System of education of Great Britain
1. System of instruction of Great Britain ( simplified circuit of instruction of Great Britain )
Initial school instruction 5-12 old ages preparative schools 5-7 old ages of simple schools, 7-12 old ages of a twenty-four hours clip type ( private ( single ) and province ) or boarding-schools ( as a regulation, private ( single ) ) ; schools for the male childs, school for the misss, school of joint preparation Average school instruction 11-18 old ages. Five obligatory categories for response of the certification GCSE:
– Assorted schools and colleges of a twenty-four hours clip type or boarding-schools ( private ( single ) and province ) ;
– School for the male childs, school for the misss, school of joint preparation ;
– Certificate GCSE ( General Certificate of Secondary Education ) – parallel of the Russian school-leaving certification ; the farther instruction – non needfully Sixth category 1-2 academic old ages for response of the certification GCE – A Level ( General Certificate of Education Advanced Level ) or preparative rates 16-18 old ages assorted schools and colleges of a twenty-four hours clip type or boarding-schools ( private ( single ) and province ) ;
– School for the male childs, school for the misss, school of joint preparation ; the certification GCE – A Level or diploma about the expiration ( stoping ) of preparatory rates – necessary status for reception in high school the Further instruction 2-year ‘s preparation in private ( single ) or province college or institute on one of academic or professional fortes ;
– Reception of the maximal national sheepskin – HND ( Higher National Diploma ) Maximum instruction 3-4 old ages developing on twenty-four hours clip subdivision of college, polytechnic institute or university on one of the academic or professional plans ;
– Reception of a grade of the unmarried man Maximum instruction 1-2 old ages of survey on twenty-four hours clip subdivision of polytechnic institute or university, including preparation or research occupation and protection of the sheepskin ;
– Reception of a grade of the Foreman Maximum instruction 1-3 old ages of independent research occupation at university under the way of the professors, protection of the thesis ;
– Reception of a grade of the physician.
However extremely the British instruction in the universe, however in in-between 1950ss was appreciated. The authorities of Great Britain has begun reform
All system, from an simple school up to high school. Wholly this reform is non completed and to this twenty-four hours. In consequence today in the state some types of high schools peacefully coexist, for illustration. The basal educational lower limit is legislatively fixed which should be given by ( with ) any school is non dependent on a type and plans of preparation. Obligatory secondary instruction ( kids besides is study till 15-16 of old ages ) , and this obligatory instruction – free-of-charge. The alumnuss of high schools pass scrutinies and, every bit good as our Russian schoolboys, receive foremost in life the certification – GCSE, nevertheless as against the Russian parallel GCSE does non give the right to move in high schools. After that the immature people appear before a pick – either to look for occupation, or to go on to analyze.
The old system of high schools was saved in some countries of a countryside. Here after expiration ( stoping ) an simple school by consequences of trial.
Examinations kids are distributed ( allocated ) for three types of high schools – most capable act in particular school, others direct or to proficient schools, or in modern school. At mean proficient schools is given general educational, general proficient and initial professional preparation. The modern school was so is named because in the basal plan of developing there were no ancient linguistic communications ( Latin and ancient Greek ) , were taught merely modern. At these schools the usual secondary instruction is given, but the important portion of the plan is made by ( with ) practical employment ( businesss ) . At one time after go forthing school the alumnuss fundamentally act on occupation.
The reorganisation of high school has resulted that in big metropoliss the complex schools for kids from 11 boulder clay 18 old ages have appeared. About it will be in item told in the chapter devoted high school. High school coating by scrutinies GCSE, – five old ages. Those who is traveling to foster to move in high school, should stop the 6th category and base on balls scrutiny on the certification GCE – A Level & # 8211 ; general ( common ) certification on the profound educational degree. If to compare our system of instruction to English, the certification GCE – A Level really corresponds ( meets ) to the papers on the expiration ( stoping ) of preparatory rates of high school, in which you are traveling to move. The footings “ the 6th category ” and “ the plans of an And – degree ” are in Great Britain nominal and denominate the assorted plans and rates carry oning to reception GCE – A Level. For reception in high schools in Great Britain besides schools there are colleges of the 6th category, younger two-year colleges and it is simple colleges, in which Teach non merely general educational topics of the 6th category, but besides professional subjects.
After the certification GCE – A Level is received, before the immature people the farther and maximal instruction is unfastened. The term “ maximal instruction ” concerns to the plans, which purpose – award of a grade of the unmarried man, chief or doctor. “ The Further instruction “ of an academic grade does non give, it, as a regulation, professional preparation. The rate of the “ farther ” preparation is finished by scrutinies and response of the maximal national sheepskin HND. In the field of vocational developing the sheepskin given by one of three professional commissions are most apprehended: CGLI ( City and Guilds of London Institute ) , RSA ( Royal Society of Arts ) , BTEC ( Business and Technical Education Council ) . Many colleges and institutes are authorized to give out the sheepskin on behalf of one of these three commissions. Other educational establishments give out or ain sheepskin and certifications, or sheepskin of other scrutiny commissions.
The sheepskin HND is of import for having by the 1 who is traveling to at one time to get down occupation on the elected forte and is non traveling to be protected on a grade of the unmarried man. From the point of position of professional calling, this sheepskin allows to progress on a service within the bounds of the mean proficient or younger administrative board of house. Besides holding this sheepskin, it is possible to come in university ( if all the same are convinced of necessity of maximal instruction ) , and to get down developing at one time from the 2nd rate. Maximal instruction the Englishmen receive in colleges, polytechnic institutes and universities. After 3-4 old ages of survey on twenty-four hours clip branch the young person receives a grade of the unmarried man. Having this grade, it is possible to number on a good station in a non-production portion or mean administrative board private ( single ) or state-owned house, at the industrial endeavor, or to open ain private ( single ) pattern ( for physicians and attorneies ) .
The grade of the unmarried man suffices for some trades, and farther instruction it is non required. But for the bulk of fortes the grade of the chief opens much more chances. For illustration, holding the unmarried man ‘s grade of medical specialty, it is possible to work in clinic or to hold little private ( single ) pattern. But to head subdivision in any infirmary or even the whole clinic, the sheepskin of the chief is necessary for enlargement of private ( single ) pattern.
The grade of the chief about corresponds ( meets ) to our sheepskin about maximal instruction, and grade of the physician – grade of the campaigner of scientific disciplines in Russia. The equivalent of a grade of the physician of scientific disciplines in Great Britain does non be. There is a figure ( line ) of general ( common ) of import characteristics, characteristic for all universities. All of them appropriate ( give ) ain grades. Everyone have the indistinguishable demands at response on developing under the plan of the unmarried man. The big universities such as London inside themselves are subdivided into colleges. These colleges are a portion of university and give instruction on the certain forte. Individually in construction of university the colleges specialising on readying of the entrants to acknowledge on the basic plans ( modules ) of university, betterment of professional accomplishment of the experts, learning of English linguistic communication for the aliens are allocated. The little universities are subdivided into modules, and the name of colleges is appropriated ( given ) to preparative subdivisions and linguistic communication rates of the big universities. Polytechnic institutes. The system of polytechnic institutes plants in parallel university. Under the position all institutes are independent educational corporations. They appropriate ( give ) the sheepskin and grades on its ain behalf or on behalf of the national authorised Advice ( council ) CNAA. On many parametric quantities these institutes are really similar to universities, but have a figure ( line ) of differences. Most of import: in polytechnic institute it is possible to analyze wider spectrum of rates, than it is necessary on the chosen forte. The 2nd characteristic is the semi-annual or one-year class occupation on a forte which is carried out in one of the commercial or industrial companies. Equally good as university, the polytechnic institute gives instruction under the plan of the unmarried man, and so chief and physician. Recently some of polytechnic institutes were renamed into universities, but the characteristics of preparation in them were saved.
Colleges of maximal instruction. It is the 3rd discrepancy of response of maximal instruction in Great Britain. The colleges award nationally the recognized grades and diplomas both on academic, and on professional subjects. The alumnuss of colleges receive the maximal national sheepskin HND or grade of the unmarried man, and the sheepskin are awarded after each successfully finished plan. The colleges rarely have rates under the plan of the chief and practically ne’er are engaged in readying of the pupils under the plan of a scientific grade of the physician of doctrine. Many colleges have particular preparatory rates, at which successful expiration ( stoping ) the alumnuss are enlisted without scrutinies and competition for the farther preparation under the plan of the unmarried man in polytechnic institutes and universities.
In Great Britain 30.000 comprehensive schools and 2300 & # 8211 ; private ( single ) , named “ independent sector ” work. The bulk of comprehensive schools ( from 60 up to 90 % ) – assorted. The private schools work as assorted fundamentally for the younger schoolboys, the preparation in the senior categories is conducted individually. In comprehensive schools kids study, as a regulation, complete twenty-four hours, the educational hebdomad makes 5 yearss. In England and Wales the school twelvemonth returns since September till July. In Scotland – from center of August till the terminal of June, in Northern Ireland – since September till July. The academic twelvemonth is divided ( shared ) into three footings for 13 hebdomads everyone.
To travel in school to child
ren 2-4 old ages in England and Wales it is perfectly non necessary. Furthermore, the parents and prefer to give back them in kids ‘s gardens holding plans of preschool readying, or in private ( single ) groups organized often by parents. There are besides particular commercial groups, in which kids train on the particular techniques, for illustration on a method Montessori. In Ireland the system kindergarten of preschool instruction is non so advanced. Probably, hence per 4 old ages in school is sent much more than kids, than in other parts of Britain.
The obligatory instruction begins in England, Wales and Scotland – per 5 old ages, in Northern Ireland – per 4 old ages. Per 11 old ages in all parts of Great Britain kids base on balls in high school ( except for Scotland, where kids translate per 12 old ages ) .
The simple schools are different. Irrespective of a type of school the schoolboys should go through an obligatory base rate of an simple school, therefore the disposal has the right independently to make up one’s mind ( solve ) , what subjects, in what volume and in what category are studied, under what manuals and techniques the instruction is conducted. A natural effect is that fact, that learned for the certain period by the schoolboys of different schools the educational stuff does non co-occur.
Now there are four types of high schools.
In Municipal technological colleges ( MTC ) most talented kids act, from which prepare the experts of a high category in the field of modern engineerings and concern ; in 1992 of such colleges was merely 14. MTC – the particular educational establishments, in which are taught obligatory topics of a general ( common ) rhythm, but.
The most serious attending is given to learning of topics holding the attitude ( relation ) to modern concern, particularly information engineerings. To technological college can turn and usual school, if she is located, for illustration, in a countryside or industrial town, where the demand is much higher the experts, than on the alumnus without particular cognition. The most portion of funding of technological colleges bit by bit will be undertaken by ( with ) local concern concerns. The bulk of kids ( 90 % ) England, the Wales and Scotland visit ( attend ) comprehensive schools. It is explained by that in these schools accept all kids irrespective of abilities and train in all topics, which enter into a basal rate of high school. It is parallel of our usual regional schools without the profound survey of topics. From here adolescents who have reached ( achieved ) 16 old ages, are sent or in 6th signifier colleges, or in third colleges.
Approximately 4 % of kids become the schoolboys grammar schools are kids shown abilities and proved, that they can analyze under the plans of an academic construction. Besides, by analogy, it some sort of our specialised schools with that difference, that in our specialised schools is profound teach one or several topics, and at the British schools a degree of learning on all basic subjects – profound. Children here study up to 18 and even 19 old ages.
Others attend secondary modern schools. Here accept kids till 16 old ages holding good practical accomplishments.
Very much few high schools have the 6th category. As a regulation, wishing continue instruction should to move in Sixth Form Colleges. In these colleges the adolescents from 16 boulder clay 19 old ages can analyze, the preparation is conducted merely on twenty-four hours clip subdivision. The immature people older 19 old ages is non accepted in colleges & # 8211 ; for them it is necessary to move in third college or college of farther instruction.
In Northern Ireland of kids are still enlisted in school by consequences of proving. Merely really much few schools accept kids without preliminary testing.
In Scotland the bulk of high schools all of them are non specialized – fundamentally comprehensive, and in them there is besides 6th category. The adolescents who have finished school, non holding of the 6th category, can continue ( base on balls ) in another to this last twelvemonth, non proving therefore of troubles connected to hunt of school. 96 % of kids – schoolboys of province high schools, others 4 % survey in private schools. More than in half of private schools the instruction is conducted individually. In Scotland there is no system of a general base rate of topics, as in England and Wales. The educational diagram, even after realisation of reform, has remained much more intense, than at schools of England and Wales, and includes a batch of topics. All topics are distributed ( allocated ) on 8 groups: linguistics and communications ; mathematical scientific disciplines ; natural-scientific topics ; human-centered and ecological scientific disciplines ; technological subjects ; topics of aesthetic development ; physical instruction ; faith and religious instruction. The schoolboys should take a lower limit in one obligatory topic from each group. On employment ( businesss ) on the chosen subjects there leaves 70 % of educational clip of each schoolboy.
In private schools 7 % of all kids of Great Britain surveies merely.
In Great Britain today works about 550 private schools. In Northern Ireland is unfastened 21 private schools.
The reforms of system of instruction of Great Britain have touched the contents of educational procedure. Both the parents, and experts did non accept that kids excessively early began “ to screen ” by leaning to those or other scientific disciplines. In a consequence some topics, necessary for the formed ( educated ) adult male, dropped out of a school rate perfectly.
As a consequence of reform the national school rate, obligatory for all types of schools was accepted: each schoolboy should go through four BASIC, cardinal phases of preparation and 10 basic topics.
1 phase – boulder clay 7 old ages, kids ;
2 phases – 7-11 old ages, adolescents ;
3 phases – 11-14 old ages ( precede readying for bringing GCSE ) ;
4 phases – 14-16 old ages ( readying for bringing GCSE and appropriate professional scrutinies ) .
The basic topics are merely three: English linguistic communication, mathematics, scientific discipline. Obligatory are 7: engineering, history, geographics, music, art, physical instruction, modern foreign linguistic communication. Depending on a phase of developing the greater attending to this or that capable is given. Some topics are absent at the first phases, and occur merely on last ( for illustration, modern foreign linguistic communication ) . Depending on what portion of Great Britain the school is located in there can be topics, specific to the given district. For illustration at schools of Wales the schoolboys should analyze as the 2nd obligatory linguistic communication Welsh ( demand, which will work till 1999 ) . On each of topics the instructions work about what accomplishments and accomplishments should be developed in kids. For illustration, as a consequence of survey of a rate of English linguistic communication kids should happen five basic accomplishments: To be able to talk, to comprehend address from hearing, to read, to compose, to cognize spelling and ( is more enormous! ) to be able to compose by manus.
The faith as a topic officially is non present at the list of school subjects, however spiritual ( and sexual, we shall add ) instruction is obligatory. At lessons the basic attending give to a Christianity, but tell every bit good about others spiritual tendencies, which representatives live in Great Britain. Daily at schools there passes a corporate church service. The parents have the right to let go of ( exempt ) the kid from survey of faith and visiting of services irrespective of, at school with what the kid surveies in a portion of Britain.
As the circle of topics investigated at schools of Scotland was already marked, it is much wider: besides topics accepted in England and Wales, the obligatory survey of modern European linguistic communication, sociology, technological pattern, music or play is included still. The new demands on proving in such topics, as Latin linguistic communication, mathematics, modern linguistic communications, all right humanistic disciplines, ecology are published. The spiritual and religious instruction besides is switched on in school procedure. In Northern Ireland BASIC are faith and six subjects: English linguistic communication, mathematics, scientific discipline and engineering, environment and society ( community ) , assorted sorts of art. The rate of each consists of subjects from several topics, some topics are obligatory.
3. Sixth category and colleges of the farther preparation
The colleges of the farther preparation can be both province, and private ( single ) . The bulk of them are specialized ( professional ) in others the pupils study general educational subjects with a sight on academic instruction. The contents of vocational preparation is developed in close cooperation with the representatives of local concern concerns, that the alumnuss were in demand and easy could happen to itself occupation. It is possible to analyze both on twenty-four hours clip subdivisions, and on eventide. Some plans named “ sandwich ” include theoretical subjects and practical occupation in the elective country at the endeavors. About reception in these educational establishments it is necessary to get down to believe one twelvemonth prior to go forthing school. The bulk have the purely certain footings of response of the paperss.
4. Higher instruction
In Great Britain 89 universities ( including institute of distant instruction and 70 high schools. From them 39 are considered new. They were created after the Certificate ( act ) of 1992.
Oldest universities – Oxford ( is open in 12 century ) and Cambridge ( 13 centuries ) . The Scots universities St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh were unfastened at 15-16 centuries. The Oxford and Cambridge universities are known everything, even by ( with ) the people which are non traveling to analyze abroad. Will state by hyperbole however, that they – “ best ” . Surely, any high school in the universe can non be compared to these by two universities on prestigiousness. For eight centuries of being history them has appeared filled assorted events. The celebrated people here studied. For illustration, Margaret Tetchier has ended module of chemical science in Oxford. These universities have turned to national fables. But besides other “ ancient ” universities, as for illustration St. Andrews, have besides really high repute. After 1980 many immature high schools, fundamentally polytechnic have appeared, the degree of learning at those universities has changed which earlier did non vie to Oxford and Cambridge. In consequence some sheepskin of these high schools are appreciated even above, than Oxford and Cambridge. Particularly it concerns some modern fortes. Maximal instruction – First Degree Study ( grade of the unmarried man )
The authorities of Great Britain is regular spends an independent appraisal of a degree and quality of learning in high schools. The appraisal is spent on four-mark system, it are taken into history a impregnation of the educational agenda, degree of instruction, security by proficient resources. To have an appraisal the high school “ is approved ” should on all parametric quantities to have an appraisal non below 2.