Stylistic Analysis of Texts

9 September 2016

The book is a magnificent, powerful novel. It received almost unanimous critical acclaim and several awards. The book is about Tom Robinson, a Negro, who was charged with raping a white girl. This particular abstract depicts the trial. Atticus Finch, an experienced lawyer, tried to prove the innocence of the Robison. But the jury announced a verdict that Robinson was guilty. The story was told on behalf of Jean Louise, Atticus’s daughter. It made the story more vivid, tense and emotional. As a daughter she noticed a lot of details which were unusual for Atticus. …

Atticus did something I never saw him do before or since, in public or in private: he unbuttoned his vest, unbuttoned his collar, loosened his tie, and took off his coat. He never loosened a scrap of his clothing until he undressed at bedtime, and to Jem and me, this was the equivalent of him standing before us stark naked…).

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Her notes revealed the emotions and feelings of the lawyer, his changing condition during the process of the trial. If the story were written from the point of view of Atticus or the author, it would turn down as a mater-of-fact narration. The details were omitted. such as Tom Robinson was toying with papers…). The story would lose its objectivity, because Atticus could not describe the event without personal opinion. The author represents the Atticus’s speech in direct form. If it was represented indirectly, the reader would not hear the lawyer’s voice. On the contrary, the author’s point of view would prevail and the reader could think the author foist his opinion. Atticus words in direct speech have more effect on the reader. It creates such atmosphere as if the reader is in the court himself. The general atmosphere of this abstract is rather tense.

The author keeps the reader in suspense till the very end. The readers take their breath wishing to know that the Negro is innocent. But the author uses the effect of defeated expectancy. In my opinion, the climax in this text is the verdict of the jury. Every “guilty” destroys any reader’s hope for justice. And this is exactly what the author wished to convey. She claims all men are created equal. That means all men have equal rights no matter what colour skin he or she has. People think with stereotypes. All Negroes lie, all Negroes are basically immoral beings, all Negro men are not to be trusted around the woman.

But the reality can be the exact opposite of it. There are good Negroes and bad Whites. The author used parallel constructions to emphasize how narrow-minded people could be when they generalize. The court is probably the only place where all generalizations should be avoided. It is a crime to find somebody guilty without worthy evidence and proofs. There was nothing but strong racial discrimination in those days in America. Nowadays, the country is on the way of full tolerance to each other. A lot of stylistical devices penetrated throughout the text.

All these means were used on purpose to emphasize the author’s opinion. The text is rich with repetitions (some people would have us believe – some people are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity, some people make more money than others, some ladies make better cakes than others – some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men. ). Repetitions and numerous parallel constructions allow the lawyer to seem more persuasive, to make people think over his words, to make his speech more clear for the audience. Numerous epithets and similes were used to express the author’s attitude.

Epithets give personal appraisal of the author, his individual opinion. They convey his emotions. (Judge tailor’s voice … was tiny). This epithet can express the doubt of the judge. As far as similes are concerned there are this case is as simple as black and white, I saw the jury return, moving like underwater swimmers. The text can be conventionally divided into two parts. The first part is represented as Atticus’s speech and the second part is the announcement of the verdict. The end of this abstract revealed the sympathy and respect of all Negroes in the court. Analysis “The Lumber-Room”. The lumber-room” was written by a british novelist Nector Munro. He was known as a best short story writer. In his childhood he was brought up by his grandmother and aunts. One of became a prototype for his short story the lumber room. The author satirized the unsympathetic methods of upbringing. This story tells about a boy, named Nicholas, who was in disgrace for his bad conduct. He was left at home while other children were walking around the sands at Jagborough. His aunt-by-assertion banned him to enter the gooseberry garden. That’s why she occupied the garden to control the Nicholas invasion.

But the boy took the important-looking keys and entered the lumber-room. The treasures of the room geminated his imagination. For a moment he forgot about the aunt until she began shouting. The boy refused to rescue his aunt referring that it is the Evil one who tempted him. The author tried to convey the following idea. It is highly difficult to bring up the children. They feel the insincerity and falsity of the adults. In the case when Nicholas put deliberately a frog into his basin of bread-and-milk, the aunts neglected his pleas. They didn’t see his basin and just punished him.

They denied the presence of any frog in Nicholas’s basin with the utmost assurance. And the author accentuates the attention to this point. That can be interpreted as if the adults can tell lie about everything with full assurance. The adults can overlook the facts and interpret them as they want without penetration into the essence of the matter. Such attitude of the adults to the children can create the unfriendliness and cruelty of the last ones. Nicholas mischievously told that Bobby’s boots were hurting him. The author used a lot of words with high negative stylistic colouring (a grim chuckle).

But the aunt replies in the same way (with asperity, loftily). The author shows the reader the effect of boomerang. The indifferent attitude of the aunt towards the children (you often don’t listen when we tell you important things) generate the same attitude of Nicholas towards the aunts and other children. This text can be conventionally divided into three parts. The first part is an introduction. It tells about the breakfast. Nicholas was in disgrace forfeiting the walk around the sands at Jagborough. His aunt-by-assertion forbids him to enter the gooseberry garden.

The second part is the absorbing tale about the lumber-room. Nicholas was impressed by the treasures of the lumber. He was represented from the other side. The reader’s attitude can be shifted to the positive attitude to the boy. The last part is a climax. The aunt was slipped into the rain-water tank and could not get out without any help. The boy refused fetching the ladder. The text is largely represented through the dialogues between the characters. Direct speech allows the reader to hear the voices of the characters. The description of the lumber-room was executed as a piece of narration.

Describing the lumber-room the author used more high-flown words (to feast on, quaint, to leap to the conclusion). The words are positive, they reflect the inner side of the boy. But the other two parts contain a fair amount of negative words (fearsome, undignified, unmerited detention, disastrous, punitive). The author opposes these parts on purpose to emphasize the true Nicholas’s nature. He was really impressed by the treasures of the lumber-room. It gave him a push to imagination. For a long time he wanted to enter this room. He trained in school to open the door with the keys.

He said the room came up to his expectations. That means he thought about the room for a long. The tapestry, the whole portrait gallery claimed his attention. The author characterized the boy as a skilled tactitian and an aunt as a woman of few ideas. The author described the aunts like older and wiser and better people. He used this phrase twice to exaggerate the degree of their narrow-mindedness. The full text is penetrated throughout with irony and sarcasm. The author is very ironic towards the aunt in the end. The boy named the aunt with the Evil One.

Not without the grounds the author used such simile (aunt – the Evil One). I suppose that the methods of upbringing were highly similar to the unfair approaches. The aunts did not have a way with children. They were hypocritical and deceitful telling lie about the nonexistent circus. To sum up, in spite of ironical atmosphere it is a pity to realize if people bring up children in such a way, it is not surprise that children become cruel. And there is nothing but reap. Analysis. “Girl” by Jamaica Kincaid. The “Girl” was written by an American writer of Indian origin Jamaica Kincaid.

This particular tale is included in the collection of stories titled At the Bottom of the River (1983). The whole story consists of the utterances of the mother who teaches her daughter how to live. And this is precisely the message of this text. The problem of upbringing remains at all times. A parent tries to convey all stored experience to the children and everybody chooses his own way how to do it. In my opinion, the way, which the mother of this story chose, was a little harsh and despotic. The author represented the text as a monologue of the mother. Only two phrases were uttered by the main character’s daughter.

These sentences were even italicised to draw the reader’s attention (but I don’t sing benna on Sundays at all and never in Sunday school. … but what if the baker won’t let me feel the bread? ) These sentences were started with the word but. It means the daughter did not agree with her mother and there were only two cases when the daughter dared to say. The text is penetrated throughout stylistic devices. As far as the lexicon is concerned Jamaica Kincaid uses simple, easy-to-understand words in general. Although, some specific words are used such as okra, dasheen, doukona which mphasize the Indian origin of the author. It allows the reader to understand where the story takes place. Moreover, the mother teaches her daughter to put clothes on the stone heap and put them on the clothes line to dry that it is impossible to imagine in the busy life of megapolis. It proves the fact that the story takes place in the countryside. One more point about the lexicon is that there are some words with negative connotation, with derogatory meaning (slut, wharf rat, to spit up), which cut the reader’s ear because the mother’s monologue carries informative and didactic function.

One of the most eye striking devices is the use of parallel constructions. (Wash the white clothes on Monday; wash the color clothes on Tuesday. This is how you iron your father’s khaki shirt so that it doesn’t have a crease; this is how you iron your father’s khaki pants so that it doesn’t have a crease. This is how to make a good medicine for a cold; this is how to make a good medicine to throw away a child before it even becomes a child. ) All these repetitions confirm that the mother wants to teach her daughter for all occasions as if she is preparing her for a marriage.

The numerous repetitions of the phrase this is how prove the didactical aim of the mother’s speech. In terms of statistics, there are 7 negative sentences, 21 affirmative and 31 “this is how” sentences in the text. Some parallel constructions are used in gradation to strengthen the effect of the stated. (F. ex. this is how you smile to someone you don’t like too much; this is how you smile to someone you don’t like at all. This is how you sweep a corner; this is how you sweep a whole house; this is how you sweep a yard. ). The whole text is represented as a chain of utterances.

All these utterances are connected in one sentence by way of semicolon. The author uses asyndeton to emphasize the continuity of the mother’s thoughts. As if what she tells not demands any explanations and objections. The caring mother wants to convey all her experience to her daughter. (This is how you grow okra – far from the house, because okra tree harbors red ants). But at the same time she restricts her freedom wishing to teach good manners. (You mustn’t speak to wharf rat boys). The author uses numerous imperatives to show the imperious character of the mother (don’t walk; always eat; wash; be sure).

The tone of mother’s presentation is sometimes irrelevant. (On Sundays try to walk like a lady and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming. Don’t eat fruits on the street – flies will follow you. This is how to split up in the air if you feel like it, and this is how to move quick so that it doesn’t fall on you. ) It exemplifies the mother’s attitude to her daughter. It seems as if the mother doesn’t respect her child, humiliates her and does not give her any opportunity to make the mistakes. The mother restricts the circle of contacts and interests of her daughter depriving her the normal careless childhood. You mustn’t speak to wharf-rat boys. Don’t squat down to play marbles.

Don’t sing benna in Sunday school. ). Jamaica Kincaid uses the irony, which nearly borders with sarcasm, to emphasize the disrespectful mother’s attitude. (Always eat your food in such a way that it won’t turn someone else’s stomach. ). On the one hand, the mother gives the practical advice which is useful for any housewife in the future (Cook pumpkin fritters in very hot sweet oil. This is how to hem a dress. This is how to set a table. This is how to make a good medicine for a cold. . But on the other hand, she gives hints about such immaterial things as love. (This is how to smile to someone you like completely. This is how to behave in the presence of men who don’t know you very well. This is how to love a man. ). In my opinion, to smile and to behave differently in the presence of men mean to conceal the personality, to be artificial and hypocritical. Perhaps, the text portrays the typical approach of upbringing in India where kinships are more close and dependent. Parents are authorities whom do not dare to disobey.

It is highly difficult to divide the text into the parts as it is represented as a monologue of the mother. There are only two sentences of the daughter’s direct speech. The text combines both ironical and imperious, didactical tone of presentation. But the last one prevails. Analysis. “No news from Auschwitz” by A. M. Rosenthal. An essay “No news from Auschwitz’ was written by A. M. Rosenthal. This essay is about the Konzentrationslager Auschwitz in our time. Nowadays, this place looks very peaceful, that it is hard to imagine those terrible things which were there about some decades ago.

Nowadays, the excursions take place here, but tourists cannot look at this place long. This essay is informal and highly personal. The author titled his essay “No news for Auschwitz” and repeats the same idea during the story (there is no news to report about Auschwitz. ) He was forced to write an essay. And it was a hard task for him. The message that the author tries to convey is that the place which was one of the most terrible places on the world became the peaceful and ideal nook where the trees are growing and the children are playing. He compares the past and the present, the death and the life.

The author begins with the description of nature. (The sun was bright and warm, the rows of graceful poplars were lovely to look upon and on the grass near the gates children played. ) This description creates emotional effect. The contrast between awful days of Konzentrationslager and peaceful time nowadays cannot leave the reader indifferent. The author displays this contrast through the use appropriate vocabulary (it all seemed frighteningly wrong, as in a nightmare, that at Brzezinka the sun should ever shine or that there should be light and greenness and the sound of young laughter. There is statistical data about Brzezinka and Oswiecim. The author gives the details and historical events which make the essay like an article. As far as vocabulary is concerned, the author used a great many words with negative connotation (grievous, torture, strangling), key words (Konzentrationslager, dungeon, extermination). The author used metaphors (factory of torture, batch of prisoners was herded), metonymy (the experiments on living bodies). These devices increase the emotional effect and depressing atmosphere.

As far as syntax is concerned, the author uses parallel constructions (There is merely the compulsion to write something about it, a compulsion that grows out of a restless feeling that to have visited Auschwitz…). This essay is informal. The author uses a piece of narration. He describes the tourists and the excursion. The guide should not even make a comment to what they see (there is nothing much for him to say after he has pointed. ) The tourist looked at the gas chambers, the furnaces, the barracks and they were happy when the room, where sterilization experiments were carried out, was locked.

The tourists walked along the wall of photographs and one drew their attention. It was girl of 22 y. o.. The rhetorical question was raised (What was the thought that passed through her young mind and is now her memorial on the wall of the dead at Auschwitz? ) The author uses an oxymoron to emphasize how petrified the visitors were (One visitor opened his mouth in a silent scream). The climax arrived when the tourists could not look at this any amore (The visitors look pleadingly at each other and say to the guide, “Enough”. )

The end of the essay comes to the beginning (It was a sunny day and the trees were green and at the gates the children played). The frame composition was used to reach the emotional effect. Analysis. “Conversation with madmen? ” by Isaac Asimov. “Conversation with madmen” was written by an American writer Isaac Asimov. He was best known for his works of science fiction. This story is included in the science fiction novel “Peddle in the sky”, published in 1950. This story is about an alien, named Arvardan who took a jet with the Earthmen.

During the flight the passengers discuss the Time when people at the age of sixty are forced to leave the planet for younger generation. In spite of all fact that the author depicts the forthcoming future, the story is about our daily routine. That’s why the story evokes these strong feeling and emotions because the situation is close to the readers. The text is not full of devices. But one of the striking features is that the text is penetrated throughout occasionalisms (The Sixty, The Time, The Grand Tour, Council Day, The Brotherhood, Society of Ancient, credit, Outsider).

Even if the word is familiar to us it changes the meaning in the text. Describing the future the author are forced to introduce new words and terms. The author even changes the name of the cities (Washenn, Chica), but anyway it is easily to translate them as Washington and Chicago. The author supposes that in the future the Terrestrial capital will be Washeen. The author depicts the situation on the Earth. The planet is not good for living. (From the dark wine-purple of the extreme stratosphere, Earth presented a fabulous appearance.

Beneath him the vast and misted land areas in sight (obscured here and there by the patches of sun-bright clouds) showed a desert orange. Behind them, slowly receding from the fleeing stratoliner, was the soft and fuzzy night line, within whose dark shadow there was the sparking of the radioactive areas. ) The problem that the author raises is that the Earthmen have destroyed their planet, it becomes inappropriate for living because of radiation. One problem the author raises is a matter of discrimination. When the earthmen and creatures from the other Galaxies began to communicate, the last ones began to despise the Earthmen.

Though they tried to look naturally in their presence. The author shows the Arvardan’s attitude to his fellow passengers (Of course he had grown into the habit of thinking of Earthmen in certain set caricature types, and even now the word “Earthman” seemed an ugly one to him… Now certainly he would have no objection to eating with an Earthman, or even bunking with one in case of need-assuming the Earthman were reasonably clean, and healthy. In fact, he would in all ways treat him as he would treat anyone else, he thought. Yet there was no denying that he would always be conscious of the fact that an Earthman was an Earthman.

He couldn’t help that. That was the result of a childhood immersed in an atmosphere of bigotry so complete that it was almost invisible, so entire that you accepted its axioms as second nature… Intermarriage, for instance, was quite unthinkable. ). Because of the bad conditions of living on the Earth, Society of Ancient has confirmed that an Earthman at the age of the Sixty are forced to leave the planet in order to give opportunity to live for younger generation. The passengers of this jet are going to do the Grand Tour. This pair is about sixty, that’s why it is the last chance to look at the Earth.

Another passenger claimed how many days left for him. (I’ve got exactly twelve years, three months, and four days left. Twelve years, three months, and four days. Not a day more, not a day less. ) The author uses repetition to emphasize the effect of the utterance. It is quite scary to know the exact date of the death. At the same time people still be able to delay the day of their Time by having money and relationships with Society of Ancient. It can prove that the corruption still exists. (I knew a man once who was sixty the year after the 810 Census and lived till the 820 Census caught him. He was sixty-nine before he left off.

Sixty-nine! Think of that! … He had a little money, and his brother was one of the Society of Ancients. There’s nothing you can’t do if you’ve got that combination. ). Analysis. “Growing up with the media” by P. G. Aldrich. Growing up with the media is an essay. The author tells the reader about the influence of the media. The message he tries to convey is that people are too addicted with media. The author used simile to emphasize how addictive media is (In a commercial society the media’s ability to stimulate motivation to buy – almost as though people were puppets on strings – builds other people power. The author proves his opinion by giving the statistical data. He gives great illustration to his words. (According to recent report, more than a third of all children by the age of three are viewing TV with some regularity and more than a half are listening to books read to them. Before they are old enough for school – a third of the children are looking through magazines, 40 % are listening to radio, and 80 % are viewing television. At age seven, newspapers enter a child’s life, usually through the comic strips. ) These data persuades the reader. They speak for themselves. This essay is highly informal.

The author uses rhetorical questions. (What do you remember about your childhood? What did your friends talk about, at least part of the time, before class? An item from a newspaper? An ad that you noticed in a magazine or television commercial? ) The author involves the reader into conversation. The essay is represented as a dialogue. As far as vocabulary is concerned, the author uses simple, easy-to-understand words. The author uses colloquial words to illustrate some points of his discussion. (ad, mike). He gives synonyms of the words television (tv, T. V. TV, teevee). The author includes the graphical device also.

He capitalized and italised the most important things to his opinion. (mass; media; Mickey mouse; the MAJORITY of material is chosen or designed to produce a predetermined response). As far as syntax is concerned, the author uses a fair amount rhetorical questions. Moreover, he uses asyndeton, the type of connection without conjunctions. (When the material is written, staged, photographed with or without audio, printed. ) It makes the narration more vivid and dynamic. It looks like the stream of consciousness. He uses the inversion in the text (With all this you also absorb ideas about behavior…)

All in all the structure of the text is rather homogenous. The author tries to make the reader to reflect. The author persuades the reader. The essay is informal because it is highly personal. The author tires to entertain. Sometimes he deviates from the theme in order to give humor, irony. Analysis “Drawing back the curtain” by Denis Healey This text was written by Denis Healey. He is a prolific journalist and broadcaster and a British Labour politician as well. “Drawing back the curtain” was taken from his autobiography “The Time of My Life” (1989). The author tells the reader about his impressions about Russia.

He focuses on the difference of perception of Russia before and after visiting this country. He marked that earlier his generation was largely influenced by George Orwell’s 1984 that distorted the reality about the Soviet Union. But then his short visits to Russia cured him of any erratic illusions. This text belongs to the publicist style. This style has characteristic features of the style of scientific prose or official documents and that of emotive prose. On account of coherent and logical syntactic structure, an expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing the publicist style is close to scientific prose.

On the other hand, the use of words with emotive meaning, the use of imagery and other stylistic devices make this style close to emotive prose. Publicist texts carry pragmatic function. That means that the main aim of these texts is to convince the reader that the interpretation given by the writer is the only correct one. The author reached his aim not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well. As a rule, publicist texts are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public roblems and this text is not an exception. The text is written in the first person singular. It is taken from autobiography. It strengthens the effect produced on the reader. This type of narration makes the text more personal and convincing. The author uses logical reasoning. He puts the events in their chronological sequence that makes the text easy to comprehend. D. Healey uses a fair amount of connectives to underline the cohesiveness of the text (moreover, after the war, at the beginning, yet in fact, by comparison with, on the contrary, however, above all).

The author uses a lot of terms and professionalisms referring to the field of politics (Soviet Communism, the Communist Party, Stalinism, socialist state, Soviet culture, propaganda, the Foreign Office, the liberal programme, Labour Party delegation, anti-Semitism). The author uses one quotation describing Krushchev (He was one of the half-dozen greatest political leaders of this country…). By the introduction of this quotation the author makes himself distant from the utterance. Thus, the utterance becomes more objective, precise and convincing. As far as syntax is concerned, the sentences are compound and not elliptical.

Most of them are polisyndetic or with extended attributive phrases (The colleges which taught foreign languages and international affairs were giving a rounded education to able young men and women, who are now in key positions in their country, where their knowledge of the outside world is invaluable). All the devices, which are mentioned above, display the partial belonging of the text to the scientific prose. On the other hand, the author uses epithets, words with emotive meaning (erratic illusions, shrewd and courteous Bulgarin, drastic revision, rippling sinuosity, hair-raising obscenity).

Such words make the narration more vivid and dynamic. They are full of subjective coloring and reflect personal opinion of the author. Moreover, D. Healey uses metaphors (a flood of books; to carry the seeds of its own destruction; to carry a chip on one’s shoulder). They also add emotional coloring to the text. The author describes two main Russian cities: St. Petersburg and Moscow. He gives a superb comparison (by comparison with the 18th century canals of Leningrad, which might have been part of Amsterdam or Bremen, the Kremlin brought us to the heart of old Russia). D.

Healey meticulously described the cultural life in Russia. He adds the description about the Hermitage, summer palace of Peter the Great, The Moscow Arts Theatre and the Bolshoi in order to underline the signs of the cultural thaw in Russia. Epithets, metaphors and comparisons serve the purpose of emotional intensification of the utterance. The text is made up not as a dry matter-of-fact, but also expresses the author’s opinion. F. ex. It was now clear that the picture which the West had painted of the Soviet Union in the early post-war years needed drastic revision. The author underlines the thought how much the West is misled.

The author comes to a conclusion that the Russian, like us, were human beings, although they were not human beings like us. It can be interpreted in a way that no matter how long you study Russians, it is too difficult to comprehend them completely. Analysis “The passionate year” by James Hilton This text was written by an English writer James Hilton. He was born in 1900. His literary success he had found at an early age. His first novel, Catherine Herself, was published in 1920, when he was 20. Several of his books were international bestsellers and some of them were successfully filmed.

In the mid-1930s Hilton lived and worked in Hollywood and in 1942 won an Academy Award Oscar for his work on the screenplay. Some of his works took an issue of the English society of his time — particularly narrow-mindedness and class-consciousness. They were frequently his targets. “The passionate year” was written in 1924. This abstract is about a teacher who put his pupils off by giving a hundred lines for their disorderliness. During the lesson a boy was dropping his desk-lid. After consulting the map of desks and finding the boy’s name, the teacher gave him punishment but the teacher was misled.

The boy, he named, sat in front of him. The teacher promptly punished the both. Surprisingly such measures prevented him from being ragged in the future. The author tries to convey the following message. The relationships between teachers and pupils, adults and children are highly difficult and need being taken into consideration. Frequently, there is a certain hierarchy between the teacher and pupils. There is a lack of cooperation and partnership in relations. On the contrary, teachers stand above pupils even in the direct meaning. In this text the teacher took his seat on a raised dais.

Moreover, there are school traditions which are highly difficult to eradicate. In that school it was a tradition to rag new teachers in the first night. And it reminds on some kind of game. Or the teacher will seize the power and keep control of everything, or it will do his pupils. This text can be conventionally divided into three parts. The first part describes the general atmosphere before the lesson. It may seem that everything was all right, but actually there was a feeling of forthcoming storm. The author uses a fair amount of epithets in this passage (quietly, subdued) to convey the general atmosphere in the class.

In other words, the author uses many stylistically coloured words (the school straggling to their places; an atmosphere of subdued expectancy; the boys stared about them; grinned at each other). The author uses simile to strengthen the effect of expectancy. It becomes obvious that something has to happen (Speed felt rather as if he was sitting on a powder-magazine, and there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break). There is also certain time designation (five to seven; five past seven; a quarter past seven). The author underlines the fact that the teacher counts every minute and is ready to react when it is required.

The lesson lasts too long. In the second part the author describes the occasion with the dropping desk-lid in details. The reader is in the know that the teacher gives a hundred lines to an innocent boy. When the boy pleads for the remission, the teacher punishes both. This passage contains contrast between pupils’ appearance and their behavior which is expressed by adjectives. (A bright, rather pleasant-faced boy deliberately raise a desk-lid and drop it with a bang. … A lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row and said impudently). It can mean that such an impudent conduct was prepared on purpose.

Pupils tried to anger their teacher to check his reaction. There is also metaphor (the most dangerous weapon in a new Master’s armory). It is used to underline that the teacher carefully pondered about what kind of method to use to achieve the best result, to comfort this situation. The text contains both formal and colloquial words (formal: disorderliness; indignation; witticism; fulsomely; ordeal; to plead for remission; colloquial: to be hard on sb; to make a fool of oneself; to rag; to put off). It can prove the fact that the teacher and pupils speak different anguages. That is the reason of their mutual misunderstanding. The author adds a piece of teacher’s memory. Speed remembers an occasion when he was at school. He tries to look at this situation from the pupils’ point of view. This fact makes the story more realistic and the teacher tries to anticipate the pupils’ behaviour. Moreover, the author uses direct speech so that the reader could hear the voices of the characters. The second part contains a climax. (The whole assembly roared with laughter). The class exulted as their teacher was fallen for the bait.

In the last part Clanwell congratulates the teacher on his successful passage of the ordeal. Clanwell told him that the pupils were preparing for a benefit performance but a teacher managed to put them off on time. It seems as if a teacher should develop a certain strategy for himself while dealing with his pupils. Firstly, a new teacher should conquer the respect and trust of his pupils in order to receive the greater benefit in the future. All in all, the emotional atmosphere changes during the text. In the beginning and in the middle it is tense, in the end it is rather ironical.

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