Stylistic Features of Oscar Wilde
Stylistic Features of Oscar Wilde & # 8217 ; s Wrightings
Plan NTRODUCTION Chapter 1 Oscar Wilde as a Brilliant Dramatist of His Time Chapter 2
Investigation Proper 1.Some notes on manner and stylistics 2.Lexical EMs and SDs 3.Syntactical Ems and SDs
General Conclusions Bibliography
Linguists pay considerable attending to the agencies of showing accent. The object of stylistic analysis is the linguistic communication in the procedure of its use.
The attack to the linguistic communication stuff and the topic of stylistics and the topic of stylistics is of our concern in this diploma paper.
As it is known stylistics dainties with particular agencies of the linguistic communication that help us to hold vivid and interesting address.
I will non travel into inside informations with respects to tonss of expressive agencies and stylistic devices in Oscar Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas as they are excessively many.
My concern is the analysis of those stylistic devices and expressive agencies which are capable of doing vocalizations emotionally coloured.I take merely those stylistic devices which are based on some important point in an vocalization whether it consists of one sentence or a twine of sentences.
Normally the consequence of stylistic devices exceeds the bounds of one sentence and the probe touches upon the characteristics of address.
My diploma paper trades with those stylistic devices which are more frequently used in the dramas, harmonizing to the tabular array of frequence of their use given by me at the terminal of the diploma paper.
The difference between stylistic devices and expressive agencies is non big, they are closely connected with each other. The division of things into expressive agencies and stylistic devices is purely conventional with the boundary lines between them being slightly rickety.
Stylistic expressive agencies have a sort of radiating consequence. They perceptibly colour the whole of the vocalization no affair whether they are logical or emotional. They reproduce the writer & # 8217 ; s ideas and feelings and do the reader to believe and experience what the writer wants him to believe and experience.
The initial undertaking of my diploma paper is to stipulate the topic of probe. It is the agencies of accent.
Harmonizing to Hornby, accent is a force or emphasis, laid on a word or words to do significance clear, or to demo its importance & # 8221 ; . *
Emphasis is achieved by lexical and syntactical expressive agencies.
In my diploma paper I will see merely some of expressive agencies largely used in Oscar Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas.
It is interesting to observe what Soshalskaya E.G. says about the analysis which indicates the necessity and importance of the probe proper in my diploma paper.
& # 8220 ; The intent of Stylistic Analysis, -she says, – is to assist the pupils to detect the interaction of signifier and affair to see how through the infinite assortment of stylistic devices and their maps the message of the writer is brought place to the reader. & # 8221 ; **
Well, it is interesting to cognize what is O.Wilde & # 8217 ; s aim utilizing these stylistic devices, in what manner he uses them, what he wants the reader to understand ; largely, what sort of stylistic devices he uses in his dramas and to seek and explicate what makes his manner unforgettable and recognizable as alone and original one.
1. Some notes on manner and stylistics.
The word & # 8220 ; manner & # 8221 ; is derived from the Latin word & # 8220 ; stylus & # 8221 ; which meant a short stick crisp at one terminal and level at the other used by the Romans for composing on wax tablets. Now the word & # 8220 ; manner & # 8221 ; has a really wide significance. We speak of manner in architecture, picture, apparels, behavior, literature, address, etc. The manner of any period is the consequence of a assortment of complex and switching force per unit areas and influences. The manner we think and speak modifies the manner we write, or the manner other write, influences our idea and address. There is the changeless interaction between life and literature. Books reflect the form of our experience, but our experience of life is besides shaped by the books we read. In every age the major authors help to determine the thought and feeling, and therefore the manner, of their coevalss.
Raymond Chapman, the writer of & # 8220 ; A Short Manner to Better English & # 8221 ; , says that & # 8220 ; A good manner of authorship has three qualities, which may be described as truth, easiness and grace. & # 8221 ; 7 There are ever three influences that will exercise their force per unit area on a author & # 8217 ; s manner. One is his ain personality, his ain manner of thought and feeling that determines his manner of look. The 2nd is the juncture on which he is composing, the peculiar intent that directs his pen at the minute of authorship, so that the same adult male may use different manners on different occasions. The 3rd is the influence of the age in which he lives. In other words, a author & # 8217 ; s manner is his single and originative pick of the resources of the linguistic communication. The restrictions upon the pick are superimposed by the author & # 8217 ; s period, his genre and his intent. Since manner is something ingrained in authorship, it follows that a adult male & # 8217 ; s manner of authorship will be an look of his personality and his manner of looking at life. This explains the celebrated and much-quoted definition of manner given by Buffon, a Gallic author and naturalist of the 18th century. He wrote: & # 8220 ; Le manner, c & # 8217 ; est cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; homme meme. & # 8221 ; ( & # 8220 ; Style, it is the adult male himself. & # 8221 ; ) 8
Stylistics, sometimes called linguo-stylistics, is a subdivision of general linguistics. It has now more or less decidedly outlined. It deals chiefly with two mutualist undertakings:
the probe of the stock list of particular linguistic communication media which by their ontological characteristics secure the desirable consequence of the vocalization ;
certain types of texts ( discourse ) which due to the pick and agreement of linguistic communication agencies are distinguished by the matter-of-fact facet of the communicating.
The two aims of stylistics are clearly discernable as two separate Fieldss of probe. The stock list of particular linguistic communication media can be analysed and their ontological characteristics revealed if presented in a system in which the co-relation between the media becomes apparent.
The types of texts can be analysed if their lingual constituents are presented in their interaction, therefore, uncovering the unbreakable integrity and transparence of buildings of a given type. The types of texts that are distinguished by the matter-of-fact facet of the communicating are called functional manners of linguistic communication ( FS ) . The particular media of linguistic communication which secure the desirable consequence of the vocalization are called stylistic devices ( SD ) and expressive agencies ( EM ) . *
The first field of probe, i.e. SDs and EMs, needfully touches upon such general linguistic communication jobs as the aesthetic map of linguistic communication, synonymous ways of rendering one and the same thought, emotional coloring in linguistic communication, the interrelatedness between linguistic communication and idea, the single mode of an writer in doing usage of linguistic communication and a figure of other issues.
The 2nd field, i.e. functional manners, can non avoid treatment of such most general lingual issues as unwritten and written assortments of linguistic communication, the impression of literary linguistic communication, the components of texts larger than the sentence, the productive facet of literary texts and some others.
In covering with the aims of stylistics, certain dictums of next subjects such as theory of information, literature, logic and to some extent statistics must be touched upon. This is indispensable ; for nowadays no scientific discipline is wholly isolated from other spheres of human cognition. The linguistics, peculiarly its subdivision stylistics, can non avoid mentions to the above mentioned subjects because it is confronted with certain overlapping issues.
In linguistics there are different footings to denote peculiar agencies by which vocalizations are foregrounded, i.e. made more conspicuous, more effectual and hence leaving some extra information. They are called expressive agencies, stylistic devices, figure of speechs, figures of address and other names. All these footings are used randomly and are set against those agencies which we shall conventionally name impersonal. Most linguists distinguish ordinary semantic and stylistic differences in intending. They distinguish three chief degrees of expressive agencies and stylistic devices: phonic, lexical and syntactical.
Phonetic expressive agencies and stylistic devices. As it is clear from the rubric, the stylistic usage of phonemes and their graphical representation is viewed here. The stylistic attack to the vocalization is non confined to its construction and sense. There is another thing to be taken into history which plays an of import function. This is the manner a word, a phrase or a sentence sounds. The sound of most words taken individually will hold small or no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word may get a coveted phonic consequence. The manner a separate word sounds may bring forth a certain euphonic feeling, but this is a affair of single perceptual experience and feeling and hence subjective.
Lexical expressive agencies and stylistic devices. The chief map of the word is to denote. Therefore, the denotational significance is the major semantic feature of the word. The words in context may get extra lexical significances non fixed in lexicons. What is known in linguistics as & # 8220 ; transferred significance & # 8221 ; is peculiarly the interrelatedness between two types of lexical significance: dictionary and contextual. When the divergence from the acknowledged significance is carried to a grade that it causes an unexpected bend in the recognized logical significances, we register a stylistic device.
Syntactic expressive agencies and stylistic devices. Stylistic survey of the sentence structure begins with the survey of the length and the construction of the sentence. Stylistic syntactical forms may be viewed as discrepancies of the general syntactical theoretical accounts of the linguistic communication and are the more obvious and conspicuous if presented non as stray elements or inadvertent use, but as group easy discernible and imparting themselves to generalization.
This brief lineation of the most characteristic characteristics of the linguistic communication manners and their discrepancies will demo that out of the figure of characteristics which are easy discernable in each of the manners, some should be considered primary and others secondary ; some obligatory, others optional ; some changeless, others transitory.
I think that the most of import and interesting is lexical degree.
It includes more bright and graphic units of the linguistic communication.
2. Lexical expressive agencies and stylistic devices.
Each art has its ain medium, i.e. its ain stuff substance. Colorss are the material substance of picture, sounds-the stuff substance of music. It is the linguistic communication that is the material substance of literature. But linguistic communication consists of colorss and sounds due to the being of expressive agencies and stylistic devices.
Language is capable of conveying practically any sort of information. It has names for all things, phenomena and dealingss of nonsubjective world. It is so close to life that an semblance of their about complete individuality is created, for adult male lives, plants and thinks in the medium of linguistic communication. His behavior finds an of import agencies of look chiefly in linguistic communication. In the present chapter we shall seek to analyze some lexical expressive agencies and stylistic devices used by Oscar Wilde in his dramas.
EPIGRAM and PARADOX.
The bulk critics of the 19th century agree that Wilde is the most self-contradictory author of his clip.
Harmonizing to professor Sosnovskaya V.B. , paradox based on contrast, being a statement contradictory to what is accepted as a axiomatic or proverbial truth.9
The entreaty of paradox prevarications in the fact that, nevertheless contradictory it may look to be to the recognized axiom, it contains however, a certain grain of truth, which makes it an first-class vehicle of sarcasm. Indeed, it is a device much favoured by many English and American ironists. Paradox can be considered a figure of address with certain reserves, since the aesthetic rule, that underlies it, i.e. contrast has frogmans lingual manifestations.
Harmonizing to professor Galperin I.R. , quip is a stylistic device akin to a adage, the lone difference being that quips are coined by persons whose names we know, while Proverbss are the mintage of the people. In other words, we are ever cognizant of the parenthood of an quip and hence, when utilizing one, we normally make a mention to its author.10
Epigrams and paradoxes as stylistic devices are used for making generalized images. Usually it is the Present Indefinite Tense. This signifier of the verb makes paradoxes and quips abstract.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Men marry because they are tired,
adult females because they are funny.
Both are disappointed. & # 8221 ; ( p.138 ) .11
& # 8220 ; Nothing spoils a love affair so much as
a sense of temper in the adult female & # 8221 ; . ( p.108 ) .
& # 8220 ; Ideals are unsafe things,
worlds are better. They wound,
but they are better. & # 8221 ; ( p.85 ) .
& # 8220 ; Womans are images,
Work forces are problems. & # 8221 ; ( p.138 ) .
In Wilde & # 8217 ; s paradoxes and epigrams the verb & # 8220 ; to be & # 8221 ; is widely used. This verb intensifies the familial map and makes apothegms and paradoxes humourous. It makes besides the ironical definition of phenomena of life.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Curious thing, plain adult females are ever covetous
of their hubbies,
beautiful adult females ne’er are. & # 8221 ; ( p.108 ) .
& # 8220 ; The work forces are all Dowdings and the adult females
are all dandies. & # 8221 ; ( p.186 ) .
& # 8220 ; A adult male who moralises is normally a dissembler,
and a adult female who moralises is constantly
plain. & # 8221 ; ( p.69 ) .
Another means which helps to make the generalization is the pick of words. Wilde frequently resorts to the usage of some abstract impressions, concrete impressions are rare.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Ignorance is like a delicate alien fruit ;
touch it and the bloom is gone. & # 8221 ; ( p.296 ) .
& # 8220 ; Duty is what one expects from others,
it is non what one does himself. & # 8221 ; ( p.131 ) .
& # 8220 ; Life is awful. It regulations us,
we do non govern it. & # 8221 ; ( p.75 ) .
& # 8220 ; Experience is a inquiry of inherent aptitude
about life. & # 8221 ; ( p.72 ) .
All sorts of plants & # 8211 ; intensives, such as & # 8220 ; Never, ever, frequently & # 8221 ; are used by Oscar Wilde for making the abstractness and generalization.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Questions are ne’er indiscreet.
Answers sometimes are. & # 8221 ; ( p. 180 )
& # 8220 ; Beautiful adult females ne’er have clip. They are
ever so occupied in being covetous of other
people & # 8217 ; s husbands. & # 8221 ; ( p.108 )
& # 8220 ; All work forces are married adult females & # 8217 ; s belongings & # 8221 ; ( p.114 )
& # 8220 ; The clever people ne’er listen and the stupid
people ne’er talk. & # 8221 ; ( p.109 )
For making the abstractness Wilde besides uses such words as & # 8220 ; work forces, adult females, people, we, one & # 8221 ; , etc.
e.g. & # 8220 ; One should ne’er swear a adult female who tells one
her existent age & # 8221 ; ( p.110 ) .
& # 8220 ; We work forces know life excessively early. And we adult females
know life excessively tardily. That is the difference between
work forces and adult females & # 8221 ; ( p.165 ) .
& # 8220 ; Peoples are either runing for hubbies, or concealing
from them & # 8221 ; ( p.181 ) .
One of the most characteristic and indispensable characteristics of quips and paradoxes is their shortness and concision. They are achieved by the syntactical form of an quip or paradox. The sentence structure of these stylistic devices is crisp and clear & # 8211 ; cut.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Men go old, but they ne’er become good & # 8221 ;
( p.33 ) .
& # 8220 ; Do non utilize command words. They mean so small & # 8221 ;
( p.252 ) .
In these illustrations we can see the parallel buildings widely used by Oscar Wilde. They serve a perfect agencies of making the distinct sentence structure of quips and paradoxes.
Another distinctive feature of Wilde & # 8217 ; s quips and paradoxes is his usage of such building as & # 8220 ; that is the difference & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ;
e.g. & # 8220 ; Cecil Graham: Oh, wicked adult females bother one. Good
adult females bore one. That is the difference between them & # 8221 ;
( p.68 )
& # 8220 ; Lord Illingworth: we work forces know life excessively early.
Mrs. Arbuthnot: And we adult females know life excessively tardily. That
is the difference between work forces and adult females & # 8221 ; ( p.165 ) .
This phrase & # 8220 ; That is the difference & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; seems to sum up the whole quip or paradox. With the aid of this phrase Oscar Wilde tries to demo how great the difference is between the two objects or phenomena compared. Some of Wilde & # 8217 ; s paradoxes and quips are formed with the aid of contextual opposite word and contrasting braces:
e.g. & # 8220 ; The organic structure is born immature and grows old. That is life & # 8217 ; s
calamity. The psyche is born old but grows immature. That is
the comedy of life & # 8221 ; ( p.111 ) .
& # 8220 ; Men go old, but they ne’er become good & # 8221 ; ( p.33 ) .
One of the most of import maps of quips and paradoxes is that of address word picture. But Wilde & # 8217 ; s quips and paradoxes have another of import map besides. It is the screening of bourgeois morality. With the aid of his quips and paradoxes the writer shows us his characters, their manner of life, manners, their ideas and the bourgeois society of his clip.
In these four Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas there is a group of people such as Lady Bracknell, Mrs.Cheveley, Lord Illingworth and others, whose behaviors and manner of life give us a clear image of the upper-class society. These really people with their paradoxes and quips open their ideas and feelings.
e.g. & # 8220 ; A adult male who allows himself to be convinced by an statement is a
exhaustively unreasonable individual & # 8221 ; ( p.185 ) .
& # 8220 ; The universe was made for work forces and non for adult females & # 8221 ; ( p.100 ) .
We can see the corruptibility of the opinion categories, their mean, shoal spirited involvements, and their machinations against each other. At first sight they seem to be existent gentlemen and ladies. But in fact they are spoilt people who try to accomplish their purposes, nevertheless bad and selfish they sometimes may be, at all costs.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Sir Robert Chiltern: Every adult male of aspiration has to contend his
century with its ain arms. What this century worships is
wealth. The God of this century is wealth. & # 8221 ; ( 206 ) .
It is apparent what arms Sir R.Chiltern means. It is money and the manner it is earned by is unimportant. The manner of gaining money may be different: graft, blackmail, counterfeit and other immoral actions. Once Sir Chiltern achieved his purposes at the cost of his honour-he sold the secrete information. He had non any sorrow for what he had done. He said that he had fought the century with his ain arm and won. And when his misdemeanor was revealed, he tried to salvage himself.
Another & # 8220 ; immoralist & # 8221 ; of the English society is Mrs.Cheveley.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Nowadays, with our modern passion for morality, every one has
to present as a idol of pureness, incorruptibility, and all the other
seven lifelessly virtuousnesss & # 8221 ; ( p.192 ) .
& # 8220 ; Peoples are either runing for hubbies or concealing from
them & # 8221 ; ( p.181 ) .
She besides had achieved her purposes by the immoral actions: graft and blackmail.
Most of Wilde & # 8217 ; s characters are true representatives of their society. They are Lord Darlington, Lady Bracknell and particularly Lord Illingworth, a individual with misanthropic attitude towards everything in the universe, who does non value the sincere human dealingss, to whom love, friendly relationship, faithfulness mean nil. This can be clearly seen from some of his comments.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Women love us for our defects & # 8221 ; ( p.142 ) .
& # 8220 ; The lone difference between the saint and the evildoer is that
every saint has a past, and every evildoer has a hereafter & # 8221 ; ( p.140 ) .
The most favoured topic for Wilde & # 8217 ; s misanthropic remarks is a adult female and her place in the society of that clip.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Nothing spoils a love affair so much as a sense of temper in the
adult female & # 8221 ; ( p.108 ) .
& # 8220 ; Womans are images. Work forces are jobs.
If you want to cognize a adult female truly means, which is perfectly a
unsafe thing to do-look at her, do non listen to her & # 8221 ; ( p.138 ) .
& # 8220 ; You adult females live by your emotions and for them & # 8221 ; ( p.137 ) .
Therefore, we can see that quips and paradoxes play one of the most of import functions in Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas. With the aid of these stylistic devices Wilde reflects his ain point of views on the society of his clip, his sentiments about life, love and friendly relationship, work forces and adult females. His opinions are the crisp and seize with teething comments. They are used in the plainest and the most direct sense. Wilde does non hide his interior feelings and ideas about the decomposition of rational universe and English society. These quips and paradoxes are short and crisp, and are non really complex that makes them easy for retrieving. So, paradoxes and quips create the individualism of Oscar Wilde. Wilde is celebrated for his superb quips and the wittiest paradoxes.
IRONY and PUN
In sarcasm, which is the really interesting point for consideration, subjectiveness lies in the rating of the phenomenon named. The kernel of this stylistic device consists in the highlighting non of the logical but of the appraising significance. The context is arranged so that the measure uping word in sarcasm reverses the way of the rating, and the word positively charged is understood as a negative making and frailty versa.
Harmonizing to professor Galperin I.R. , sarcasm is a stylistic device based on the coincident realization of two logical meanings- lexicon and contextual, but the two significances stand in resistance to each other.12
Harmonizing to Professor Kukharenko V.A. , sarcasm is a stylistic device in which the contextual appraising significance of a word is straight opposite to its dictionary meaning.13 So, like many other stylistic devices, sarcasm does non be outside the context. Irony must non be confused with temper, although they have really much in common. Humour ever causes laughter. What is amusing must come as a sudden clang of the positive and the negative. In this regard sarcasm can be likened to humor. But the map of sarcasm is non confined to bring forthing a humourous consequence. In a sentence like that: & # 8220 ; How clever you are, Mr.Hopper & # 8221 ; ( p.43 ) , where due to the modulation form, the word & # 8220 ; clever & # 8221 ; conveys a sense antonym to its actual meaning. The sarcasm does non do a farcical consequence. It instead expresses a feeling of annoyance and displeasure. Here are some illustrations of sarcasm:
e.g. & # 8220 ; Oh, I love London Society! I think it has vastly
improved. It is wholly composed now of beautiful
imbeciles and superb madmans. Just what Society
should be. & # 8221 ; ( p.175 )
& # 8220 ; And in England a adult male who can & # 8217 ; t speak morality
twice a hebdomad to a big, popular, immoral
audience is rather over as a serious politician. & # 8221 ;
( p.210 )
& # 8220 ; All adult females become like their female parents. That is
their calamity. No adult male does. That is his. & # 8221 ; ( p.300 )
These illustrations show that sarcasm is a manner of address in which the antonym of what is said is meant. The talker of the first illustration, Mabel Chiltern does non truly think that it is good for London Society to dwell of & # 8220 ; beautiful imbeciles and superb madmans & # 8221 ; . Wilde & # 8217 ; s method of ironical use is largely direct: he speaks of the decomposition of people, their ideals and values. The consequence of sarcasm prevarications in the dramatic disparity between what is said and what is meant. This is achieved through the knowing interplay of two significances, which are in resistance to each other.
e.g. & # 8220 ; No adult female should hold a memory. Memory in a
adult female is a beginning of drabness & # 8221 ; . ( p.144 )
& # 8220 ; My male parent told me to travel to bed an hr ago. I
Don & # 8217 ; t see why I shouldn & # 8217 ; t give you the same
advice. I ever pass on good advice. It is the
merely thing to make with it. It is ne’er of any usage to
oneself. & # 8221 ; ( p.197 )
& # 8220 ; I knew we should come to an amicable
agreement. & # 8221 ; ( p.194 )
The context is one most of import things when we use irony. The word & # 8220 ; advice & # 8221 ; is suggested for credence if it is good and for rejection if it is non good, but non for go throughing on it. In fact, Lord Goring, the talker of this phrase, is a serious individual, who knows that a good advice may be really utile. As for the last illustration, here the word & # 8220 ; amicable & # 8221 ; is contrary to the word & # 8220 ; blackmail & # 8221 ; with the aid of which this understanding was achieved by Mrs. Chevely. Mrs. Chevely is an & # 8220 ; immoralist & # 8221 ; of English Society.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Peoples are either runing for hubbies or concealing
from them & # 8221 ; ( p.181 )
& # 8220 ; Oh, I like boring, practical topics. What I don & # 8217 ; T
like are boring, practical people. & # 8221 ; ( p.189 )
The comments of this & # 8220 ; Lady & # 8221 ; characterize her brightly. We can clearly see a intriguing adult female, an adventurer, who stops at nil in deriving her foul purposes. She does non demo her existent face, she ever disguises it. But her misanthropic comments betray her. Another illustration of sarcasm used by O.Wilde:
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lord Goring: I adore political parties. They are
the lone topographic point left to us where people do non speak
political relations & # 8221 ; . ( p.184 )
The members of political parties must speak political relations, it is their responsibility. They must be really serious and honorable people and they must work for people & # 8217 ; s good being, but alternatively of it they do non make anything for people. During their political parties they pronounce some absurd, misanthropic words and discuss rumors and chitchats.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Oh, we all want friends at times & # 8221 ; ( p.25 )
Lord Darlington, stating this phrase, hides his love for Lady Windermere behind the word & # 8220 ; friend & # 8221 ; , but she does non accept his version of & # 8220 ; friendly relationship & # 8221 ; in such sort and does non desire to be with him. Oscar Wilde considers the word & # 8220 ; friend & # 8221 ; to hold different significance: people ever need friends, non merely for impermanent period of clip. The significance of this word conveys a changeless quality.
The particular, misanthropic quality of Wilde & # 8217 ; s sarcasm is manifested in his mode of composing. This device allows Wilde to uncover incongruousness of the universe around him and to demo the ferociousness of the upper – category society.
Pun is the following stylistic device used by Oscar Wilde in his dramas.
Harmonizing to Professor Sosnovskaya V.B. , wordplay ( pun, a drama on words ) is a figure of address emerging as an consequence created by words similar or indistinguishable in their sound signifier and contrastive or incompatible in meaning.13
Harmonizing to Prof. Galperin I.R. , the wordplay is a stylistic device based on the interaction of two well-known significances of a word or phrase. It is hard to pull a difficult and fast differentiation between zeugma and the wordplay. The dependable distinguishing characteristic is a structural one: zeugma is the realization of two significances with the aid of the verb which is made to mention to different topics or objects. The wordplay is more independent. There need non needfully be a word in the sentence to which the pun-word refers. This does non intend. However, that the wordplay is wholly free. Like any other stylistic device, it must depend on a context. But the context may be of a more expanded character, sometimes even every bit big as a whole work of affectional prose.14
Therefore, the rubric of one of Oscar Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas, & # 8220 ; The Importance of Being Earnest & # 8221 ; , has a wordplay in it. But in order to understand this wordplay we must read the whole drama, because the name of the hero and the adjectival significance & # 8220 ; seriously-minded & # 8221 ; are both bing in our head.
Pun is based on the consequence of deceived outlook, because capriciousness in it is expressed either in the visual aspect of the elements of the text unusual for the reader or in the unexpected reaction of the addressee of the duologue.
However playful is the consequence of wordplay, nevertheless intricate and sudden is the meeting of senses in one sound composite, in a genuinely gifted work this unit of poetic address portions every bit with others in the look of the writer & # 8217 ; s message. It is a vehicle of the writer & # 8217 ; s thought non a mere ornament. Pun is one of the most favoured devices of Oscar Wilde. In his comedies there are about 20 illustrations of wordplay. In this Chapter we will seek to analyze some of them. For Wilde wordplay is one of the most effectual agencies used for making humor, luster and colourfulness of his duologues for unfavorable judgment of businessperson morality. At the same clip the wordplaies serve for demoing the writer & # 8217 ; s thoughts and ideas.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lord Goring: My beloved further, merely people who
expression dull of all time acquire into the House of Commons,
and merely people who are dull of all time win
there & # 8221 ; . ( p.257 )
& # 8220 ; Lord Darlington: Ah, nowadays we are all of us
so difficult up, that the lone pleasant things to pay
are regards. They are the lone things we
can pay. & # 8221 ; ( p.24 )
These illustrations show that the drama on words has a great influence on the reader. The address of the hero becomes more graphic and interesting. The sound signifier of the word played upon may be either a polysemous word:
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lady Caroline: I believe this is the first English
country-house you have stayed at, Mrs.Worsley?
Have you any state? What we should name
state? Hester: We have the largest state in
the world. & # 8221 ; ( p.95 ) ;
or partial ( complete ) homonyms, as in the undermentioned illustration:
e.g. & # 8220 ; Algernon: You look as if your name was Ernest.
You are the most earnest-looking individual I of all time
proverb in my life & # 8221 ; . ( p.286 )
In this illustration there are two significances of the word played upon in the wordplay: the first & # 8211 ; the name of the hero and the 2nd & # 8211 ; the adjectival significance seriously-minded.
In instance of homonym the two significances of one word are rather independent and both direct. These two significances of the wordplay are realised at the same time and in the comment of one and the same individual. Such illustrations are relatively rare in Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas. Most of Wilde & # 8217 ; s wordplaies are based on lexical ambiguity. Such wordplaies are realised in sequence, that is at first the word appears before a reader in one significance and so – & # 8211 ; in the other. This realization is more graphic in duologues, because in such instances the wordplay acquires more humourous consequence as a consequence of misconstruing. In many instances the addressee of the duologue is the chief beginning of intervention. His manner of thought and distinctive features of perceptual experience can explicate this. Rarely the talker himself is the beginning of intervention ( for illustration, if he has a address defect ) . Almost all Oscar Wilde & # 8217 ; s wordplaies based on polycemy are realised in duologues, in fact the comment of the addressee.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lady H. : she lets her cagey lingua run off with her.
Lady C. : is that the lone Mrs. Allonby allows to run
off with her? & # 8221 ; ( p.99 )
In this illustration the wordplay is realised in the comment of the 2nd individual. The first significance of the look & # 8220 ; to run away with & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; is & # 8220 ; non to be cognizant of what you are talking & # 8221 ; , and the 2nd significance is & # 8220 ; to do off taking something with you & # 8221 ; . The first significance is nonliteral and the 2nd is direct. In some instances the wordplay is realised in the comment of one and the same individual, as in the undermentioned illustrations:
e.g. & # 8220 ; Mrs. Allonby: the one advantage of playing with fire is
that one ne’er gets even singed.
It is the people who do non cognize how to play with it
who get burned up & # 8221 ; . ( p.100 )
Here the first significance of the look & # 8220 ; to play with fire & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; to swinge & # 8221 ; is direct, and the 2nd & # 8220 ; to botch one & # 8217 ; s repute & # 8221 ; is nonliteral.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Jack: every bit far as I can do out, the poachers are the
merely people who make anything out of it. & # 8221 ; ( p.297 )
The first significance of the look: & # 8220 ; to do out & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; to understand & # 8221 ; is nonliteral, and the 2nd & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; to do benefit from something & # 8221 ; is direct.
But there are such illustrations, when wordplay is realised in the comment of the 3rd individual and in this instance it is he ( she ) who is the chief beginning of intervention:
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lady C. : Victoria Stratton? I remember her absolutely. Angstrom
silly, blue-eyed adult female with no mentum.
Mrs. Allonby: Ah, Ernest has a mentum. He has a really
strong mentum, a square mentum. Ernest & # 8217 ; s mentum is far excessively square.
Lady S. : But do you truly think a adult male & # 8217 ; s chin can be
excessively square? I think a adult male should look really strong and
that his should be rather square. & # 8221 ; ( p.115 )
As a regulation, when two significances of the word are played upon, one of them is direct, the other is nonliteral, which can be illustrated by some of the above mentioned illustrations. So, we can see, that sarcasm and wordplay besides play the really of import function in Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas. The consequence of these stylistic devices is based on the writer & # 8217 ; s attitude to the English businessperson society. Thus sarcasm and wordplay aid Wilde to demo that bulk of his heroes are the typical representatives of the bourgeois society: thoughtless, frivolous, greedy, covetous, materialistic people. They call themselves & # 8220 ; Ladies and gentlemen & # 8221 ; , but with the aid of these stylistic devices Wilde shows that intelligence is their mask. Credit must be given to Wilde for being superb in his humor. A drama upon contrasts and contradictions lies at the footing of writer & # 8217 ; s sarcastic method in portraying his characters. The dynamic quality of Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas is increased by the frequent ironical sentences and wordplaies. These stylistic devices convey the graphic sense of world in the image of the 19-th century English upper-class society.
Wilde & # 8217 ; s pragmatism with its fantastic quips and paradoxes, superb sarcasm and diverting wordplaies initiates the beginning of a new epoch in the development of the English drama.
Epithet is another stylistic device used by Oscar Wilde.
Harmonizing to Prof. Galperin I.R. , Epithet is a stylistic device based on the interplay of affectional and logical significance in an prenominal word, phrase or even sentence, used to characterize an object and indicating out to the reader and often enforcing on him.15
Harmonizing to Prof. Sosnovskaya V.B. , Epithet is an prenominal word picture of a individual, thing or phenomenon. It is, as a regulation, simple in signifier. In the bulk of instances it consists of one word: adjectival or adverb, modifying severally nouns or verbs.16
e.g. & # 8220 ; I tell you that had it of all time occurred to me, that such a
monstrous intuition would hold entered your head, I
would hold died instead than hold crossed your life. & # 8221 ;
( p.64 )
Name on the whole shows strictly single emotional attitude of the talker towards the object spoken of, it describes the object as it appears to the talker. Epithet expresses a feature of an object, both bing and fanciful. Its basic characteristics are its emotiveness and subjectiveness: the characteristic attached to the object to measure up it is ever chosen by the talker himself.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Mabel Chiltern is a perfect illustration of the English type
of cuteness, the apple-blossom type & # 8221 ; . ( p.175 )
& # 8220 ; It means a really superb hereafter in shop for you & # 8221 ; . ( p.97 )
& # 8220 ; What an dismaying doctrine that sounds! & # 8221 ; ( p.179 )
& # 8220 ; But I tell you that the lone bitter words that of all time came
from those sweet lips of hers were on your history,
and I hate to see you next her & # 8221 ; . ( p.80 )
Harmonizing to these illustrations, we can state that Epithet is a word or word combination which in its prenominal usage discloses the single emotionally colored attitude of the author to the object he describes. It is a signifier of subjective rating. It is a description brief and compact which singles out the things described.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lips that have lost the note of joy, eyes that are
blinded by cryings, iciness manus
s and icy heart” . ( p. 60 )
& # 8220 ; If we have enough of them, they will forgive us
everything, even our mammoth minds & # 8221 ; . ( p. 142 )
& # 8220 ; And now state me, what makes you leave you brilliant
Vienna for our glooming London & # 8221 ; . ( p.180 )
Epithet has remained over the centuries the most widely used stylistic device, which is understandable- it offers the ample chances of measure uping every object from the writer & # 8217 ; s partial and subjective point of view, which is indispensable in originative prose, Here we can see consummate touches in rich and graphic names. Wilde & # 8217 ; s linguistic communication is apparent and apprehensible, it is fantastic and interesting. Wilde resorts to the usage of colorful names, which sometimes help him to demo the difference between pretension and world. As we know Wilde was the leader of the & # 8220 ; aesthetic motion & # 8221 ; . He was superb in literature and tried to be brilliant in life. He used copiousness of names in his address. In fact, everybody uses names in his address ; without them our address is dry, terribly field and non interesting.
Wilde & # 8217 ; s names give a superb coloring material and fantastic humor to his dramas. With the aid of names Wilde & # 8217 ; s heroes are more interesting, their address is more affectional ; they involve the reader in their world, in their life.
e.g. & # 8221 ; I am non in a temper to-night for Ag dusks, or rose-pink dawns. & # 8221 ; ( p.190 )
& # 8220 ; Those straw-colored adult females have awful tempers. & # 8221 ;
( p.48 )
& # 8220 ; Cecily, of all time since I foremost looked upon your wonderful and
uncomparable beauty, I have dared to love you wildly,
passionately, devotedly, hopelessly. & # 8221 ; ( p.319 )
As we can see, names make the address more colorful,
vivid and interesting. Wilde uses a great sum of names
in his dramas. His names are based on different beginnings, such
as nature, art, history, literature, mythology, mundane life, adult male,
And all of them are fantastic. They reflect Wilde & # 8217 ; s sentiments
and point of views about different things. They give accent and
beat to the text. That is why Wilde may be besides called a
maestro of colorful and graphic names.
One of the most often used, well-known and elaborated among the stylistic devices is metaphor. The metaphoric usage of the word begins to impact the dictionary significance, adding to it fresh intensions of significance or sunglassess of significance.
Harmonizing to Prof. Sosnovskaya V.B. , metaphor, a most widely used trop, is based upon analogy, upon a traceable similarity. But in the metaphor, contrary to the simile, there is no formal component to bespeak comparing. The difference, though, is non simply structural. The absence of a formal indicant of comparing in the metaphor makes the analogy it is based on more elusive to perceive.17
Harmonizing to Prof. Kukharenko V.A. , metaphor is based on the transference of names. This transference is based on the associated similitude between two objects.18
Harmonizing to Prof. Galperin I.R. , metaphor means transference of some quality from one object to another. A metaphor becomes a stylistic device when two different phenomena ( things, events, thoughts, actions ) are at the same time brought to mind by the infliction of some or all of the built-in belongingss of one object on the other which by nature is deprived of these properties.19
Such an infliction by and large consequences when the Godhead of the metaphor finds in the two corresponding objects certain characteristics, which to his oculus have something in common.
I wholly agree with these definitions. I besides think that metaphors reveal the attitude of the author to the object, action or construct and show his positions. They may besides reflect the literary school which he belongs and the era in which he lives.
As an illustration of Wilde & # 8217 ; s skill in utilizing every nicety of the linguistic communication to function some particular stylistic intent, we must advert his usage of metaphors.
e.g. & # 8220 ; We live in an age of ideals. & # 8221 ; ( p.293 )
& # 8220 ; She has all the aroma and freedom of a
flower. & # 8221 ; ( p.175 )
& # 8220 ; The God of this century is wealth. & # 8221 ; ( p.206 )
& # 8220 ; But to endure for one & # 8217 ; s ain mistakes, -ah! -there is the
sting of life. & # 8221 ; ( p.36 ) .
Oscar Wilde was a adult male of art ; and even these fantastic metaphors prove it. As we can see, his metaphors give a certain appeal and musical perceptual experience through the field linguistic communication combinations.
A metaphor can be merely within a context. A separate word isolated from the context has its general significance. Metaphor plays an of import function in the development of linguistic communication. Words get new significances by transference.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Lord Illingworth: That cockamamie Puritan miss doing a scene simply
because I wanted to snog her. What injury is at that place in a buss?
Mrs.Arbuthnot: A buss may destroy a human life. I know that excessively
well. & # 8221 ; ( p.163 ) .
The metaphorical consequence of this sentence is based on the personal feelings of Mrs.Arbuthnot. Her sad experience of life sounds in this phrase. When she was immature, she had a great love. But her passion had left her and & # 8220 ; her life was ruined. & # 8221 ; That is why this metaphor has a true effectual power when it is pronounced by Mrs.Arbuthnot.
e.g. & # 8220 ; I am a ship without a rudder in a dark without a star. & # 8221 ; ( p.242 )
The talker of this phrase Sir Robert Chiltern gets lost, he does non cognize what to make in such state of affairs. He says that he is a & # 8220 ; ship without a rudder & # 8221 ; , i.e. he does non cognize where he must travel and what to make for better hereafter.
Oscar Wilde is ever concerned with society. His all right metaphors play an of import function in portraying his heroes, their feelings and ideas.
e.g. & # 8220 ; I had a wild hope that I might demilitarize destiny. & # 8221 ; ( p.209 )
& # 8220 ; I keep scientific discipline for life. & # 8221 ; ( p.281 )
& # 8220 ; Ideals are unsafe things. Worlds are better. They wound, but they are better. & # 8221 ; ( p.85 )
& # 8220 ; The fire can non sublimate her. The Waterss can non slake her anguish. & # 8221 ; ( p.150 )
& # 8220 ; Gwendolen is devoted to bread and butter. & # 8221 ; ( p.283 )
Therefore, we can see the limitless power of the creative person in demoing his imaginativeness. The emotional coloring is made by an ample usage of bright metaphors. Metaphor takes one of the most honorable topographic points in Wilde & # 8217 ; s art. The chief intent of the writer is to impact the reader emotionally through the images. The appeal of O.Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas is due to the mixture of poetic metaphors and existent images. The writer does non convert the reader to do the ensuing points, but he makes him indirectly judge the heroes and unclutter the state of affairs.
Metaphors, like all stylistic devices, can be classified harmonizing to their grade of surprisingness. Therefore, metaphors which are perfectly unexpected, that is are rather unpredictable, are called echt metaphors. Here we can see some of them:
e.g. & # 8220 ; She is a work of art & # 8221 ; . ( p.175 )
& # 8220 ; She has all the aroma and freedom of a
flower. There is ripple after rippling of sunshine in
her hair. She has the absorbing dictatorship of
young person, and the amazing bravery of
artlessness & # 8221 ; . ( p.175 )
& # 8220 ; Divorces are made in Heaven & # 8221 ; . ( p. 283 )
In echt metaphors the image is ever present and the transference of significance is really felt. These metaphors have a radiating force. The whole sentence becomes metaphoric. The metaphors, which are normally used in address and therefore are sometimes even fixed in lexicons as expressive agencies of linguistic communication, are banal metaphors.
e.g. & # 8220 ; My farther truly died of a broken bosom & # 8221 ; . ( p.85 )
& # 8220 ; Love is easy killed! Oh! How easy love is killed & # 8221 ; .
( p.86 )
& # 8220 ; The minute is wholly in your ain custodies & # 8221 ; . ( p.344 )
Wilde & # 8217 ; s metaphors develop the reader & # 8217 ; s imaginativeness. At the same clip the writer reflects his ain point of position.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Youth is the Lord of Life & # 8221 ; . ( p.135 )
In these four dramas Wilde preaches that young person is the so called & # 8220 ; gift of nature & # 8221 ; . It is really interesting to observe, that about all his chief heroes are immature people. And young person is their prima star in life. Oscar Wilde resorts to the usage of his metaphors for more expressiveness and beauty of linguistic communication. Their significances are playing and apprehensible for any reader, of any age and any involvements. They are the birds of Wilde & # 8217 ; s ideas, sometimes sensitive and sometimes acrimonious, sometimes joyful and sometimes sad, but they are ever fantastic. They have an first-class quality to reflect different objects, actions and, of class, people in a new significance. They produce a dynamic character of the secret plan and show that Wilde is a adult male of mastermind.
Simile is the following stylistic device used by Wilde in his dramas. Simile is a similitude of one thing to another.
Harmonizing to Prof. Sosnovskaya V.B. , Simile is the most fundamental signifier of figure of speech. It can be defined as a device based upon an analogy between two things, which are discovered to possess some characteristics in common otherwise being wholly dissimilar.19
Harmonizing to Prof. Galperin I.R. the intensification of person characteristic of the construct in inquiry is realised in a device called Simile. Ordinary comparing and Simile must non be confused. They represent two diverse procedures. Comparison means weighing two objects belonging to one category of things with the intent of set uping the grade of their sameness or difference. To utilize a simile is to characterize one object by conveying it into contact with another object belonging to an wholly different category of things. Comparison takes into consideration all the belongingss of the two objects, emphasizing the 1 that is compared. Simile includes all the belongingss of the two objects except one which is made common to them.20
e.g. & # 8220 ; All adult females become like their mothers. & # 8221 ; ( p.300 )
is ordinary comparing. The words & # 8220 ; adult females & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; female parents & # 8221 ; belong to the same category of objects & # 8211 ; human existences & # 8211 ; so this is non a Simile but ordinary comparing.
But in the sentence:
& # 8220 ; But she is truly like a Tanagra figurine, and would be instead irritated if she were told so & # 8221 ; . ( p.175 ) ,
we have a simile. & # 8220 ; She & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; statuette & # 8221 ; belong to heterogenous categories of objects and Wilde has found that the beauty of Mabel Chiltern may be compared with the beauty of the ancient Tanagra figurine. Of the two constructs brought together in the Simile & # 8211 ; one characterised ( Mabel Chiltern ) , and the other characterising ( Statuette ) & # 8211 ; the characteristic intensified will be more built-in in the latter than in the former. Furthermore, the object characterised, is seen in rather a new and unexpected visible radiation, because the writer as it were, imposes this characteristic on it. Therefore, Simile is an inventive comparing of two unlike objects belonging to two different categories.
Similes forcibly set one object against another regardless of the fact that they may be wholly foreign to each other. And without our being cognizant of it the Simile gives rise to a new apprehension of the object characterising every bit good as of the object characterised.
The belongingss of an object may be viewed from different angles, for illustration, its province, actions, manners, etc. Consequently, Similes may be based on adjective-attributes, adverbs-modifiers, verb-predicates, etc.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Dear Agatha and I are so much interested in
Australia. Agatha has found it on the map. What a
funny form it is! Just like a big wadding case. & # 8221 ;
( p.42 )
& # 8220 ; She looks instead like an orchid and makes great
demands on one & # 8217 ; s curiosity. & # 8221 ; ( p.176 )
& # 8220 ; Twenty old ages of love affair make a adult female expression like a
ruin ; but twenty old ages of matrimony make her something
like a public building. & # 8221 ; ( p.108 )
Similes have formal elements in their construction:
A brace of objects ( for illustration: adult female + ruin ; adult female + orchid ; Australia + a big wadding instance ) .
Connective words such as: like, as, such every bit, as if, as though, seem, etc.
Here are some more illustrations of similes taken from Wilde & # 8217 ; s dramas.
e.g. & # 8220 ; She looks like an & # 8220 ; edition de luxe & # 8221 ; of a wicked Gallic novel,
meant specially for the English market. & # 8221 ; ( p.48 )
The construction of this simile is interesting for it is sustained. This simile goes through the whole sentence. The writer finds a certain resemblance of Mrs. Erlynne and an & # 8220 ; edition de luxe & # 8221 ; of a wicked Gallic novel. He shows that this adult female is as bright and attractive as a colored diary.
e.g. & # 8220 ; It is as if a manus of ice were laid upon one & # 8217 ; s bosom. It is as if
one & # 8217 ; s bosom were crushing itself to decease in some empty
hollow. & # 8221 ; ( p.211 )
This simile is the perfect work of imaginativeness. This is an illustration of a simile, which is half a metaphor. Let us analyze it. If non for the structural word & # 8220 ; as if & # 8221 ; , we could name it a metaphor. Indeed, if we drop the word & # 8220 ; as if & # 8221 ; and state: & # 8220 ; a manus of ice is laid upon one & # 8217 ; s bosom & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; , this sentence becomes a metaphor. But the word & # 8220 ; as if & # 8221 ; keeps apart the impressions of metaphor and makes this sentence a existent simile. As for the 2nd sentence of this illustration, the state of affairs is the same: if we drop the word & # 8220 ; as if & # 8221 ; , the sentence becomes a metaphor. In other words, this illustration is the action that is described by agencies of simile.
The semantic nature of the simile-forming elements & # 8220 ; seem & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; as if & # 8221 ; is such that they merely remotely suggest resemblance. Quite different are the conjunctions & # 8220 ; like & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; as & # 8221 ; . They are more categorical and set up rather squarely the analogy between the two objects in inquiry.
e.g. & # 8220 ; Ignorance is like a delicate alien fruit ; touch it and the bloom
is gone. & # 8221 ; ( p. 296 )
In this illustration of a simile the object characterised is seen in a quite new and unexpected significance. This simile is besides may be considered as a half metaphor. The writer confers to ignorance a new sense and the qualities of an alien fruit. That is why this simile has a metaphoric character. And all the above-named formal elements make the simile of easy recognizable unit of poetic address.
e.g. & # 8220 ; You are like a pink rose, cousin Cecily. & # 8221 ; ( p.311 )
This is the existent simile. This simile is used for intents of expressive rating, affectional account, and extremely single description. In a simile two objects are compared on the land of similarity of some quality. So & # 8220 ; a pink rose & # 8221 ; of this instance allows to at the same time highlight such characteristics as & # 8220 ; fresh, beautiful, fragrant, attractive & # 8221 ; , etc.
So, we can see that simile is another interesting stylistic device used by Oscar Wilde in his dramas. It shows the single point of view of the writer on different objects, actions, and phenomena. Everybody uses the similes in his mundane address. But the literary similes gain particularly fantastic character. They make our address more expressive and our universe more interesting.
Honestly speech production, every individual sometimes uses hyperbole and hyperbole in his address for more expressiveness.
Harmonizing to Professor Galperin I.R. , another stylistic device which besides has the map of escalating one certain belongings of the object described is hyperbole. It can be defined as a calculated exaggeration or hyperbole of a characteristic indispensable to the object or phenomenon. In its utmost signifier this hyperbole is carried to an unlogical grade. 20
Harmonizing to Professor Kukharenko V.A. , exaggeration is a stylistic device in which accent is achieved through deliberate hyperbole. The feelings and emotions of the talker are so rippled that he resorts in his address to escalating the quantitative or the qualitative facets of the mentioned object.21
Harmonizing to Prof. Sosnovskaya V.B. , exaggeration ( overstatement ) as the word itself suggests is an look of an thought in an extremely exaggerate linguistic communication. The supra-average instances of exaggeration are characteristic of an obviously emotional, if non wholly impassioned, mode of representation.22
V.V.Vinogradov, developing Gorki & # 8217 ; s statement that & # 8220 ; Geniune art enjoys the right to overstate & # 8221 ; , province that exaggeration is the jurisprudence of art which brings the bing phenomena of life, diffused as they are, to the point of maximal lucidity and conciseness.23
So, exaggeration is aimed at overstating measure or quality. It is a calculated hyperbole. In exaggeration there is transference of significance as there is disagreement with nonsubjective world. The words are no used in their direct sense.
e.g. & # 8220 ; I wish I had known it was your birthday, Lady
Windermere, I would hold covered the whole street in
forepart of your house with flowers for you to walk & # 8221 ; . ( P.
& # 8220 ; I have ne’er loved anyone in the universe but you & # 8221 ; .
( p.34 )
In order to picture the grade of the love of his character Wilde resorts to the usage of these exaggerations. I think that the most of import map of exaggeration is the emotional expressiveness.
e.g. & # 8220 ; I have met 100s of good adult females & # 8221 ; . ( p.71 )
& # 8220 ; You have seen me with it a 100 times & # 8221 ; . ( p.303 )
In these exaggerations Wilde uses the hyperbole of the quantitative facet. They make their manner non on the direct significance, but on the great emotional influence. But literary exaggeration is non the simple address figure. It is one of the most of import agencies of constructing up the secret plan of the text, the imagination and expressiveness. It is the transmittal of the writer & # 8217 ; s thought.
e.g. & # 8220 ; I ne’er can believe a word you say! . & # 8221 ; ( p.49 )
& # 8220 ; He talks the whole clip & # 8221 ; . ( p.115 )
& # 8220 ; Well, you have been eating them all the clip & # 8221 ; . ( p.284 )
In the literary sense exaggeration is the of import agencies of expressive address. Sometimes they are non perceived in their direct significance, but they at one time make the hapless and amusing consequence, as in the above-named illustrations. In general, literature has a changeless necessity in the artistic hyperbole of contemplation of the universe.
e.g. & # 8220 ; I would make anything in the universe to guarantee
Gwendolen & # 8217 ; s felicity & # 8221 ; . ( p.284 )
& # 8220 ; But now that I see you, I feel that nil in the
whole universe would bring on me to populate under the same
roof as Lord Windermere & # 8221 ; . ( p.61 )
Hyperbole may be besides called the agency of artistic word picture. Hyperbole is a device which sharpens the reader & # 8217 ; s ability to do a logical appraisal of the vocalization. In order to make his exaggerations Wilde utilizations such words as & # 8220 ; 100s & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; 1000s & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; all the clip & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; nil in the universe & # 8221 ; , etc. Wilde & # 8217 ; s exaggerations bring the brightness, expressiveness and the emotional coloring material of the linguistic communication. Hyperbole is like a magnifying glass ; it helps to detect in inside informations the phenomena of life, in its worlds and contradictions.
In these four dramas we can besides detect some metonymies.
Harmonizing to Prof. Galperin I.R. , metonymy is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and contextual significances, a relation based non on designation, but on some sort of association linking the two constructs which these significances represent.24
Harmonizing to Prof. Sosnovskaya V.B. , units of poetic address called metonymy are besides based upon analogy. But in them there is an objectively bing relationship between the object named and the object implied.25
Harmonizing to Prof. Kukharenko V.A. , metonymy besides becomes instrumental in enriching the vocabulary of the linguistic communication and it is based on adjacency ( nearness ) of objects or phenomena.26
So, harmonizing to these three definitions, we can state that metonymy is a transference of intending based on a logical or physical connexion between things. In metonymy a thing is described by its action, its map or by some important characteristics. It is one of the agencies of organizing the new significances of words in the linguistic communication.
e.g. & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; a thing more tragic than all the cryings the universe has
of all time shed & # 8221 ; . ( p. 65 )
& # 8220 ; She was austere to me, but she taught me what the
universe is burying, the difference that there is between
what is right and what is incorrect & # 8221 ; . ( p. 26 )
& # 8220 ; Do you believe earnestly that adult females who have
committed what the universe calls a mistake should ne’er be
forgiven? & # 8221 ; ( p.27 )
In these three illustrations we can see the same metonymy, that is used by the same word & # 8220 ; universe & # 8221 ; . Here the writer means the people who love in the universe. Here we besides can see that container is used alternatively of the thing contained: & # 8220 ; universe & # 8221 ; alternatively of & # 8220 ; people & # 8221 ; . We can detect the same state of affairs on the undermentioned illustration:
e.g. & # 8220 ; The whole London knows it & # 8221 ; . ( p.32 )
The writer means people populating in London, but non the metropolis as itself. Through the combination of metonymical inside informations and specifics Wilde creates the consequence of powerful upper-class society. The range of transference in metonymy is much more limited than that of metaphor, which is rather apprehensible: the range of human imaginativeness placing two objects on the evidences of expectedness of one of their countless features is