moved to Miami, Florida.

In high school in Miami, Jeffrey first fell in love with computers. An outstanding student, he was valedictorian of his class. He entered Princeton University planning to study physics, but soon returned to his love of computers, and graduated with a degree in computer science and electrical engineering. After graduation, Jeff Bezos found employment on Wall Street, where computer science was increasingly in demand to study market trends. His went to work at Fitel, a start-up company that was building a network to conduct international trade.

He stayed in the finance realm with Bankers Trust, rising to a vice presidency. At D. E. Shaw, a firm specializing in the application of computer science to the stock market, Bezos was hired as much for his overall talent as for any particular assignment. While working at Shaw, Jeff met his wife, Mackenzie, also a Princeton graduate. He rose quickly at Shaw, becoming a senior vice president, and looked forward to a bright career in finance, when he made a discovery that changed his life and the course of business history. UNSUCCESSFUL LEADER

Silvia Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi is one of Europe’s most fascinating and controversial figures. He is not only the former Prime Minister of Italy, he is the owner of the nation’s top football team, the leader of a media empire and the richest man in the country. Berlusconi is the son of Luigi, a Milan banker, and Rosa Bossi. He was the first of three children, the others being Maria Antonietta Berlusconi and Paolo Berlusconi, now both entrepreneurs. Silvio studied law at the University Statale in Milan, graduating in 1961.

His career began in the building construction business shortly after, when he became involved in the design of a garden city – Milano 2 -on the outskirts of Milan. His first venture into the Media business came in 1973 when he became involved in a cable television station to service Milano 2. Five years later he formed his first media group, Fininvest. The company owned a string of local TV stations across the country. Today his main company, Mediaset, comprises of three national television channels, which hold almost half the national viewing audience. In addition to other banking and nsurance interests, Berlusconi owns AC Milan, one of the leading football clubs in the world. In 1993 Mr Berlusconi founded his own political party, Forza Italia or Go Italy – named after a chant used by fans of AC Milan. A year later he became Prime Minister, forming a coalition with the right-wing National Alliance and Northern League. However rivalries between the three leaders, coupled with Mr Berlusconi’s indictment for alleged tax fraud, led to the collapse of the government just seven months later. He lost the 1996 election to the left-wing Romano Prodi.

Berlusconi has been involved in a number of controversies and over 20 court cases during his political career, including a conviction for tax evasion in October 2012, though he was not jailed. He was criticised for his electoral coalitions with right wing populist parties (the Lega Nord and the neo-fascist National Alliance) and for apologetic remarks about Mussolini, though he also officially apologised for Italy’s actions in Libya during colonial rule. While in power, Berlusconi maintained ownership of Mediaset, the largest media company in Italy, and was criticised for his dominance of the Italian media.

His leadership was also undermined by sex scandals. UNSUCCESSFUL LEADER Kenneth Lay Kenneth Lee Lay was born on April 15, 1942, in Tyrone, Missouri, and received both his bachelor and master degrees in economics from the University of Missouri. Lay served in the U. S. Navy from 1968 to 1971. In 1970, after earning a Ph. D. in economics at the University of Houston, Lay went to work for the Exxon predecessor Humble Oil & Refining. He worked for the Federal Power Commission from 1971 to 1972, and served as energy deputy under secretary for the United States Department of Interior until 1974.

In 1974, Kenneth Lay joined the Florida Gas Company, eventually serving as president of its successor company, Continental Resources Company. In 1981, he left Continental to join Transco Energy Company in Houston, Texas. Three years later, Lay joined Houston Natural Gas Co. as chairman and CEO. The company merged with InterNorth in 1985, and was later renamed Enron Corp. In 1986, Kenneth Lay was appointed chairman and chief executive officer of Enron. In 2001, Lay sold large amounts of Enron stock in September and October as its share price fell. All told, he liquidated more than $300 illion in Enron stock from 1989 to 2001. Enron filed for bankruptcy in December 2001—the biggest bankruptcy filing in U. S. history at the time, costing 20,000 employees their jobs and many their life savings, and losing billions for investors. In July 2004, Lay was indicted for his role in the company’s collapse, including 11 counts of securities fraud, wire fraud, and making false and misleading statements. On May 25, 2006, Lay was found guilty on all six counts of conspiracy and fraud. His sentencing was scheduled to take place on October 23, 2006.

Kenneth Lay died of a heart attack while vacationing in Aspen, Colorado, on July 5, 2006. He is survived by his wife, Linda, two children, three stepchildren and 12 grandchildren. MAHATMA GHANDI AND JEFF BEZOS Similarities * Higher education background Mahatma Ghandi and Jeff Bezos both have good education background since they are young. Mahatma Ghandi, In 1888, Gandhi travelled to London, England, to study law at University College London, where he studied Indian law and jurisprudence and to train as a barrister at the Inner Temple.

While, Jeff Bezos attended the Student Science Training Program at the University of Florida while he in high school which is Miami Palmetto Senior High School, receiving a Silver Knight Award in 1982. He was high school valedictorian. He attended Princeton University, with an intention to study physics, but soon returned to his love of computers and graduated summa cum laude, with a Bachelor of Science in Engineering in electrical engineering and computer science. While at Princeton, he was elected to the honor societies Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi. Differences

Mahatma Ghandi was a president of Indian Nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world. Other than that, Mahatma Ghandi has education in Law since her family wanted him to be a barrister. After passing his matriculation exam from Samaldas College, Gujarat with some difficulty, he traveled to England to study law at the University College London. In comparisons, Jeff Bezos is an American entrepreneur who played a key role in the growth of e-commerce as the founder and CEO of Amazon. om, an online merchant of books and later of a wide variety of products. Under his guidance, Amazon. com became the largest retailer on the World Wide Web and the model for Internet sales. Jeff Bezos has education in science in electrical engineering and computer science. He attended Princeton University, with an intention to study physics, but soon returned to his love of computers and graduated summa cum laude, with a Bachelor of Science in Engineering in electrical engineering and computer science. SILVIA BERLUSCONI AND KENNETH LAY Similarities * Scandal and fraud case

Silvio Berlusconi and Kenneth Lay have been involved in many court cases and scandals. Silvio Berlusconi, is an Italian politician and media tycoon who served three times as Prime Minister of Italy from 1994 to 1995, 2001 to 2006 and 2008 to 2011. Berlusconi has been involved in a number of controversies, fraud and over 20 court cases during his political career, including a conviction for tax evasion in October 2012, though he was not jailed. His leadership was also undermined by sex scandals. For Kenneth Lay,who was a responsible person in Enron’s collapse.

Lay was charged, in a 65 page indictment, with 11 counts of securities fraud, wire fraud, and making false and misleading statements. Enron’s bankruptcy, the biggest in United State history when it was filed in December 2001, cost 20,000 employees their jobs and many of them their life savings and investors lost billions of dollars. * Award and honors Although there are many fraud and scandal in these two unsuccessful leader but they do received many award and honor in their life for their achievement before they were charge for their wrongdoing.

Silvio Berlusconi received many award from others country such as, from Italy: Knight of the Order of Merit for Labour(1977), Holy See: Knight of the Order of Pius IX (2005), Poland: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (2002) and many more. Kenneth Lay was an intelligent leader,award that he received are Anti-Defamation League-Torch of Liberty Award , Beta Theta Pi (National Fraternity)-Oxford Cup, Brunel University (London)-Honorary Doctor of Social Sciences and others. Differences

Silvia Berlusconi was involved in many fraud cases but he was not jailed because of his crime,he able to rise again after his fall become a president for the first time. Other than that , he has many supporter and was a rich man that enable him to close all his cases. In comparison,Kenneth Lay was indicted for his role in the company’s collapse, including 11 counts of securities fraud, wire fraud, and making false and misleading statements. On May 25, 2006, Lay was found guilty on all six counts of conspiracy and fraud. His sentencing was scheduled to take place on October 23, 2006.

Competency perspective of leadership Personality The leader’s higher levels of extroversion (outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive) and consciencetiousness (careful, dependable, and self-discipline). For example, Mahatma Ghandi is an excellent listener and has high self-discipline, Gandhi was not a very skilled public speaker; generally he was believed to be quite average. On the other hand, he was an exceptional listener of both the articulated and the unsaid. He seemed to be practicing “seeing with your ears. ” Self-concept

The leader’s self-beliefs and positive self-evaluation about his or her own leadership skills and ability to achieve objectives. Jeff Bezos, who was the founder of Amazon. com believe to his own ability and opportunity in order for creating success. In early of his business, People were not preferred to purchased things online but he belief that online business will become popular and demand by the buyers in futures . Drive The leader’s inner motivation to pursue goals. Related to their high conscientiousness and positive self-concept, successful leader have a high need for achievement.

In South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at all coloured people for example, he was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first-class, he suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels and the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do. These events were a turning point in Gandhi’s life and shaped his social activism and drive him to social injustice. Integrity

Integrity involves truthfulness and consistency of word and action,qualities that are related to honesty and ethicality. Italy falls in many counts when Silvia Berlusconi was acting as a President of Italy. This is because he was involved in many fraud and scandal cases besides he is not morally educated towards integrity and is mostly unable to exercise powers of control. Lack of honesty and consistency in action will result Italy falls easily. What role does luck play in leadership It is often easy to attribute the success of great and influential leaders to pure luck.

Undoubtedly, some turned out to be the right person in the right place at the right time. However, they also had to have the right skills and abilities to build on the opportunities presented to them. Luck does open the avenues, the golden path of opportunities that leads to success. For instance, being born with a silver spoon in mouth is definitely not in one’s well hands, but how far do they go? The number of men (or women) with humble origins who have carved a niche for themselves outshine the number of those who have had affluent lineage to thank for.

The epoch making scientists, the power magnet corporate, the charismatic leaders , the lauded achievers, noble laureates and other highly acclaimed professionals, poets, painters, writers and numerous others, men who shaped the course of destiny have been successful through sheer hard work and a pint of good luck. The skills and characteristics the great and influential leaders employed enabled them to identify and maximize the opportunities that presented themselves.

These individuals may have been lucky in being at the right place at the right time, but far more was required to capitalize upon available opportunities, which were presented to them. Many others at the same time were presented with similar opportunities. Yet they failed to achieve similar levels of success. This was because they didn’t possess the same skills, competencies and knowledge to understand what was needed to grasp the significance of the opportunities, and the actions and practices to maximize them. Predicted success and failure Mahatma Ghandi

Mahatma Ghandi pursue his study at University College of London in Education in Law as his family wanted him become a barrister. He does not predicted that one day he will become a President of India and lead the nation. In addition, he only wanted to help their own people,so that they will not discriminate by other society in other country. Mahatma Ghandi work very struggles in order to get independence for their country. Jeff Bezos Jeff Bezos interest in computer science since he was young had made him become a successful businessman nowadays.

He attend and joint all activities regarding the computer and the system when he was in high school and college, which is Princeton. His success can be considered as predicted as working with the computer was his dream but he never known that he will become a businessman in future. Silvia Berlusconi Failure of Silvia Berlusconi are being predicted by many people because of his lack in integrity and commitment toward his job as a President of Italy. His rise and fall was evidence for his failure besides he involves in many fraud cases.

In addition,Silvia involves in many sex scandals made people not trusted him to be a President and his greediness is the factors that drive him to his failure Kenneth Lay Kenneth Lay was a CEO of Enron,a big firm in United State. Early of his career,he was a good and intelligent and seems to be a fine leaders before he was found did many fraud in the company after the company was audit by the audit firm. He and other people does not predicted the fraud will be revealed and result to his failure and bankcruptcy to the company. Criteria for successful leader Inspiration

A leader should motivate and enthuse followers in to action. However, in order to inspire followers, a leader must have a vision, belief, or cause that they champion. This vision can either be their own. In addition to having a cause or idea they strongly believe in, a leader must also be able to motivate and encourage others to adopt this cause as their own. To bring others to action, a leader must first garner trust from his or her followers. The leader’s followers must trust that the leader is leading them on a true and just path for change that the followers themselves want to occur.

As part of building this trust, the leader’s ability to communicate his or her ideas and vision effectively and clearly is crucial. If followers cannot understand the leader’s mission or why they should also adopt this cause, the leader’s quest will be futile. Courage In addition to having or adopting a vision and being able to inspire followers around this vision, we believe that leaders must be courageous. They must be able and willing to defend their visions against both outside and internal attacks.

Followers will immediately begin to lose faith in their leader if they see a leader without the courage to support an idea under trying times. Leaders must also have the courage to change and adapt their vision to respond to supportive ideas from others that benefit the vision or to shifts in the economic, political, or social landscape. Having courage to change can be particularly difficult if the leader has become attached to his or her own vision, but a good leader must recognize that modifying this vision can be beneficial to the leader, his or her organization, and the leader’s followers.

Empathy Leaders must be empathetic; they must feel compassionate towards those who they are leading and must be able to understand the states and histories of their followers. Only by truly understanding their followers’ individual journeys and the backgrounds of each follower can a leader be most effective. Empathetic leaders can understand the root cause behind what is driving their followers’ actions, and empathetic leaders make people feel confident and capable, inspiring them to do more than they would on their own. Some of the most respected recent leaders have made empathy a key trait n their leadership style. By being empathetic and really understanding who their followers are and what their personal journeys have entailed, leaders can build a higher level of trust in their organizations, more commitment in their employees, and a more positive and productive workplace. Communication Knowing what you want accomplished may seem clear in your head, but if you try to explain it to someone else and are met with a blank expression, you know there is a problem. If this has been your experience, then you may want to focus on honing your communication skills.

Being able to clearly and succinctly describe what you want done is extremely important. If you can’t relate your vision to your team, you won’t all be working towards the same goal. Training new members and creating a productive work environment all depend on healthy lines of communication. Whether that stems from an open door policy to your office, or making it a point to talk to your staff on a daily basis, making yourself available to discuss interoffice issues is vital. Your team will learn to trust and depend on you, and will be less hesitant to work harder

Honesty Whatever ethical plane you hold yourself to, when you are responsible for a team of people, it is important to raise the bar even higher. Your business and its employees are a reflection of yourself, and if you make honest and ethical behavior a key value, your team will follow suit. Promote a healthy interoffice lifestyle, and encourage your team to live up to these standards. By emphasizing these standards, and displaying them yourself, you will hopefully influence the office environment into a friendly and helpful workspace.

Commitment If you expect your team to work hard and produce quality content, you’re going to need to lead by example. There is no greater motivation than seeing the boss down in the trenches working alongside everyone else, showing that hard work is being done on every level. By proving your commitment to the brand and your role, you will not only earn the respect of your team, but will also instill that same hardworking energy among your staff. It’s important to show your commitment not only to the work at hand, but also to your promises.

If you pledged to host a holiday party, or uphold summer Fridays, keep your word. You want to create a reputation for not just working hard, but also been known as a fair leader. CONCLUSION As a conclusion, those leaders, which are Mahatma Ghandi, Jeff Bezos, Silvia Berlusconi and Kenneth Lay do have their own skills in leadership although some of them are success and some of them are not. Based on my research, Mahatma Ghandi and Jeff Bezos have similarities such as they both have high education background even with different course.

This can be conclude, as a leader a person must have education and knowledge so that they able to lead an organization or country. Other than that, a leader needs to be a hardworking person in order for them to be success. In addition,both leader Silvia Berlusconi and Kenneth Lay involves in a number of court case that may be the factors of their failure. All leaders have similarities and differences between them. Other than that, are the success and the failure of those leaders are being predicted?

For Mahatma Ghandi, He does not predicted that one day he will become a President of India and lead the nation. In addition, he only wanted to help their own people,so that they will not discriminate by other society in other country. In comparison, Kenneth Lay and the other peoples does not predicted the fraud will be revealed and result to his failure and bankcruptcy to the company. To being a success leader need to fullfill criteria. For example, inspiration, a leader should motivate and enthuse followers in to action.

However, in order to inspire followers, a leader must have a vision, belief, or cause that they champion. This vision can either be their own. Leaders must be courageous. They must be able and willing to defend their visions against both outside and internal attacks. In addition, a successful leader must be honest, Whatever ethical plane you hold yourself to, when you are responsible for a team of people, it is important to raise the bar even higher. Your business and its employees are a reflection of yourself, and if you make honest and ethical behavior a key value, your team will follow suit.

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