Discuss the political events and sociological factors that made the Classical Period such a time of violent upheaval. (1 point) The years 1750 to 1820 were characterized by the Seven Years’ War, the American and French Revolutions, and the Napoleonic Wars. These political events coupled with the drastic social change proven by the shift of power from the aristocracy and church to the middle class, as well as the increase in social mobility. Every accepted idea was being put into question and reevaluated. 4. Write a paragraph that includes the characteristics of music in the Classical Period music.(4 points) Classical Period music was characterized by variety and contrast of mood, which means that a piece will fluctuate in theme as well as within a single theme. This change may occur steadily or abruptly, but the classical composer is always in control. Variety is achieved through a flexible rhythm, including unexpected pauses, syncopations, and a frequent movement from long to short notes. Classical music has a usually homophonic texture; however, it can easily shift textures, whether it is smooth or sudden. Classical melodies are tuneful and easy to remember.
Their themes tend to have a folk or popular flavor, whether borrowed or original. Their structure is usually two phrases of equal length, making the melody balanced and symmetrical. The second phrase begins like first, but ends conclusively. Rather than shifting dynamics abruptly, composers made use of crescendo and decrescendo. The piano replaced the harpsichord in order to accomplish the gradual dynamic change; a pianist could play loudly or softly by varying their finger pressure on the keys. The basso continuo was gradually abandoned because music written for amateurs didn’t require improvisation.
The music was written for amateurs because composers wanted more control rather than trusting the improviser. 5. What were the new developments in the classical orchestra? (1 point) There were four groupings: Strings (1st violins, 2d violins, violas, cellos, double basses), Woodwinds (2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons), Brass (2 French horns, 2 trumpets), and Percussion (2 timpani). A Classical Orchestra has a larger number of musicians. Classical composers exploited the individual tone colors of orchestral instruments. A classical piece has greater variety—and more rapid changes—of tone color.
A theme might begin in the full orchestra, shift to the strings, and then continue in the woodwinds. The strings were the most important; first violins had the melody, along with clarinet melodic solos, while the lower strings accompanied. The brass filled out the harmony, but did not play the main melody. Timpani were used for rhythmic bite and emphasis. 6. Name and describe each of the movements in the standard four-movement pattern in classical forms? (2 points) Fast movement: The opening movement is usually in sonata form and stresses an exciting development of short motives.
It is vigorous and dramatic. Slow movement: The second movement, not usually in the tonic key, is either in sonata form, A B A form, or theme-and –variations form. It is lyrical and slow. Dance-related movement: The third movement is usually a minuet and trio, which may be in a moderate of fairly quick tempo. It varies in character from a courtly dance to a peasant romp or a vigorous piece that is hardly dancelike. Fast movement: The fourth movement, either in sonata or sonata-rondo form, is fast, lively, and brilliant, but somewhat lighter in mood than the opening movement.
It can also be more triumphant and heroic in character and sometimes meant as the climax of the whole symphony. 7. Describe the intellectual climate of the “age of enlightenment. ” (1 point) The “age of enlightenment” intellectuals believed in progress, holding that reason, not custom or tradition was the best guide for human conduct. Their attacks on the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy reflected the outlook of the middle class, which was struggling for its rights. 8. Discuss in detail several meanings attached to the term classical. (1 point) The term classical may refer to Greek or Roman Antiquity, or it may be used for any supreme accomplishment of lasting appeal. It can also mean any type of music that isn’t jazz, rock, folk, or mainstream music. Music historians use the term classical from art history. 9. Describe the characteristic formal plans and content usually found in a classical symphony. (1 point) A typical sequence is (1) a vigorous, dramatic fast movement; (2) a lyrical slow movement; (3) a dancelike movement (minuet or scherzo); and (4) a brilliant or heroic fast movement. The opening movement is usually in sonata form and stresses an exciting development of short motives.
The second movement, not usually in the tonic key, is either in sonata form, A B A form, or theme-and –variations form. The third movement is usually a minuet and trio, which may be in a moderate of fairly quick tempo. It varies in character from a courtly dance to a peasant romp or a vigorous piece that is hardly dancelike. The fourth movement, either in sonata or sonata-rondo form, is fast, lively, and brilliant, but somewhat lighter in mood than the opening movement. It can also be more triumphant and heroic in character and sometimes meant as the climax of the whole symphony. 10. Define the roles of soloist and orchestra in a classical concerto. (1 point) The soloist is very much the star, and all of his or her musical talents are needed in this challenging dialogue. Between the soloist and orchestra, there’s interplay of melodic lines and a spirit of give-and-take. One moment the soloist plays the melody while the orchestra accompanies. Then the woodwinds may unfold the main theme against rippling arpeggios (broken chords) played by the soloist. 11. Define the nature and function of the cadenza in a classical concerto. MM(1 point) The cadenza is an unaccompanied section of virtuoso display for the soloist in a concerto, usually appearing near the end of the first movement and sometimes in the last movement. In the classical era, the soloist, who was often the composer, generally improvised the cadenzas. 12. Compare and contrast the first movements of a classical concerto and symphony. (1 point) The first movement in both a classical symphony and concerto are in sonata form, but classical symphony does not have two expositions or a soloist. 13. Describe in detail each of the following new forms in Classical music: (. 5 each) A.
Sonata form (include exposition, development, recapitulation, and coda) – Form of a single movement. The opening fast movement of a classical symphony, sonata, or string quartet is usually in sonata form. This form is also used in slow movements and in fast concluding movements: Exposition – First section of a sonata-form movement, which sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key; and between the first theme (or group of themes) and the second theme (or group of themes). Development – Second section of a sonata-form movement, in which themes from the exposition are developed and the music moves through several different keys.
Recapitulation – Third section of a sonata-form movement, in which the first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding section are presented more or less as they were in the exposition, with one crucial difference: all the principal material is now in the tonic key. Coda – In a sonata-form movement, a concluding section following the recapitulation and rounding off the movement by repeating themes or developing them further. B. Minuet and trio – Compositional form – derived from a dance – in three parts: minuet (A), trio (B), minuet (A).
Often used as the third movement of the classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works, it is in triple meter and usually in a moderate tempo. C. Rondo – Compositional form featuring a main theme (A) that returns several times in alternation with other themes, such as A B A C A and A B A C A B A. Rondo is often the form of the last movement in classical symphonies, string quartets, and sonatas. D. Theme and variations – Form in which a basic musical idea (the theme) is repeated over and over and is changed each time in melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, or tone color.
Used either as an independent piece or as one movement of a larger work. 14. Write a definition for each of the following terms: (. 5 points each) A. Serenade – Instrumental composition, light in mood, usually meant for evening entertainment. B. Chamber music – Music using a small group of musicians, with one player to a part. C. String quartet – Composition for two violins, a viola, and a cello; usually consisting of four movements. (Also, the four instrumentalists. ) D. Da capo – From the beginning; an indication usually meaning that the opening section of a piece is to be repeated after the middle section.