Teaching and Learning Techniques
Teaching Environment I am currently teaching the BTEC Sport: Performance and Excellence (level 3) to eleven full time students. The course content is competency based and focuses predominately on the psychomotor domain. Topic: Balanced Diet – Lesson Plan 3 (please see appendix 1) Theory: Bloom’s Taxonomy When investigating the possible theories that could be applicable to the course content that I am currently delivering it became apparent that there was a possible synergy between Bloom taxonomy of learning (cognitive domain) and Sports Nutrition unit, which has both theoretical and practical content.
How does theory potentially impact on learner achievement? The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. http://www. nwlink. com There are six major categories, starting with the lowest order process and progressing to the most complex. Production of a lesson plan incorporating all six stages will offer learners the opportunity of achieving distinction level in the BTEC unit.
I introduced the theory into a lesson plan based on creating a balanced diet and was able to identify progressive activities for each stage of Blooms cognitive domain. Some input on sources of nutrition had been delivered in the previous learning so entry level behaviour was confirmed through an introductory activity. All developmental activities were delivered in short time spans with 20 minutes being the longest. Learning was confirmed after each stage using a range of assessment methods. The latter increased in complexity as the lesson content moved from knowledge to application.
The first stage focuses on knowledge and what the learner is able to remember. They can exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers. The first assessment activity in the lesson required students to complete gapped hand-outs on a variety of food. For the second stage learners were asked to compare Nutrients and Non nutrients and when the differences had been identified; provide examples of foods for each heading this enabled them to demonstrate understanding of nutritional facts.
In order to achieve the level required for ‘Application’ students were required o use their new knowledge and produce a food pyramid. The task required extrapolation of relevant existing information and reconstruction to provide a visual diagram of balanced dietary needs. The remaining stages of Blooms taxonomy could only be completed in independent study time. The first assignment focused on the process of analysis and was mandatory for students. They were asked to analyse the vitamin and nutritional content of a range of foods that may be relevant to a sports performer.
The relationship between different foods in maximising energy was also to be investigated. To encourage synthesis learners were asked to design a food log that can be used to record daily food and fluid intake. To demonstrate skills of evaluation students were required to select t s trom each group and plan a breakfast lunch and dinner. How does theory encourage individual learning? Individual learning was encouraged as the stages of analysis; synthesis and evaluation were given as 3 assignments to be completed independently.
Successful completion of all assessment activities and the production of a summary report on vitamins and nutrients contained in a selection of foods (analysis) enabled learners o achieve a pass in the topic. Successful Completion of the remaining two assignments would move them up to merit and then distinction grades. How does theory facilitate group learning? There was some pair work and small group research but as this theory focuses on six stages of sequential progress it may be that group work is only viable in the lower order processes.
How does theory embed elements of functional skills? To fulfil all stages of Blooms taxonomy within the chosen unit English, ICT and maths would be embedded. How does theory promote an inclusive learning environment? Students followed stages at the same time during the lesson. No restrictions were placed on types of food that could be researched, allowing student with differing diets and consequently different prior knowledge to be fully included. 654 words) Topic: Sports Drink Research – Lesson Plan 7 (please see appendix 2) Theory: Experiential learning The emphasis in this unit is on encouraging learners to utilise the theoretical aspects of energy requirements, meal planning and hydration and then to contextualise these points for a named sports performer. This will include considering factors such s age, gender, training schedules, competition requirements and specific body measurements, in order to devise a realistic plan. The experiential learning cycle gives learners a clear structure and facilitates linkage between the theoretical and practical aspects of learning.
How does theory potentially impact on learner achievement? Depending upon the situation or environment, the learners may enter the learning cycle at any point and will best learn the new task if they practice all four modes. As the BTEC course content requires theoretical understanding and practical application t was possible to construct a lesson plan using the Honey and Mumford cycle containing four stages of learning: having an experience, reviewing the experience, concluding from the experience and planning the next steps.
All students had completed Gardner’s multiple intelligences questionnaire at the start of the course but as this focused on the VAK learning styles I asked them to complete the short version of the Honey and Mumford questionnaire. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that all four learning styles were covered in the student group, although the majority fell into the activist or pragmatist categories. The lesson content focused on Hydration and the Sports Performer.
The objectives of the lesson were to explain the importance of sports drinks during sport and fluid intake needs, make isotonic / hypertonic and hypotonic sports drinks, identify which sporting activities different drinks can be used for and produce a poster on hydration and sports activities. The initial lesson activity was a recap on the previous session which nad tocused on the principles of hydration. A question and answer session established the entry level behaviour and confirmed that students had the underpinning knowledge required or the current lesson.
The beginning of the learning cycle content was a practical activity designed to engage the activists at the start of the lesson. They were asked to make 3 types of sports drink and then taste to see if they could tell the difference. A hand out containing recipes and underpinning knowledge for the types of drink was given at this stage so that reflectors had the written input at the same time. This was followed by a discussion on the importance of sports drink and fluid intake needs, supported by the hand-out on the topic. The aim was to engage the reflectors who ike to start with investigation or observation before making any commitment.
Data and analysis helps reflectors comprehend the different angles and perspectives so statistical information was provided in the written information. In order to develop the subject and to accommodate theorists, learners were asked Identify which sporting activities different drinks can be used for and then plan sports drinks for 3 different sports. In the fourth stage of the lesson a range of commercial sports drinks were provided and students asked to identify which group the drink belonged too. This required analysis and categorisation of each product enabling the pragmatists to apply their new knowledge in a task orientated way.
The final activity was production of a poster on hydration and sports activities. As this would form part of their assignment on hydration and sports performance a draft version was completed during the lesson. This allowed the learners to consolidate their learning in an inclusive environment and with group support. How does theory encourage individual learning? It engages the learner at a more personal level by addressing the needs and wants of the individual. Experiential learning requires qualities such as self-initiative and self- evaluation.
Despite having the same learning experience, each individual will construct an individual meaning that is in part related to their learning preferences. How does theory facilitate group learning? Honey and Mumford’s learning cycles worked well in the classroom setting as all learning preferences were covered. Different learning styles are effective during group research as it increases the potential for all aspects of the research to be covered. How does theory embed elements of functional skills? Opportunities for personal, learning and thinking skills are embedded in the learning theory and lesson content.
Creative thinkers, Reflective learners and Self-managers will develop skills by planning a hydration plan for a selected sports performer for a selected sports activity. (746 words) EVALUATION Feedback From Students (4. 2): ‘l really enjoyed this unit, especially getting the opportunity to make our own isotonic drinks. However, tots of written work meant I found it difficult to absorb all the information’. ‘One of the most interesting things was finding out about my learning tyle, now that know I am a kinaesthetic learner it makes a lot more sense why I enjoy the practical sessions so much more. ‘l liked the plan, do, review type working as I found it helped me understand the process better’. Evaluation of teaching theories and strategies used (4. 2, 4. 3): The use of Blooms taxonomy of learning for the cognitive domain fits in well with the structure of a BTEC and the multiple grade options. It was difficult to apply the levels within a single lesson but would be suitable for use over an entire unit with a longer period of time for development. The ontent of the sports nutrition unit focuses on students developing a broad knowledge the subject matter and its relationship to sports performance.
Several of the units that I delivered at the beginning of the year were more linear in structure and would be a better choice as students focus on developing a particular skill to the highest standard possible. Experiential learning worked well in the lesson and the learners responded in a positive way. By providing direct experience in addition to standard written and visual materials, learners with different types of learning styles nd strengths were accommodated. I would use this learning model in future to ensure that teaching activities give tull value to each stage ot the curriculum. Personal Strengths (4. ): Due to my business background I found using ‘Experiential Learning’ relatively easy to implement within the framework of the Sports Nutrition unit. By encouraging students to follow the process of the four stages of learning within this model they quickly learnt to analyse their work and this enhanced the amount of learning that took place. I also found that I was able to deliver the practical elements of the unit, uch as making an isotonic drink, in a fun, engaging way, which saw the students engage in some principles of science in such a way I have not seen before. Personal Areas for Improvement (4. ): I was not happy with the way in which I delivered the lesson on Balanced Diet, using Bloom’s Taxonomy. I found it difficult to grasp when I should use which stage for optimum effect and this lead to me trying to ‘cram ‘ them all in. On reflection I need to enhance my understanding of Bloom’s Taxonomy and consider which lessons to use it in more carefully. APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 Unit 11: Sports nutrition Lesson plan 7 Class: BTEC Performance and Excellence Time available: 2 hours Date: Topic: Sports drinks research Expected entry behaviour: Learners will be able to conduct independent research and produce written guidance notes.
Objectives: Learners will be able to: 1 . explain the importance of sports drinks during sport and fluid intake needs 2. make isotonic / hypertonic and hypotonic sports drinks 3. Identify which sporting activities different drinks can be used for 4. Produce a poster on hydration and sports Time Teacher activity Student activity Resources Assessment Introduction 5m Health and safety Recap on previous session activities Objectives of lesson Hand out on hydration ENG MAT Development Ihr 30m Sports drinks research – lesson 7 20m Tutor to provide ingredients and equipment. groups of students – each type of drink. 20m – importance of sports drink and fluid intake needs 20m Identify which sporting activities different drinks can be used for. 20m A range of sports drinks to be provided – students to identify which group it belongs too. 40m, Example ot general hydration poster to be shown Make a sports drink. Students try drinks from each group Discussion on types of sport drink Individual work Plan sports drinks for 3 different sports small group research – select a drink and analyse content.