Summarise the main development of a child from the age range 0-2 years, 3-5 years and 5-8 years
The first physical stages in a baby happen after they are born. They will start by learning how to hold their head up. Babies have a grasping reflex which enables them to automatically tighten their fingers when an object is placed in the palm of their hands. Around 6 months a baby will be able to roll forward and maybe start to crawl and shuffle their bodies around. Mobility is hugely increased in babies between 9 and 12 months. They will usually be able to sit upright unaided and even show signs of wanting to stand and walk.
By the time a child reaches 2 years of age, they should have mastered the art of sitting, standing, crawling and walking. Some children by this age can begin to run, kick a ball and walk up and down stairs (assisted by an adult). 3-5 years By this age children should be able to stand on tiptoes and jump from very low heights.
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Climbing should make them feel confident and many will be able to ride a tricycle. A child’s mobility progresses to an advanced level meaning they can move about freely without any help or hesitation.
Moves such as catching, kicking, throwing and bouncing a ball will have developed and will encourage children to participate in simple ball games. Between the ages of 4-5 years children will be able to use certain playing equipment such as skipping ropes, hoops and even skittles. Children of this age will understand much better the right of personal space and are also able to move around safely. 5-8 years Children by the age of 5 will be more agile. Some will be able to stand on one foot for 10 seconds. A lot of children in this age bracket can touch their toes without bending their knees.
Many will be able to ride a bike without any stabilisers. They may also enjoy games such as sliding, climbing frames and swinging. Their stamina should have increased which means activities such as gymnastics, swimming and athletics are a good choice. Other sports such as football, basketball, will allow them to run around without colliding into someone or something. Intellectual Development 0-2 years Babies are born with primitive reflexes which can include a rooting reflex – this is when a baby turns his or her head to suckle as a result of stroking his or her cheek.
They will be able to recognise certain sounds and voices. Imitation of facial expressions are enjoyable to them and making eye contact with them is comforting. Bright lights can be exciting for babies of this age and they will also enjoy looking at themselves in a mirror. Between 6 and 9 months babies will enjoy playing with toys and imitating simple tasks such as clapping hands or waving goodbye. Babies will enjoy banging objects together, throwing, dropping and shaking toys/objects around. Memory skills will start to develop. By the age of 2 children will have learnt how to use a spoon and drink from a cup.
By this age they will typically have a vocabulary of around 50 words. 3-5 years Children of this age will participate in pretend play. They will be able to use crayons and pencils and maybe even the ability to handle round ended scissors appropriately. Motor skills will be developing by now enabling them to put tiny beads into a string. Their memory is getting stronger – they should be able to remember past events and look forward to future ones. Between 3-5 years of age learning is becoming more interesting. They will begin to name colours and understand simple counting.
Drawings will be more accurate and easier to recognise. 5-8 years At the age of 5, children will be ready to start school and should be able to string simple sentences together. Drawings may contain simple details such as a face with eyes, ears mouth and nose. Some children may also be able to write their own names. Writing and reading is becoming more interesting. Those children who are read to aloud and are encouraged to read aloud tend to develop more quickly intellectually Time phrases such as morning, afternoon, night, yesterday and tomorrow will be more understandable to them.
Numeracy level reaches the ability of adding and subtracting by the age of 6-8 years. Language 0-2 years Babies will cry and gurgle or coo. Crying can differ depending on whether a baby is hungry, hurt or wants a cuddle. Babies between 3 and 6 months can begin to chuckle and laugh and can imitate certain sounds. Babbling becomes more constant and by 9 months a baby ought to be able to copy words such as ‘mama’ and ‘dada’. By the age of 2 a child’s vocabulary has increased from coo-ing and making various noises to having a vocabulary of approximately 50 words.
3-5 years By the age of 3 communication is greatly improved resulting in talking all the time and many questions asked. The most common words used are why, who, where, how, when. Their skills by now should include using sentences which use tenses and possibly even plurals. A child in this age bracket may become frustrated with their inability to tell as much as they think or understand. Around the age of 5 years old a child will be able to talk about past, present and future events. They will also be able to learn songs and rhymes. 5-8 years
A child’s vocabulary is widening by this age and they will be learning new words. They will be able to describe things such as toys and games and also give opposite meanings. Emotional Development 0-2 years A baby’s primary means of communication is crying. Babies will start smiling especially at familiar faces. They would have built up a bond with their primary carer. They will realise that they have only one mother and that not all females are their mum/carer. Around 6 to 9 months babies can develop feelings of insecurity resulting in tears or distress when mum leaves the room or is out of sight.
At around 20 months children will be able to show preferences and are becoming more aware of those people around them – they can be affected by another person’s mood. Self-confidence begins to build and they start to believe in themselves. 3-5 years By this age, a child should be able to communicate how they are feeling and discovering the differences between males and females. They will start to get independent enough to carry out little tasks such as dressing themselves, and going to the bathroom by themselves.
Children of this age can start to feel anxious, especially as they are unsure of their imagination and inner feelings. This can also lead to overwhelming emotions and fears regarding the unknown. They often do not know the difference between fantasy and reality. By the age of 5 curiosity is at its most advanced and a child will want to try new things which to them are alien. Usually children of this age are able to form successful relationships that may last for a long time. 5-8 years By now children should be able to express their likes and dislikes.
As time passes by they are able to have more control over their emotions and their instincts may be greatly developed, for instance if someone appears to be in distress or sad. Children of this age are better at sharing and engage in co-operative play. Arguments now make more sense compared to those of small toddlers. Peer pressure may begin to affect them. Social 0-2 years Babies will enjoy close physical contact especially with their primary carer. They will enjoy being cuddled, feeding and bathing. Babies will enjoy socialising with other babies of their own age.
Between 6 and 9 months babies will start to imitate others and hearing laughter will make them laugh even though they will not really be aware of what they are actually laughing at. Around 9 months they can entertain themselves with toys and games and will have learnt to occupy themselves. Some babies by this age will be able to feed themselves with finger foods and drinking from a cup. 3-5 years Children around the age of 3 will enjoy making friends. Learning to take turns in play and sharing can bring on tantrums as they will all want their own way.
Children around this age will also learn to dress themselves and will learn to carry out simple requests. By the age of 5 children will be more understanding of social backgrounds, difference skin colour, religion and even cultures. Children of this age will make new friends and form a close relationship with one “best friend”. 5-8 years Children will be able to carry out more complex tasks such as tidying up their toys, They should be able to dress themselves without the help of a grown up. They will understand the difference between right and wrong and will know how to value a true friend. Some may become stubborn or even bossy.