Sociology test

7 July 2016

1) What sociological phrase is used to describe “opening a window onto unfamiliar worlds” and “offering a fresh look at familiar worlds”? A) the sociological perspective B) the social imperative C) social integration D) social location

2) To be classified as a society, what are the two key qualities a group of people must share? A) a common language and a common religion B) a common culture and a territory C) a territory and a common political ideology D) ethnicity and a common language

Sociology test Essay Example

3) What term do sociologists use to describe the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society? A) the sociological perspective B) the social imperative C) social location D) the sociological framework

4) Frank is examining the broad stream of events that have occurred over the past 50 years and the specific experiences of his own life. By doing so, what sociological process has Frank undertaken? A) social determinism

B) the sociological imagination C) the social imperative D) positivism

5) What two events most inspired people to rethink social life that led to an uprooting of what had been traditional social arrangements and the development of sociology as a science? A) World War I and the Great Depression

B) the discovery of the new world and Renaissance C) the American Revolution and the French Revolution D) the Insurrection and Enlightenment

6) Which social scientist first proposed applying the scientific method to the social world, a practice known as positivism? A) Maximilien Robespierre B) Auguste Comte C) Emile Durkheim D) Herbert Spencer

7) Based on the original writings of Karl Marx, how would social change be accomplished? A) Society would naturally evolve from a barbaric to more civilized form. B) The education of the masses would lead to social change and innovation. C) The application of the scientific method would improve social conditions. D) Workers would unite and overthrow the capitalists through revolution.

8) Based on the theories formulated by Karl Marx, what was the ultimate goal of the proletariat? A) The proletariat sought to establish a democratic society and independence. B) The proletariat wanted to develop a society with a strong middle class. C) The proletariat sought to develop a classless society free of exploitation. D) The proletariat wanted to establish capitalism and a higher standard of living for all.

9) What did Max Weber believe was the central force in social change? A) economics B) politics C) family D) religion

10) Who was the pioneering sociologist at the University of Chicago who developed the symbolic interactionist perspective? A) Albion Small B) Talcott Parsons C) George Herbert Mead D) Charles Horton Cooley

11) Who was the first African American to earn a doctoral degree from Harvard University? A) Booker T. Washington B) George Washington Carver C) Benjamin Anthony Quarles D) W. E. B. DuBois

12) What is a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work? A) a theory B) a concept C) a correlation D) an operational definition

13) What is the underlying principle of symbolic interactionism? A) It measures how society uses sanctions to control behavior. B) It states that behavior is controlled by factors beyond one’s control. C) It explains how one’s behavior depends on the way they define themselves and others. D) It is based on the premise that a history of man is a history of class conflict.

14) People may change their opinions about an issue such as divorce based on a restructuring of that image, the issues involved, and what they mean. This is an example of which sociological perspective? A) structural functionalism

B) the conflict perspective C) symbolic interactionism D) the neo-conflict perspective

15) Which sociological perspective stresses that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously? A) symbolic interactionism B) functional analysis C) the conflict perspective D) the neo-conflict perspective

16) Which sociological perspective views society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources? A) conflict theory B) structural functionalism C) functional analysis D) symbolic interactionism

17) Which theoretical perspective in sociology is most aligned with micro-level analysis? A) symbolic interactionism B) feminist theory C) conflict theory D) structural functionalism

18) Cordell has done an extensive study of the increase in divorce rates in the United States since 1950. He has come to the conclusion that the transformation of American society has resulted in a redefinition of love, marriage, children, and the rate of divorce. In view of this, with which sociological perspective would Cordell’s conclusion be most aligned? A) symbolic interactionism

B) the conflict perspective C) structural functionalism D) feminist theory

19) What term do sociologists use to describe the language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, and material objects shared by members of society that are also passed from one generation to the next? A) technology

B) culture C) tradition D) custom

20) Which set of concepts best illustrates material culture? A) jewelry, art, hairstyles B) beliefs, values, norms C) buildings, clothing, folkways D) sanctions, mores, weapons

21) Which term is used to describe a group’s way of thinking, gestures, language, values and social norms? A) material culture B) nonmaterial culture C) cultural relativism D) ethnocentrism

22) Which set of concepts best illustrates nonmaterial culture? A) jewelry, art, hairstyles B) weapons, clothing, folkways C) beliefs, values, norms D) mores, sanctions, machines

23) Which of the following descriptions is least applicable to material culture. A) the space shuttle B) a lead pencil C) an advertisement from a Victoria’s Secret catalog D) religious doctrine that permits a man to have several wives

24) When sociologists use the phrase the culture within us, what do they mean? A) Culture is based on genetics transmitted from one generation to the next through genes. B) Culture is a matter of instinct that all people around the world share. C) Culture is affected by several biological factors that differ from person to person. D) Shared and learned ways of believing and doing become taken-for-granted assumptions.

25) What is the term used to describe feelings of disorientation and confusion when encountering values, behaviors, and expectations totally different from those to which one is accustomed? A) cultural lag

B) culture shock C) diffusion D) reformulation

26) What is the tendency to use our own group’s ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging the behavior, values, and beliefs of others? A) culture shock B) ethnocentrism C) relativist fallacy D) multiculturalism

27) What is a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought? A) technology B) raw materials C) language D) ethnocentrism

28) How do members of a society acquire the ability to use and understand gestures? A) Most gestures are learned through interaction with others. B) Most gestures are a matter of instinct. C) Most gestures are transmitted through heredity. D) Most gestures are natural behavior.

29) Jamaican women prefer portly men with rounded mid-sections, while American women prefer men who have triangular physiques, big shoulders, and thin waist lines. What term refers to this difference of what is socially desirable or undesirable? A) norms

B) mores C) values D) sanctions

30) What are the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of a group’s values? A) mores B) folkways C) laws D) norms

31) Which term describes a group that has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society? A) counterculture B) underground culture C) subdominant culture D) subculture

32) In the month of December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the “festival of light,” during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith represent a ________. A) deviant culture

B) counterculture C) subculture D) rival culture

33) What is the American core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution? A) individualism B) equality C) progress D) freedom

34) According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others? A) through play and social interaction B) through intellectual development C) through formal education D) through a natural maturation process

35) To what sociological perspective is Mead’s theory of human development most aligned? A) symbolic interactionist B) structural functionalist C) conflict D) neo-conflict

36) As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive stuffed animals and gifts that are more passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive? A) resocialization

B) gender tracking C) the hidden curriculum D) gender socialization

37) What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called? A) resocialization B) socialization C) the “looking-glass self” D) anticipatory socialization

38) Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution? A) a mental hospital B) a private university C) a parochial school D) a baseball team

39) What are the stages we pass through from birth to death that include childhood, adolescence, transitional adulthood, the middle years, and the older years? A) the life course B) rites of passage C) terms of engagement D) social milestones

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