Thailand Political Culture Essay Research Paper INTRODUCTIONFor

10 October 2017

Siam: Political Culture Essay, Research Paper


For us to be able to analyze political civilization, it is imperative that we foremost larn how to specify it. Political civilization refers to the attitudes, beliefs and values, which underpin the operation of a peculiar political system. These were even seen as including the cognition and accomplishments about the political system, positive and negative emotional feelings towards it and the appraising judgements about that system.

Particular regional, cultural or other groups within a political system which are referred to as & # 8220 ; subcultures & # 8221 ; have their ain manner of covering with the political system that the political civilization in one state can be united or may even be diverse. This has been given greater focal point because of the fact that the influence of the persons involved in this vary significantly due to geography, faith, ethnicity and even the economic system.

Analyzing political civilization may assist us understand of how a certain people react to certain political events and developments in certain societies and it may besides assist us be cognizant of the grounds for tenseness within a community and even in states.

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This paper aims to analyze the peculiar political civilization of Thailand and farther analyze the causes of how it came to be now. It besides aims to analyze how this peculiar sort of political civilization has influenced the manner that the authorities is run today and most of all, its effects on the other sectors and parts of the community.

Wide research has been done to decide this peculiar survey. The resources include encyclopaedias, books on the state, articles of newspapers and the Internet. There has besides been interaction on the portion of the research worker and people from the said state by agencies of the confab room.


The theory that would outdo function the out puts of this paper would be the one on the relation of democracy and development. It is composed of two theses ; one that says, & # 8220 ; Development causes democratisation & # 8221 ; . This is backed up by many political theoreticians and will be discussed moreover in the analysis as applied to the instance of Thailand.

The other one emphasiss, & # 8220 ; Development does non take to democracy of even further democratisation & # 8221 ; . It stated different grounds for this such as ( 1 ) statist economic development which says that the authorities of that certain state is involved or even controls the economic development of their state so, there is intercession on the portion of the authorities in footings of the economic system ; ( 2 ) civilization as a factor where the people in the authorities and the society accepts the idea of development in the economic system and besides the authorities but they do non use it because they want to continue the traditional civilizations of the people ; ( 3 ) racial and cultural division ; ( 4 ) external factors such as intercession from foreign states and even the IMF or the World Bank and ; ( 5 ) political factors. This thesis holds true for states like Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia where we can see that they are economically developed but there is no democracy in the state because of two or more grounds stated above.


Prathet Thailand ( & # 8220 ; Land of the Free & # 8221 ; ) or Kingdom of Thailand is located in the Southeast Asia. Previously called Siam, it has a entire land country of 198, 456 sq. stat mis ( 514, 000 sq. km. ) . Located in mainland Asia, it extends for about 985 stat mis ( 1, 585 kilometer ) from north to south and about 510 stat mis ( 821 kilometer ) from E to west. It is bordered on the North and west across the Salween River by Burma, on the North and east across the Mekong River by Laos, on the sou’-east by Cambodia and on the south across the Isthmus of Kra by Malaysia.


It is chiefly divided into four parts: the Northern Mountains which is chiefly full of woods of evergreen and teak trees ; the Khorat Plateau which covers about 30 % of its land country and is the most populated ; the Central Plains which is the most fertile country and where the Thais works their rice and in conclusion, the Southern Peninsula which is largely covered by dense jungles, place to many carnal species.

Thailand self-praises of its being the lone state in Asia to hold avoided colonial domination so it has managed to continue its traditional society, spiritual traditions and its ancient India-derived construct of governmental authorization. However, with the oncoming of new engineering, even though its society is traditional, it has managed to catch up with other European states. Proof of this is the fact that if you go to Thailand, you will see tall skyscrapers on one side and see the smaller hovels and the & # 8220 ; wats & # 8221 ; ( temples ) on the other side.


Thailand & # 8217 ; s population of 61,230,874 ( July 2000 est. ) is mostly divided into many races but what seems to rule is the Mongoloid race or the Chinese. Most of the people in Thailand are ascendents of Thai-speaking people who have migrated from Southern China. Other members of the population include other immigrants from neighbouring states like Cambodia, Vietnam and Burma. But, in the urban metropoliss like Bangkok, there is besides a mix of Nipponese, Indian and European people.

There are besides other people who live in the hills and have accepted the traditional manner of life. These people in rural small towns normally survive by fishing, timber, excavation and agribusiness, where they grow their ain nutrient like maize, manioc, fruits and rice. These little small towns have their ain schools and a & # 8220 ; wat & # 8221 ; .

Thais are 95 % Buddhists but largely Theravada Buddhists but, other faiths include Islam, Christianity and even animism. Its official linguistic communication is Thai and other linguistic communications used are English, Chinese, Malay and other tribal linguistic communications.


Thailand & # 8217 ; s currency is bath where 1 tical = 100 satang. Before 1960, Thailand relied largely on rice and it natural militias of Sn and besides on gum elastic and teak. However, in the 1960 & # 8217 ; s, more roads were constructed, more forestlands were developed and Bankss loaned money to husbandmans which they used for irrigation, dike and even tractors. This began the new epoch degree Fahrenheit engineering for the economic system of the state. Today, Thailand has on of the most stable economic systems in Southeast Asia, runing on free endeavor, which depends on rice and fabrication.

One of the major beginnings for its economic stableness is the agribusiness concern. Majority of Thais are husbandmans who own their lands. Rice production takes up 25 % of the entire land country of the state. But, they do non trust entirely on this. They besides works bananas, manioc, maize, cotton, jute, Ananas comosuss, soya beans, baccy, and sugar. Thailand is besides known as the 3rd largest manufacturer of gum elastic for international market.

But they are besides involved in fabrication of cement, nutrient merchandises, plyboard and fabrics, peculiarly silk. They besides fish for anchovies, mackerel and shellfish but they besides have their ain fishponds. Aside from that, they besides mine Sn, lead, manganese, tungsten and Fe ore. They besides make usage of their huge woods of teak and other difficult trees. However, presents, one of Thailand & # 8217 ; s highest subscribers to their economic system is tourism where about 4 million people visit its temples and beaches every twelvemonth.


Thailand & # 8217 ; s authorities is one of the most centralised and bureaucratic in the universe. Though national Acts of the Apostless have been passed to deconcentrate it and give liberty to the local disposal, it has non been successful because really small power is given to them. The state is divided into 72 states but is besides subdivided into 576 territories more.

Thailand & # 8217 ; s political history is considered to be most colourful and astonishing because it has changed its Fundamental law a twelve times since 1932. King Bhumibol signed the latest Fundamental law on October 1997. There have besides been legion alterations in the authorities but with no gore. However, presents, its signifier of authorities has rested on constitutional monarchy.

The sovereign is considered the sacred caput of the state and is besides considered the moral leader of the province. Though the sovereign has no regulating powers, he is still considered as the symbolic caput of the province. But, he is given the place as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He besides appoints the state & # 8217 ; s Prime Minister on the recommendation of the President of the National Assembly. The present sovereign is King Bhumibol Adulyadej ( Rama IX ) and his married woman, Queen Sirikit. He is considered to be the longest reigning sovereign since 1950.

The Prime Minister holds the executive power of the province and has the highest authorization over political assignments and besides of national security. He regulations the state with 44 other curates, which he chooses. The Premier holds the term of 4 old ages.

Thailand & # 8217 ; s National Assembly ( Rathasapha ) is bicameral with the Upper ( Senate ) or Wuthisapha and Lower ( Congress ) House or Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon. The Senate is composed of 200 members ( as of March 2000 ) who are replaced every 6 old ages ; of whom are chosen by the Prime Minister. Congress, on the other manus, is composed of 500 members ( as of March 2000 ) , replaced every 4 old ages and is elected by the people. The Senate President is considered to be the President of the National Assembly while the Speaker of the House, the Vice-President.

There are no elections in the state except for the one taking the House of Representatives. The monarchy is familial while the Prime Minister is chosen from among the members of the House of Representatives. So, whichever party has bulk in the House of Representatives has the greater opportunity of acquiring to be the Prime Minister

Thailand & # 8217 ; s political parties were badly restricted for several decennaries following the 1932 alteration of authorities but have multiplied since that clip. Many parties serve as the personal political machines of persons or little groups, and few represent defined political orientations. More than a twelve parties contested the elections of 1996. Among the most outstanding were the middle of the roader Democrat ( Prachathipat ) Party ; the New Aspiration Party of former premier curate Chavalit Yongchaiyudh ; and th

vitamin E Chat Thai ( Thai Nation ) Party, associated with the armed forces.

Thailand & # 8217 ; s bench is composed of the Supreme Court, highest tribunal of jurisprudence in the state. Under it is the Court of Appeals and besides magistrate & # 8217 ; s tribunals and provincial tribunals. The state is besides a member of many different international organisations such as the UN, and other UN bureaus like the IMF, UNESCO, FAO and ASEAN.


The First Kingdom Peoples have lived in what is now Thailand for at least 20,000 old ages, with groups migrating from India and southern China about 4,000 old ages ago, and more late from Myanmar ( Burma ) and Cambodia. In many ways, though, the history of Thailand ( known as Siam until 1939 ) can be said to get down with the initiation of the independent land of Sukhothai in 1238. This period of great cultural growing lasted merely a century, a clip during which the bantam land absorbed elements of neighbouring civilizations. From China came all right throwers who established the celebrated kilns at Sawankhalok, and contact occurred with India via the trade path. From Cambodia, Thailand absorbed elements of disposal every bit good as architecture. When King Ramathibodi assumed the throne in 1350, he moved his land to Ayuthaya & # 8211 ; one of the universe & # 8217 ; s most fertile countries, situated where three great feeders join to organize the mighty Chao Phraya River. The Ayuthaya land flourished during the following four centuries, suppressing Cambodia and the lasting provinces in the North. Foreign Influence During the seventeenth century, the state opened its door to the West, set uping contact with England, Denmark, Japan, and France. Trade flourished ; Siam had its topographic point in the universe and was known for its all right fabric, spices, metals, and semiprecious rocks. The Burmese, who had waged war with Siam about continually since the fifteenth century, sacked Ayuthaya in 1767. The yearss of the Burmese masters were numbered nevertheless, and their reign was shortly terminated when General Phya Tak proclaimed himself king. When the general, who became known as Taksin the Great, was executed by his curates in 1782, the Crown passed to General Chao Phya Chakri, who took the name Rama I. The laminitis of the present dynasty of Thai male monarchs, he moved his capital to the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya River and named it Krung Thep & # 8211 ; Bangkok. Rama I reined for some 27 old ages and successfully kept the Burmese at bay. The British and Thai authoritiess concluded a commercial pact in 1826. Because of the rights and privileges obtained by this understanding, British influence increased in Thailand throughout the balance of the nineteenth century. However, the statecraft of King Mongkut ( fictionalized in The King and I and Anna and the King of Siam ) and his boy King Chulalongkorn the Great enabled Thailand to avoid the destiny of colonisation that befell its neighbours, although the dialogues ended up bing Thailand a great trade of district. The World Wars Siam entered World War I ( 1914-18 ) on the side of the Allies in July 1917 and later became a founding member of the League of Nations. In June 1932 a little group of Thai military and political leaders organized a successful rebellion against the absolute monarchy. Supported by Japan, the new authorities negotiated with France the return of district ceded since 1893. Thailand & # 8217 ; s dealingss with Japan became progressively friendly, and when World War II broke out, Thailand capitulated instantly to the Nipponese invasion to avoid & # 8220 ; unneeded gores of its people, & # 8221 ; and in fact declared war on the United States and Great Britain in 1942. However, the pro-Japanese authorities was overthrown two old ages subsequently, and the new leading encouraged understanding for the Allied cause. Thailand resumed diplomatic dealingss with the United States in 1946 and became the fifty-fifth member of the United Nations on 15 December 1946. A Time of Unrest The last half of the twentieth century has been marked by internal political troubles. In 1947 a military junta seized control of the authorities. The resulting absolutism was overturned in 1951. A subsequent putsch by the military seven old ages subsequently resulted in the suspension of the fundamental law. Political rights easy regained land throughout the 1960s, but military regulation was re-established in 1971. Student-led presentations in 1973 resulted in the assignment of a civilian cabinet, but instability reigned throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, with the authorities frequently altering custodies. First, in the 1980 & # 8217 ; s the authorities was known to hold been democratic but in 1991, the military leaders staged a putsch removed the Premier from his office and appointed an interim civilian authorities. In February 1995 the authorities passed a sweeping pro-democracy bundle that amended about all the articles of the fundamental law passed in 1991. The alterations included take downing the vote age from 20 to 18 old ages, and Thai citizens were guaranteed due procedure and equal justness under the jurisprudence.

University of the Philippines in the Visayas

Tacloban College

Tacloban City


State analysis: PUERTO RICO


Submitted to:

Prof. Ladylyn Mangada

In partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements in Pol. Sci. 101


Mary Kristine P. Gardiola







J Collier & # 8217 ; s Encyclopedia ; Vol. 22 pp. 230-241 ; ? 1995, P.F. Collier 919 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022

J Compton & # 8217 ; s Encyclopedia ; Vol. 23 pp. 146-149 ; ? 1996, Compton & # 8217 ; s Learning Company, Chicago

J Encyclopedia Americana ; Vol. 26 pp. 585-594 ; ? 1980, Americana Corporation, Dranbury, Connecticut

J People and Places ; Vol. 5 pp. 1302-1313 ; ? 1992, World Book Inc. 525 W. Monroe St. Chicago IL 60661


Thailand has one of the most diverse civilizations in the universe that this civilization is one of the greatest influences on the manner that the Thai people go about their lives. It besides influences all the other parts of the authorities and the society including the authorities and besides the manner that they handle their economic system. Therefore, Thailand & # 8217 ; s political civilization is every bit complicated as their civilization.

With the usage of the theories on political civilization by Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, Thailand & # 8217 ; s political civilization is really difficult to analyze. Its political civilization seems to suit all the theories involved. First, it is a participant political civilization because although the people do non vote for the main executives, they still consider themselves as a large factor in the election procedure. However, it besides fits in the parochial type where some of the people are distanced from their national authorities. These people are the husbandmans who merely want to travel on with their lives without holding to link with the national authorities. Still, Thailand besides has a capable political civilization because some other group of people view themselves as topics wherein their lives are directed by the political procedure above them. The young person of Thailand tantrum into this type because they are really inactive about it and they do non desire to discourse it. They seem to believe that they can make without it.

With this, we can see that the combination of all these three political civilizations make up a different sort of political civilization called a civic civilization. This is the most ideal civilization and this type of political civilization leads to a stable democracy. Therefore, here we can see that Thailand has acquired a really stable democracy because of the manner that the people think and the diverseness of the political civilization.

However, this is already established because as said in the theoretical model, Thailand is a democracy because of the development of its economic system. Theorists like Karl Marx, Max Weber and Barrington Moore support this theory. It says that there are many grounds as to why the authorities of Thailand is in this province.

First, is the adulthood of the economic system. The thought behind this is that with the rise of economic development in a state, the higher will the political development travel. This holds true for Marx & # 8217 ; s sociological theoretical account where he says that the economic system is the base in the society that affects the superstructure or all the other sectors in the society. Whenever there is economic alteration, there is besides a great opportunity that all these other sectors will see alteration. Second, is the displacement to export-oriented industrialisation where in the concern sector of the authorities will besides impact the democracy of the state. The fact that there is industrialisation needs the authorities to set a spot to suit the type of concern that they are seeking to presume. Third, is the liberalisation, denationalization and marketization of the economic system. When the people in the authorities want this type of economic system, the authorities is farther democratized to accommodate the demands of the investors in the state.

With all these information given, we can farther reason that Thailand & # 8217 ; s political civilization is really much a large factor in its success as a state and besides in the authorities. It is really much ideal because of the manner that it has affected the peoples life. Though, Thailand has been really quiet with respects to the development of their political relations, we can see that it is really successful to the point that it has attained stableness in footings of the economic system hence the stableness in all the other sectors like the society and the authorities.





J Collier & # 8217 ; s Encyclopedia ; Vol. 22 pp. 230-241 ; ? 1995, P.F. Collier 919 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022

J Compton & # 8217 ; s Encyclopedia ; Vol. 23 pp. 146-149 ; ? 1996, Compton & # 8217 ; s Learning Company, Chicago

J Encyclopedia Americana ; Vol. 26 pp. 585-594 ; ? 1980, Americana Corporation, Dranbury, Connecticut

J People and Places ; Vol. 5 pp. 1302-1313 ; ? 1992, World Book Inc. 525 W. Monroe St. Chicago IL 60661

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