Syntagmatic and paradigmatic peculiarities of adverbs in English

10 October 2017

Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine

Department of English Philology

Diploma paper

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic distinctive features of adverbs in English

Lviv – 2010



Chapter 1. The adverb in English theoretical grammar

1.1 Categorial significance of the adverb

1.2 Formal features of the adverb

1.3 Syntactic maps and positional features of the adverb

Chapter 2. Paradigmatics of adverbs

2.1 Semantic categorization of adverbs

2.2 Lexico-grammatical subdivision of adverbs

Chapter 3. Syntagmatic valency of adverbs and its realization inspeech

3.1 Syntactic valency and combinability forms of adverbs

3.2 Semantic and syntactic belongingss of adverbs of grade

3.3 The usage of adverbs of grade with gradable and non-gradable adjectives

3.4 Semantic penchants of amplifiers



List of Mentions



The diploma paper sets out to research paradigmatic and syntagmatic dealingss of adverbs in modern English. The work considers such subdivisions of grammar as morphology and sentence structure and is concerned with the two degrees of word dealingss.

A word as a portion of the linguistic communication system is considered on two degrees:

1 ) the syntagmatic degree ;

2 ) the paradigmatic degree.

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On the paradigmatic degree it is the relationship with other words in the vocabulary system. On the syntagmatic degree the semantic construction of a word is analyzed in its additive relationships with neighbouring words.

The distinction between paradigmatics and syntagmatics is based on acknowledgment of the lingual planes: 1 & # 8211 ; the plane of linguistic communication ; 2 & # 8211 ; the plane of address. Language is a system of agencies of look while address should be understood as the manifestation of the system of linguistic communication in the procedure of communicating. Language planes are structured paradigmatically, address planes & # 8211 ; syntagmatically.

Paradigmatic dealingss are dealingss of contrast. They exist merely in the possible and ne’er in an case. From the point of view of the text analyst, they express a contrast between the significance ( and so the signifier ) that was chosen for usage in the text and the one or more significances ( and so signifiers ) that might hold been chosen ( but were non ) . In other words, paradigmatic dealingss exist merely in the linguistic communication that is used to bring forth a text-sentence and non in the sentence itself [ 23, 134 ] .

Syntagmatic dealingss are based on the additive character of address. They enable linguistic communication to map as a agency of communicating. When they are brought into drama, lingual elements combine to organize information-carrying vocalizations. They are hence the functional dealingss of linguistic communication [ 32, 60 ] .

The present research isaimed at
look intoing the salient characteristics of adverbs in English. The major research focal point in the field of syntagmatics is on adverbs of grade as the most syntagmatically active category.

Most of the probes in the field of morphology trade with other parts of address, chiefly verbs, nouns or adjectives. The adverb due to its ontological position and the categorical significance defined as that of secondary belongings, has unjustly fallen out of research focal point. The text edition on theoretical grammar provide merely bare information about adverbs. However, the adverb is apt to show us with a whole package of jobs. First, there are a batch of marginal instances of passage between adverbs, on the one manus, and prepositions, atoms and concurrences, on the other. Though, a figure of reasonably plausible point of views on the issue have been expressed and the nonsubjective standards have been suggested, they do non give clear consequences and, a to the full convincing solution to the job has non been found yet [ 4 ; 5 ; 8 ; 9 ] . This calls for the demand to see these instances of grammatical homonymy at some length. Second, incorrect usage of adverbs and adverbial collocations appears to be one of the major mistakes notoriously common with the pupils. This determines thetopicality
of the research, itstheoretical and practical value

of probe is the adverb, including simple, derived, compound and composite. Thetopic
of research is the paradigmatic correlativity and syntagmatic distinctive features of adverbs, their combinability forms. Suchmethods of probe
, as structural-semantic, distributional and the elements of the quantitative analysis are used in this paper.

of the diploma paper are:

– to find the categorial significance of the adverb and its formal features ;

– to transport out the analysis of syntactic maps of the adverb ;

– to analyse the chief categories of adverbs ;

– to compare paradigmatically relevant categorizations of the adverb ;

– to research syntactic valency and combinability forms of adverbs ;

– to analyze the usage of adverbs of grade and to find their semantic penchants.

Harmonizing to the domains of concern the work falls into an Introduction, three chapters, decisions and the list of mentions which together with the appendix comprises __ pages. Chapter 1 trades with the analysis of the adverb in agreement with the 3-criteria rule of the lexico-grammatical word categorization. Chapter 2 is concerned with the paradigmatic dealingss of adverbs, supplying the semantic and lexico-grammatical categorizations of the adverb. In Chapter 3 semantic and syntactic valencies of adverbs and their realisation in address are described. Most of the illustrations presented in this diploma paper are taken form modern English lexicons.

Chapter 1. The adverb in English theoretical grammar

Categorial significance of the adverb

In agreement with the 3-criteria rule of the lexico-grammatical word categorization ( semantic, formal and functional ) [ 35 ] , parts of address are discriminated on the footing of:

1 ) common categorial significance ;

2 ) common paradigm ( morphological signifier and specific signifiers of derivation ) ;

3 ) common syntactic map.

The categorical significance of the adverb is secondary belongings which implies qualitative, quantitative, or circumstantial features of actions, provinces, qualities.

The adverb is normally defined as a word showing either belongings of an action, or belongings of another belongings, or fortunes in which an action occurs [ 22, 146 ] . From this definition it is hard to specify adverbs as a category, because they comprise a most heterogenous group of words, and there is considerable convergence between the category and other word categories. They have many sorts of signifier, significance and map.

Alongside such undoubtful adverbs as here, now, frequently, rarely, ever, there are many others which besides function as words of other categories. Such words which are different in their lexical significance and besides in their grammatical class ( portion of address ) but indistinguishable in their signifier are interparadigmatic homonyms ( lexical-grammatical ) [ 17, 118 ] . Therefore, adverbs like dead ( dead tired ) , clear ( to acquire clear off ) , clean ( I ‘ve clean forgotten ) , slow, easy ( he would state that slow and easy ) coincide with matching adjectives ( a dead organic structure, clear Waterss, clean custodies ) . Adverbs like yesteryear, above, in, up, down, approximately, since, before, over are homonymic with prepositions. There is besides a particular group of pronominal adverbs when, where, how, why used either as interrogative words or as conjunctions to present low-level clauses [ 3, 87 ] :

would you wish to travel? ( an interrogative pronominal adverb )

We & # 8217 ; ll travelwhere
you want. ( a conjunctive pronominal adverb )

Some adverbs may be used instead like a verb, as in & # 8220 ; Up. Jenkins! Down, Peter! & # 8221 ; , where the first word is like an imperative [ 25, 92 ] .

There are three adverbs connected with numbers: one time, twice, and thrice ( the latter being antediluvian ) . They denote step or frequence:

She went at that placeone time
a hebdomad [ 41 ] .

I saw himtwice
last month [ 41 ] .

Twice is besides used in the construction twice every bit long, etc. [ 22, 92 ] .

He istwice as tall
as his brother [ 40 ] .

She istwice as clever
[ 40 ] .

Get downing with three the thought of frequence or repeat is expressed by the phrases three times, four times [ 25, 92 ] :

He went therefour times

He isfour times
as bigger.

She is10s times
cleverer. [ 25, 92 ]

In many instances the border-line between adverbs and words of the other categories is defined syntactically:

I called out to him as he ranyesteryear
[ 38 ] . ( adverb )

I called out to him as he ranyesteryear
the house [ 38 ] . ( preposition )

We were lockedin
[ 41 ] . ( adverb )

We were lockedin
the warehouse [ 41 ] . ( preposition )

He did everything easy butcertainly
[ 38 ] . ( adverb )

you know him [ 38 ] . ( average word )

The definition of adverb presented above, though surely enlightening and informative, besides fails to straight indicate out the relation between the adverb and the adjectival as the primary measure uping portion of address.

In an effort to get the better of this drawback, M. Y. Blokh defines the adverb as a fanciful word showing a non-substantive belongings, that is, a belongings of a non-substantive referent [ 13, 221 ] . This expression instantly shows the existent correlativity between the adverb and the adjective, since the adjective is a word showing a substantial belongings.

Properties may be of a more peculiar, “ organic ” order and, a more general and detached, “ inorganic ” order [ 13, 221 ] . Of the organic belongingss, the adverb denotes those characterizing procedures and other belongingss. Of the inorganic belongingss, the adverb denotes assorted circumstantial features of procedures or whole state of affairss built around procedures.

The above definition, nearing the adverb as a word of the secondary modification order, presents the full category of adverbial words as the least self-dependent of all the four fanciful parts of address. Indeed, the genuinely complete nominative value is built-in merely in the noun, which is the name of substances [ 15 ] . The verb comes next in its self-dependent nominative force, showing procedures as dynamic dealingss of substances, i.e. their dynamic relational belongingss in the wide sense. After that follow modification parts of address & # 8212 ; foremost the adjectival denoting makings of substances, and so the adverb denoting makings of non-substantive phenomena which find themselves within the scope of fanciful meaning.

The adverb is characterised by its ain, specific nominative value, supplying for its unalienable position in the system of the parts of address. Hence, the ailments of some linguists that the adverb is non strictly defined and in fact nowadayss something like a “ shit ” for those words which have been rejected by other parts of address can barely be taken as to the full justified [ 13, 221 ] . On the other manus, since the adverb does denote makings of the 2nd order, non of the first one like the adjective, it includes a great figure of semantically weakened words which are in fact intermediate between fanciful and functional lexemes by their position and frequently display characteristics of pronominal nature.

1.2 Formal features of the adverb

In footings of the formal standard the adverb is characterized by the undermentioned characteristics [ 13, 39 ] :

1 ) the signifiers of the grades of comparing for qualitative adverbs ;

2 ) the specific suffixal signifiers of derivation.

The lone form of morphological alteration for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the grades of comparing [ 25, 94 ] . With respect to the class of the grades of comparing adverbs ( like adjectives ) fall into comparables and non-comparables. The figure of non-comparables is much greater among adverbs than among adjectives. Merely adverbs of mode and certain adverbs of clip and topographic point can organize grades of comparing. The three classs are calledpositive, comparative,

Adverbs that are indistinguishable in signifier with adjectives take inflexions following the same spelling and phonic regulations as for adjectives:

difficult & # 8212 ; harder & # 8212 ; hardest

shortly & # 8212 ; sooner & # 8212 ; soonest

early & # 8212 ; earlier & # 8212 ; earliest

Several adverbs stoping in-ly
( rapidly, aloud ) signifier comparatives harmonizing to the same form, dropping their adverb-forming postfix. These adverbs acquired the signifier in-ly
merely late and retained the older signifiers of the comparative and superlative:

rapidly & # 8211 ; quicker & # 8211 ; quickest

aloud & # 8211 ; louder & # 8211 ; loudest

However most disyllabic adverbs in-ly
and all polysyllabic 1s form the comparative and greatest analytically, by agencies ofmore

attractively & # 8212 ; more attractively & # 8212 ; most attractively

smartly & # 8212 ; more smartly & # 8212 ; most smartly

As with adjectives, there is a little group of adverbs with comparatives and superlatives formed from different roots(
suppletive signifiers) .
These comparatives and superlatives are indistinguishable with those for the corresponding adjectives and can be differentiated from the latter merely syntactically:

good & # 8212 ; better & # 8212 ; best

severely & # 8212 ; worse & # 8212 ; worst

much & # 8212 ; more & # 8212 ; most

small & # 8212 ; less & # 8212 ; least

All the jobs connected with the adjective grades of comparing retain their force for the adverbial grades of comparing. Some syntacticians do non acknowledge signifiers like more rapidly, most rapidly to be analytical grades of comparing [ 9 ] . They distinguish merely two types of grades of comparing in adverbs:

& # 183 ; the postfix type ( rapidly & # 8211 ; quicker & # 8211 ; quickest )

& # 183 ; the suppletive type ( good & # 8212 ; better & # 8212 ; best )

Adverbs vary in their construction. In agreement with their word-building construction adverbs may be simple, derived, compound and composite [ 25 ] .

Simple adverbs
are instead few, and about all of them display functional semantics, largely of pronominal character: here, there, now, so, so, rather, why, how, where, when.

erived adverbs
may be classified in several groups [ 30, 164 ] . The two largest groups are those formed from adjectives and participials by adding the postfix -ly, e. g. : hopefully, physically, queerly, falsely, on occasion, recently, instantly, invariably, strictly, easy, charmingly, etc.

There has been a pronounced disagreement of sentiment refering deadjectival adverbs in footings of two reciprocally sole types of morphological derivation & # 8211 ; inflexion and word-formation [ 5 ] . Two positions have been put frontward, harmonizing to which adverbs are treated as either the inflectional paradigmatic signifier of a parent adjective or its derivative [ 6 ] . The former position can be refuted if we proceed from the impression of symmetry/asymmetry of the semantic constructions. The constructions are considered symmetric if they are characterized by both quantitative and qualitative convergence of their sense constituents ; conversely, the parent and the attendant semantic constructions are considered asymmetric if they diverge either in the figure or in the character of the significances conveyed [ 5 ] .

Harmonizing to Garipova N.D. , adjectival and adverbial signifiers are asymmetric ; the procedure of deducing adverbs from adjectives involves the semantic displacement that yields two possibilities: the adverb may develop new significances, or, more frequently, the semantic construction of the motivated adverb turns out to be more simplified and narrower in comparing with that of the actuating adjectival [ 2 ] . For illustration, the adverb approximately retains merely 3 significances out of 17, inherent in the semantic construction of the adjectival rough. All this leads to reason that adverbs can non be regarded as inflectional signifiers of adjectives.

The 3rd group consists of those that are formed by agencies of the derivational prefix –a
( phonemically [ & # 1101 ; ] ) to nouns, adjectives or verbs. Of about 60 of them in more or less common usage about half are formed from nouns: aboard, aside, off, in front, apart, across etc.The remainder are about every bit divided among those formed from verbs, e. g. : awry, astir ; from adjectives & # 8212 ; anew, abroad.

In traditional grammars such words are by and large classed as both adjectives and adverbs and they are so listed in most lexicons, which seems barely justified since from the structural point of position none of them can suit the basic adjectival place between clincher and noun ( We can non state the aloud voice or the afloat boat ) [ 30, 164 ] .

The 4th group of derived adverbs originally really little, but in contemporary English exhibiting marks of rapid growing includes those formed by adding the derivational postfix –wise
to nouns.A few adverbs of this type are well-established words like clockwise, otherwise, similarly ; others are recent mintages or nonce-words like crabwise and actor-wise. In American English the suffix -wise is most active and can be more freely attached to many nouns to make adverbs like personnel-wise. Such signifiers are recognised in authorship by the usage of the dash.

Then comes a smaller group of adverbs formed by the add-on of the derivational postfix –ward ( s )
to a limited group of nouns ; home- ward ( s ) , frontward ( s ) , rearward ( s ) . Most adverbs of this group have two signifiers, one with the concluding -s and one without, diversely distributed. The signifiers without -s are homonymic with adjectives: the backward kid, he looked rearward.

The less common postfixs are the undermentioned:




-way ( s )

twofold, manifold


innermost, outermost

longways, sideways

Compound adverbs
are formed of two roots: sometimes, someplace, someway, someplace, nowhere, everyplace, anyhow, downstairs, etc. There are fewer than 20 of these in common usage.

Composite phrasal adverbs
consist of two or more word-forms, as a great trade, a small spot, far plenty, now and so, from clip to clip, kind of, sort of, a snake pit of, a batch of, a great trade of, at least, at most, at last, to and fro, upside down. Such adverbs are lexically and grammatically indivisible and organize a individual thought.

Considered in their construction, composite phrasal adverbs may be classified as follows [ 30, 164 ] :

1 )preposition
at manus, at place, by bosom, on horseback, on pes, in bend, to day of the month ;

2 )noun
arm in arm, twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours, twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours, face to face, word for word, twelvemonth by twelvemonth ;

3 )preposition
substantivised adjective:
at last, at first, at big, in big, in full, in quiet, in short, in vain, of late, of old ;

4 )preposition
verbal noun
made through transition: at a conjecture, at a tally, in a haste, on the move, on the tally ;

5 )preposition
at first, at one time, at one, by 2 ;

6 )co-ordinate adverbs:
by and by, on and off ( = away and on ) , on and on ;

7 )pronoun
adjectival ( or participial ) :
all right, all told, O. K. ( all correct ) ;

8 )preposition + pronoun:
after all, in all, at all.

In point of fact most adverbs of that sort may be moderately referred to as grammatical parlances [ 30, 165 ] . This can be seen, for case, in the unusual absence of the article before their noun constituents and specialised useof the noun in its remarkable signifier merely: on pes ( but non on the pes, or on pess which may happen in free prepositional word-groups ) , in fact ( but non in the fact ) , at first ( but non at the first ) , etc.

There is a assorted category of adverbs that have no formal signals at all to separate them in isolation ; we know them as adverbs because of their places in vocalizations, in which the other parts of address are clearly identifiable. Many adverbs in this group are reasonably frequent in happening: ever, now, so, here, there, frequently, rarely, still, even. Others in this group are words which may besides look as other parts of address, such as: downstairs, place, tardily, small, fast, stow, early, far, difficult, near:

My friend is the universe & # 8217 ; sfastest
smuggler [ 38 ] . ( adjectival )

The H2O was lifting reallyfast
[ 38 ] . ( adverb )

It isdifficult
to believe that she & # 8217 ; s merely nine [ 40 ] . ( adjectival )

He was still take a breathingdifficult
after his tally [ 40 ] . ( adverb )

Formations of the type from outside, till now, before so, etc. can non be included in the word-building sets of adverbs [ 13, 223 ] . It is non hard to see that such formations differ in rule from the 1s cited above. The difference consists in the fact that their parts are semantically non blended into an indivisible lexemic integrity and present combinations of a preposition with a curious adverbial substantive & # 8212 ; a word busying an intermediary lexico-grammatical position between the noun and the adverb. This is most clearly seen on ready illustrations liberally offered by English texts of every stylistic standing:

The pale Moon looked at mefrom above
[ 13, 223 ] .

By now
Sophie must hold received the missive and really shortly we shall hear from her [ 13, 223 ] .

The going of the deputation is plannedfor subsequently
this hebdomad [ 41 ] .

The freely converted adverbial substantives in prepositional collocations belong to one of the idiomatic features of English, and may be likened, with due change of inside informations, to partly substantivised adjectives of the adjectivid type. On this analogy the adverbial substantives in inquiry may be called “ adverbids ” [ 13, 223 ] .

Furthermore, there are in English some other curious structural types of adverbs which are derivationally connected with the words of non-adverbial lexemic categories by transition [ 13, 223 ] . Conversion consist in doing a new word from some bing word by altering the class of a portion of address, the morphemic form of the original word staying unchanged [ 17, 118 ] . To adverbs coined by transition belong both adverbs of full fanciful value and adverbs of half-notional value.

A curious set of born-again fanciful adverbs is formed by adjective-stem conversives, such as fast, tardily, hard, high, near, loud, tight, etc. The curious characteristic of these adverbs consists in the fact that practically all of them have a parallel signifier in -ly, the two component units of each brace frequently differentiated in significance or intension: to work hard & # 8212 ; barely to work at all ; to fall level into the H2O & # 8212 ; to decline categorically ; to talk loud & # 8212 ; to knock aloud ; to wing high over the lake & # 8212 ; to raise a extremely theoretical inquiry.

Among the adjective-stem converted adverbs there are a few words with the non-specific -ly originally in-built in the adjectival ( day-to-day, hebdomadal, lively, seasonably ) :

Bills are signed on aday-to-day
footing [ 38 ] . ( adjectival )

The machines are inspected twiceday-to-day
[ 38 ] . ( adverb )

The purely positional nature of the transition in inquiry, i.e. its holding no support in any differentiated categorial paradigms, can be reflected by the term “ fluctuant conversives ” [ 13 ] which is proposed to utilize as the name of such formations.

As for the fluctuant conversives of diminished pronominal semantics, really characteristic of English are the adverbs that positionally interchange with prepositions and conjunctive words ( before, after, unit of ammunition, within ) : ne’er before & # 8212 ; ne’er before our meeting ; someplace round & # 8212 ; round the corner ; non to be found within & # 8212 ; within a minute.

Among the assorted types of adverbs, those formed from adjectives by agencies of the postfix -ly non merely occupy the most representative topographic point but besides pose a particular job.

The job is introduced by the very regularity of their derivation, the regulation of which can be formulated rather merely: each qualitative adjective has a parallel adverb in & # 8211 ; ly [ 13, 226 ] : soundless & # 8212 ; mutely, decelerate & # 8212 ; easy, tolerable & # 8212 ; acceptably, pious & # 8212 ; devoutly, sufficient & # 8212 ; sufficiently, tired & # 8212 ; wearily, explosive & # 8212 ; explosively, etc.

This regularity of formation accompanied by the general qualitative character of semantics gave cause to A. I. Smirnitsky to progress the position that both sets of words belong to the same portion of address, the qualitative adverbs in -ly being in fact adjectives of specific combinability [ 9, 174-175 ] .

The strong point of the adjective reading of qualitative adverbs in -ly is the presentation of the existent similarity between the two lexemic sets in their broader appraising map, which fact provides for the near-identity of the adjectival and adverbial grammatical classs of comparing. On the whole, nevertheless, the theory in inquiry is barely acceptable for the mere ground that derivative dealingss in general are non at all dealingss of lexico-grammatical individuality ; for that affair, they are instead dealingss of non-identity, since they really constitute a system of production of one type of lexical units from another type of lexical units [ 13, 227 ] . As for the types of units belonging to the same or different lexemic categories, this is a inquiry of their existent position in the system of vocabulary, i. e. in the lexemic paradigm of nomination reflecting the cardinal correlativities between the lexemic sets of linguistic communication. Since the English vocabulary does distinguish adjectives and adverbs ; since adjectives are substantive-qualifying words in differentiation to adverbs, which are non-substantive qualifying words ; since, eventually, adverbs in -ly do continue this cardinal nonsubstantive-qualification character & # 8212 ; there ca n’t be any inquiry of their being “ adjectives ” in any rationally imaginable manner. As for the regularity or abnormality of derivation, it is perfectly irrelevant to the designation of their class-lexemic nature [ 13, 228 ] .

Therefore, the whole job is non a job of part-of-speech individuality ; it is a job of inter-class connexions, in peculiar, of inter-class systemic division of maps, and, surely, of the correlate position of the compared units in the lexical paradigm of nomination.

But worthy of attending is the relation of the adverbs in inquiry to adverbs of other types and assortments, i. e. their intra-class correlativities. As a affair of fact, the derivational characteristics of other adverbs, in crisp contrast to the ly-adverbs, are barren of uniformity to such an extent that practically all of them fall into a battalion of minor non-productive derivational groups [ 7 ] . Besides, the majority of fanciful qualitative adverbs of other than ly-derivation have ly-correlatives ( both of similar and dissimilar significances and intensions ) . These facts can non but show that adverbs in -ly should be looked upon as the standard type of the English adverb as a whole [ 13, 229 ] .

1.3 Syntactic maps and positional features of the adverb

Adverbs may execute different maps, modifying different types of words, phrases, sentences. Some adverbs are restricted in their combinability whereas others may modify different words, for case sufficiency, which may be used in to work plenty, non rapidly plenty, speedy plenty. The most typical map of the adverb is that of adverbial qualifier [ 8 ] .

Adverbs may work asadverbial qualifiers
of mode, topographic point, clip, grade to a finite or infinite signifier of the verb:

He started his calling in St Petersburg – or Leningrad as itso
was [ 41 ] .

( clip )

The South should stay dry, buteveryplace
else will hold heavy rain.

[ 41 ] . ( topographic point )

adored his married woman [ 40 ] . ( mode )

suspect we & # 8217 ; re doing a error [ 38 ] . ( grade )

Some adverbs of clip though synonymous, are used in different syntactic forms. Therefore, already is used in affirmatory sentences, and yet – in interrogative and negative sentences:

Tim hasalready
come back from his trip [ 40 ] .

I haven & # 8217 ; t finished my studyyet
[ 38 ].

Have you finishedyet
[ 38 ] ?

However, already may happen in interrogative and negative sentences when there is an component of surprise or the inquiry is implicative, that is the talker expects an affirmatory reply:

Have they finishedalready
[ 35 ]?

Adverbs may work asadverbial qualifiers to an adjectival or another adverb
[ 19 ] . Normally the modifying adverb is an intensive ( really, instead, terribly, so, awfully, highly, most, absolutely, remarkably, delightfully, incredibly, surprisingly, strikingly, extremely, that, etc. ) The same applies to composite adverbs, such as ( sort of, kind of, a good spot of, a batch of, a snake pit of, a great trade of, etc. ) :

It isawfully
of import for parents to be consistent [ 38 ] .

This new plan isincredibly
good [ 41 ] .

It made me experiencesort of
awkward [ 41 ] .

Some adverbs – still, yet, far, much, any combine with comparative adjectives ( much worse, non any better, still greater, etc. )

Adverbs of grade can modify certain sorts of prepositional phrases:

They livedabout
on the top of the hill [ 40 ] .

His comments were nonrather
to the point [ 40 ] .

Comparative adverbs are used inclauses of relative understanding,
that is, parallel clauses in which qualities or actions denoted in them increase or diminish at an equal rate [ 25, 177 ] :

The thirster
I think about itthe lupus erythematosus
I understand your grounds [ 41 ] .

To show the thought that a quality or action lessenings or additions at an even rate the comparative may be repeated, the two indistinguishable signifiers being connected by and:

He criedlouder and louder
[ 25, 177 ] .

There are some adverbs which may modify nouns or words of nominal character, operation asproperty,
as in: the manner in front, the trip abroad, the journey place, his return place, the sentence above ( below ) , the twenty-four hours before. A few adverbs can premodify nouns without losing their adverbial character: the so president, in after old ages, the above sentence, the now coevals.

As adverbs modify words of different categories, they consequently occupy different places in the sentence. In comparing with other words, adverbs may be considered as the most movable words.However, adverbs are non indistinguishable in their ability to be moved to another place in the construction. There are by and large four possible places for adverbs in the sentence [ 18, 397 ] :

1 ) at the caput of the sentence ;

2 ) between the topic and predicate or, if the predicate is a complicated signifier, the adverb appears after the first subsidiary verb, link-verb or a average verb ;

3 ) before the word the adverb modifies ;

4 ) at the terminal of the sentence.

Different semantic groups of adverbs tend to look in different places. Therefore, many adverbs of clip and frequence prefer Position 2:

A good strong cup of java ismerely
what I need right now [ 41 ] .

He isever
in clip for repasts [ 38 ] .

remain up all dark [ 41 ] .

However, some of clip adverbs appear in Position 4:

He camefinally
[ 40 ] .

The telephone rang, and he answered itinstantly
[ 40 ] .

She hasn & # 8217 ; t finished her breakfastyet
[ 38 ] .

Ifany adverbs of clip and frequence are found in places other than those characteristic of them, it means that these adverbs are intended for particular accent [ 21, 399 ] :

are really punctual. ( common )

they are really punctual. ( emphasized )

Adverbs of topographic point and way normally occur in Position 4:

I looked for iteveryplace
[ 38 ] .

The immature people were basking themselvesoutside
[ 38 ].

Adverbs of mode normally appear in Position 4, after the predicate verb:

He gave her the moneyreluctantly
[ 41 ] .

She looked at mesuspiciously
[ 41 ] .

Some adverbs of mode may on occasion be found in Position 2:

picked up all the spots of broken glass [ 40 ] .

Theyin secret
decided to go forth the town [ 40 ] .

Occasionally adverbs of mode may be found in Position 1. In that instance the adverb does non merely modify the predicative verb, but besides the topic:

he denied that he had stolen the paperss [ 41 ] . ( = he was angry when he denied that he had stolen the paperss )

Adverbs of grade ( or intensives ) are normally placed in Position 3, before the word they modify:

It & # 8217 ; sperfectly
the best museum in the state [ 38 ] .

saw him traversing the street [ 38 ] .

The adverbplenty
, when it modifies an adjectival or an adverb, is placed in post-position to them:

You can travel to school when you ‘re oldplenty
[ 40 ] .

He didn & # 8217 ; t work rapidlyplenty
[ 40 ] .

However, adverbs of grade ( intensives ) , if they modify verbs, may besides be found in Position 4, at the terminal of the sentence:

The lone manner Glass could get the better of this unreconcilable difference was by making off with the saloon lineswholly [

But if the supplication can be supported by a determination of guilt entirely, a suspect might get away penaltywholly
[ 40 ] .

When busying the initial place in the sentence, wholly is used parenthetically as a conjunctive adverb ( = on the whole ) :

Latin America is a universe where crude ways of life exist near ultra-modern metropoliss.Wholly
, it is a continent full of verve [ 40 ] .

Chapter 2. Paradigmatics of adverbs

2.1 Semantic categorization of adverbs

The adverb in English undergoes two paradigmatically relevant categorizations:

1 ) semantic ;

2 ) lexico-grammatical.

Semantic categorization is based on the significance of adverbs. Harmonizing to their significance, adverbs autumn into the following groups [ 18, 393 ] :

Adverbs of clip:
afterwards, already, at one time, finally, instantly, recently, now, soon, shortly, all of a sudden, so, when, yesterday, yet, etc. :

Our category is traveling to Londontomorrow
[ 36, 55 ].

It & # 8217 ; s been two hebdomadsnow
since she called place [ 38 ] .

Adverbs of frequence:
ever, invariably, barely of all time, ne’er, on occasion, frequently, rarely, sometimes, three times, twice, etc. :

There isever
person at place in the eventides [ 40 ] .

remain up all dark [ 40 ] .

Adverbs of topographic point or way:
abroad, ashore, backwards, below, downstairs, everyplace, far, here, indoors, outside, seaward ( s ) , there, to and fro, where, etc. :

We & # 8217 ; llhave to eat here & # 8211 ;everyplace
else is full [ 36, 54 ] .

He was celebrated, both at place andabroad
[ 38 ] .

A Canis familiaris began to barksomeplace indoors
[ 38 ] .

I was nowfar
behind the others and I knew I couldn & # 8217 ; t catch up [ 40 ] .

The usage of someplace, anyplace and nowhere apathetic sorts of sentences is similar to the usage of the corresponding indefinite pronouns some, any and no.

Adverbs of mode:
severely, clearly, profoundly, fast, how, rapidly, sideways, unfeignedly, someway, well, volitionally, etc. :

His run was non travelinggood
[ 41 ] .

The economic crisis reflectsseverely
on the authorities & # 8217 ; s policies [ 41 ] .

We areunfeignedly
grateful for your aid [ 40 ] .

Adverbs of mode stating how an action is performed can freely happen with dynamic verbs, but non with stative verbs:

into the jobcarefully
[ 38 ] .

[ 38 ] .

The male childblushed
[ 36, 52 ].

5.Adverbs of grade or intensives
can be used before adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs to give information about the extent or degree of something:
wholly, plenty, highly, extremely, sludge, about, absolutely, reasonably, rather, instead, truly, so, slightly, awfully, excessively, remarkably, really, etc. :

Sometimes the United kingdom seemswholly
isolated from the chief watercourse of European civilization [ 40 ] .

The embassador made a brief statement, stating that the negotiations had beenreally
productive [ 38 ] .

Myerssaid that two twelvemonth prison sentence for colza waswholly
unacceptable and unequal [ 38 ] .

Adverbs of grade or intensives may be subdivided into three semantic groups:

1 )
( stressing the truth of the communicating ) : really, at all, clearly, decidedly, so, merely, literally, obviously, truly, merely, etc. :

What do youtruly
think about it [ 41 ] ?

When I told you to & # 8216 ; acquire lost & # 8217 ; I didn & # 8217 ; t anticipate to be takenliterally
[ 41 ] .

Fameis frequentlymerely
a affair of being in the right topographic point at the right clip

[ 40 ] .

ca n’t understand it [ 36, 60 ].

You have n’t done itgood at all
[ 38 ] .

2 )
( showing a high grade ) : perfectly, wholly, severely, bitterly, wholly, profoundly, downright, wholly, highly, ( by ) far, to the full, greatly, heartily, much, absolutely, pointblank, rather, awfully, exhaustively, absolutely, really, etc. :

Each panel member should guarantee that he or sheexhaustively
trials the instance presented for undertaking blessing [ 40 ] .

Artists areawfully
hard people for us ordinary persons to cover with [ 40 ] .

Because of the linguistic communication barrier and civilization daze, such penetrations arefar
excessively rare [ 41 ] .

I told Fredpointblank
that he had made a error [ 41 ] .

He said the Diesel costs & # 163 ; 16,600, which isdownright
absurd [ 38 ] .

Local occupants aredeeply
concerned about the menace to wellness posed by the power station [ 38 ] .

For many old ages, the benefits of the expensive system greatly outweighed the disadvantages [ 40 ] .

3 )
( take downing the consequence ) : a spot, about, hardly, plenty, barely, sort of, ( a ) small, reasonably, more or less, about, partially, rather, instead, barely, somewhat, slightly, kind of, sufficiently, etc. :

We took asomewhat
more direct root [ 38 ].

He was merelypartially
responsible for the accident [ 38 ] .

of disapprove of such methods [ 40 ] .

I think you ‘rea spot
excessively immature to be watching this [ 36, 62 ] .

nil was done to better the state of affairs [ 40 ] .

drawattention to the most of import portion of vocalization. They can be of two sorts:

1 )restrictive:
entirely, precisely, merely, simply, merely, exactly, strictly, merely, particularly, etc. :

Some pupils lose Markssmerely
because they do n’t read the inquiry decently [ 41 ] .

It ‘s of import to compose these ends down, instead thansimply
believe about them [ 41 ] .

2 )additive:
once more, besides, either, every bit, even, excessively, etc.

She stayed and nursed him back to wellnessonce more
[ 38 ] .

You must hold a good instruction, but practical preparation isevery bit
of import [ 38 ] .

7.Viewpoint adverbs
are used to do clear what viewpoint the talker is talking from ; that is, placing what characteristics of something are being talked about(
economically, morally, politically, scientifically, weather-wise, financially, ideologically, industrially, environmentally, logically, medically, externally, technically, visually, etc. ) :

the accident has been a catastrophe for the proprietors of the tunnel [ 21, 156 ] .

these islands are closer to the mainland than to the adjacent islands [ 21, 156 ] .

the undertaking is bound to neglect [ 40 ] .

The brothers may be likewisephysically
, but they have really different personalities [ 40 ] .

A figure of phrases are used in a similar manner ( politically talking, in political footings, in footings of political relations, from a political point of position, every bit far as political relations are concerned ) :

Politically/In political footings
, this summer is a important clip for the authorities [ 21, 156 ] .

Financially/From a fiscal point of position
, it is a good investing [ 21, 156 ] .

8.Attitudinal adverbs
which express the talker ‘s remark on the content of what he is stating. Such adverbs can be of two sorts:

1 ) adverbs showing a remark on the truth-value of what is being said, bespeaking the extent to which the talker believes what he is stating is true: true, allegedly, seemingly, surely, unquestionably, decidedly, doubtless, possibly, evidently, possibly, perchance, presumptively, likely, rather likely, purportedly, certainly, doubtless, etc. :

Few adult females,presumptively
, would desire to return to the premises on which the old system was based [ 40 ] .

He waspurportedly
presenting some documents to her but I think it was merely an alibi to see her [ 40 ] .

The impact, happening shortly before midnight,seemingly
knocked out all communications before warning could be given [ 41 ] .

the populace does non hold much pick in the affair [ 38 ] .Surely
, he had really small ground to fear anyone [ 38 ] .

2 ) adverbs showing some attitude towards what is being said: surprisingly, smartly, ( in ) right, oddly, unwisely, ( un ) fortuitously, queerly plenty, ( un ) merrily, improbably, ironically, ( un ) rightly, ( un ) fortunately, curiously, sooner, moderately, unfortunately, unusually, sanely, significantly, queerly, tragically, typically, out of the blue, etc. :

He issagely
remaining at place tonight [ 38 ] .

we were highly annoyed when we received the missive [ 38 ] .

Attempts to minimize his playing merely because of his popularity are misplaced butunfortunately
widespread [ 40 ] .

9.Conjunctive adverbs:
above all, consequently, instead, anyhow, anyhow, as a consequence, at any rate, besides, by the manner, accordingly, eventually, foremost ( ly ) , for all that, for illustration, farther, moreover, hence, nevertheless, by the way, in other words, in malice of that, alternatively, in that instance, in conclusion, similarly, meanwhile, mean while, viz. , however, following, on the contrary, on the 1 ( other ) manus, otherwise, instead, secondly, likewise, so, still, that is, so, hence, though, therefore, excessively, yet, etc. :

I ‘d wish you to make two things for me.First
, phone the office and state them I ‘ll be tardily.Second
, order a cab to be here in approximately half an hr [ 18, 394 ] .

By the way
, he left you a message. It is on your desk [ 41 ] .

I did n’t like the nutrient at that place.However
, I did n’t kick about it [ 38 ] .

He has been working really hard. He looks fit,though
[ 41 ] .

10.Formulaic adverbs
( markers of courtesy ) : heartily, kindly, please, etc. :

Will youkindly
assist me with the package [ 40 ] ?

invite you to our party [ 40 ] .

Let me hold a expression at the image,please
[ 38 ] .

The adverbs when, where, how and why belonging to different semantic groups mentioned supra have one point in common & # 8212 ; they serve to organize inquiries and present some sorts of low-level clauses [ 15 ] . In the former instance, owing to their subsidiary map, they are called interrogative adverbs ( a ) . In the latter instance, besides owing to their subsidiary map, they are called conjunctive adverbs ( B ) . In both instances they perform different adverbial maps in the sentence:

a ) When did you see him last? ( adverbial qualifier of clip )

Where are you traveling? ( adverbial qualifier of topographic point )

How did you pull off it? ( adverbial qualifier of mode )

Why did n’t you state me about it? ( adverbial qualifier of cause )

B ) Sunday was the twenty-four hours when he was least busy.

( adverbial qualifier of clip )

The thing to happen out was where he was so.

( adverbial qualifier of topographic point )

How it was done remains a enigma to me.

( adverbial qualifier of mode )

I wanted to cognize why he had left us so suddenly.

( adverbial qualifier of cause )

As is seen from the above illustrations, the conjunctive adverbs can present prenominal, predicative, capable and object clauses.

The adverb how, in add-on to the above maps, can besides be placed at the caput of an emphatic sentence. In this instance it is frequently followed by an adjective or an adverb but it may besides be used entirely. This how is sometimes called the exclamatory how [ 18, 395 ] :

unjust grown-ups are!

the babe calls! [ 18, 395 ]

2.2 Lexico-grammatical subdivision of adverbs

syntagmatic paradigmatic distinctive features adverbs English

Adverbs may be divided into three lexico-grammatical subclasses: qualitative, quantitative, and circumstantial [ 13 ; 13 ] .

Qualitative adverbs
demo the quality of an action or province much in the same manner as a qualitative adjective shows the quality of some substance ( walks rapidly and a speedy walk, speaks aloud and a loud address, etc ) . The connexion between qualitative adverbs and adjectives is obvious. In most instances the adverb is derived from the adjectival with the aid of the most productive adverb-forming postfix & # 8211 ; ly.

Qualitative adverbs, with or without & # 8211 ; ly, are a subclass of adverbs with curious lexico-grammatical characteristics. Harmonizing to their significance, the include adverbs of mode ( good, severely, fast, rapidly, clearly, all of a sudden, profoundly, unfeignedly, volitionally, sideways, someway, how, etc. ) .

Qualitative adverbs normally modify verbs or statives. As they characterize the quality of an action or province, they are inside bound with a verb or stative and are normally placed every bit near as possible to the verb or stative they modify:

Tony and the girl of the Polish governor catch one glance of each other and arefrantically
aflame [ 16 ] .

Table 1: Characteristic characteristics of qualitative adverbs

1. Lexico-grammatical significance Show the quality of an action or province
2. Typical stem-building affixes -ly
3. Morphologic classs Subclass of adverbs
4. Typical forms of combinability Are placed to the verb or stative they modify
5. Syntactic maps Modify verbs or statives

Here is the list of qualitative adverbs which describe the manner in which is done [ 16, 291 ] :









































































































Quantitative adverbs
demo the grade, step, measure of an action, quality, province ( really, instead, excessively, about, greatly, barely, to the full, rather, absolutely, twofold, etc. ) . In traditional grammar they are referred to as adverbs of grade. They may be subdivided into several clearly marked sets [ 13, 224 ] :

1 ) adverbs of high grade. These adverbs are sometimes classed as “ intensives ” : really, rather, wholly, absolutely, extremely, greatly, absolutely, perfectly, strongly, well, reasonably, much ;

2 ) adverbs of inordinate grade ( direct and contrary ) besides belonging to the broader subclass of intensives: excessively, terribly, enormously, awfully, wonderfully ;

3 ) adverbs of unexpected grade: surprisingly, amazingly, surprisingly ;

4 ) adverbs of moderate grade: reasonably, relatively, comparatively, reasonably, instead ;

5 ) adverbs of low grade: somewhat, a small, a spot ;

6 ) adverbs of approximative grade: about, about ;

7 ) adverbs of optimum grade: plenty, sufficiently, adequately ;

8 ) adverbs of unequal grade: insufficiently, unacceptably, unbearably, laughably ;

9 ) adverbs of under-degree: barely, barely.

Many adverbs of grade are restricted to a little set of lexical points, e.g. profoundly dying, extremely intelligent, strikingly fine-looking, aggressively critical.

Some grade adverbs tend to be distinguished in footings of positive and negative attitude. Reasonably, rather, wholly suggest a positive significance:

I & # 8217 ; mreasonably
certain I can make the occupation [ 38 ] .

He playsrather
good [ 38 ] .

agree with you [ 41 ] .

Rather, wholly, absolutely suggest a negative significance:

The instructions wereinstead
complicated [ 40 ] .

The detonationwholly
destroyed the edifice [ 40 ] .

failed to convert them [ 41 ] .

The combinability of quantitative adverbs is more extended than that of qualitative adverbs. Besides verbs and statives, quantitative adverbs modify adjectives, adverbs, indefinite pronouns, numbers, modals, and even nouns:

like opera [ 41 ] .

He had becometo the full
aware of her [ 41 ] .

disconsolate she wandered out into the cathedral [ 38 ] .

She knew it merelyexcessively
good [ 38 ] .

likely he won & # 8217 ; t stir [ 40 ] .

everybody came to our party [ 40 ] .

It wasabout
10s [ 40 ] .

He isentirely
maestro of the state of affairs [ 38 ] .

The combinability of some adverbs of this category can be instead narrow. The adverb really ( terribly, terribly, etc. ) , for case, largely precedes those adjectives and adverbs which have antonyms of comparing. It does non, as a regulation, modify verbs or numbers. The combinability of about or about, on the other manus, is so extended, that these words are close to atoms.

Harmonizing to M. Y. Blokh, the grade adverbs, though normally described under the header of “ quantitative ” , in world constitute a specific assortment of qualitative words, or instead some kind of intermediate qualitative-quantitative words, in so far as they are used as quality judges [ 13, 224 ] . In this map they are clearly different from echt quantitative adverbs which are straight related to numbers and thereby form sets of words of pronominal order. Such are numerical-pronominal adverbs like twice, thrice, four times, etc. ; twofold, three times, many crease, etc. Therefore, the first general subclass of adverbs is formed by qualitative adverbs which are subdivided into qualitative adverbs of full fanciful value and degree adverbs & # 8212 ; specific functional words.

Circumstantial adverbs
make non qualify the action itself but name certain fortunes go toing the action described in the sentence and normally mentioning to the state of affairs as a whole. Therefore circumstantial adverbs can be used in a sentence in which the lone verb is a link-verb, that is, where no action is described:

He will be tentomorrow

This accounts for the fact that, unlike qualitative and quantitative adverbs, circumstantial adverbs are non needfully placed near the verb, they may busy different topographic points in the sentence:

It wasn & # 8217 ; t any excessively warmyesterday
[ 41 ] .

they had a snow-squall out west [ 41 ] .

Circumstantial adverbs may be considered as the movable words [ 25, 284 ] . The most nomadic are adverbs of clip and topographic point. They can busy several places without any alteration in their significance, as in:

he marks good.

marks good.

He marks goodnormally
. [ 25, 284 ]

When H. Sweet speaks of adverbs, as demoing about the last remains of normal free order in Modern English, it concerns, largely, circumstantial adverbs [ 35 ] .

Table 2: Characteristic characteristics of quantitative adverbs

1. Lexico-grammatical significance Show the grade, step, measure of an action, quality, province
2. Typical stem-building affixes Are frequently formed from adjectives by adding -ly
3. Morphologic classs — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –
4. Typical forms of combinability Modify verbs, adjectives, statives, adverbs, indefinite pronouns, numbers, modals, and even nouns
5. Syntactic maps Adverbial qualifier of grade

Here is a list of adverbs of degree [ 16, 293 ] :




























Petit larceny











































Circumstantial adverbs include [ 16, 294 ] :

1 ) adverbs of clip: now, so, yesterday, recently, shortly, afterwards, soon, instantly, finally, when, etc.

2 ) adverbs of frequence: frequently, rarely, sometimes, ever, barely of all time, ne’er, invariably, on occasion, etc.

3 ) adverbs of topographic point or way: here, there, everyplace, downstairs, below, ashore, abroad, inside, outside, northerly ( s ) , to and fro, backwards, where, etc.

4 ) adverbs of effect and cause: hence, hence, accordingly, consequently, why, so, etc.

5 ) adverbs of intent: intentionally, deliberately, intentionally.

Baring some adverbs with the & # 8211 ; ward ( s ) postfix ( backwards, inwards ) , the & # 8211 ; ice postfix ( twice, thrice ) , circumstantial adverbs have no typical stem-building elements ( Cf. with the & # 8211 ; ly suffix incident to qualitative adverbs ) . They are frequently morphologically indivisible ( north, place, down, etc. ) , even more frequently are they related by transition with prepositions ( in, out, behind ) , concurrences ( since, before ) , nouns ( north, place ) , adjectives ( late, menu ) .

Merely a little group of circumstantial adverbs denoting indefinite clip and topographic point have antonyms of comparing. Most adverbs of this subclass have no signifiers of any grammatical class.

Circumstantial adverbs are largely used in the map of adverbial qualifiers of clip and topographic point. But sometimes they can be used in other maps, for case, as property:

See the notesabove
[ 38 ] .

The roomupstairs
is vacant [ 38 ] .

Among circumstantial adverbs there is besides a particular group ofpronominal adverbs
when, where, how, why used either as interrogative words to organize inquiries, or as conjunctions to present low-level clauses:

shall we travel?

We & # 8217 ; ll travelwhere
you want. [ 16, 295 ]

In the former instance, owing to their subsidiary map, they are calledinterrogative adverbs
[ 16, 295 ] :

did you see him last?

are you traveling?

did you pull off to make it? [ 16, 295 ]

In the latter instance, besides owing to their subsidiary map, they calledconjunctive adverbs
[ 16, 295 ] :

Sunday was the twenty-four hourswhen
he was least busy.

The thing to happen out iswhere
he is now.

it was done remains a enigma to me. [ 16, 295 ]

The adverb how, in add-on to the above maps, may besides be placed at the caput of an emphatic sentence. In this instance it is frequently followed by an adjective or an adverb but it may besides be used entirely. This how is sometimes calledthe exclamatory how

unjust grown-ups are! [ 38 ]

good I & # 8217 ; m looked after! [ 38 ]

Harmonizing to M. Y. Blokh, circumstantial adverbs are divided into fanciful and functional [ 13, 224 ] .

The functional circumstantial adverbs are words of pronominal nature. Besides quantitative ( numerical ) adverbs mentioned above, they include adverbs of clip, topographic point, mode, cause, effect. Many of the

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