The ADDIE Model
Instructional design requires systematic approach. Until present, the ADDIE model has been forming the basis of practical instructional design. The five stages of the ADDIE model create a logical sequence of actions that ensure that the newly designed learning process is clear, consistent, and can be evaluated through the prism of specific measurable learning outcomes.
The ADDIE model is one of the central elements of Instructional Systems Design. “ISD is a process to ensure learning does not occur in a haphazard manner. […] The responsibility of the instructional designed is to create an instructional experience, which ensures that the learners will achieve the goals of instruction” (Allen, 2006).
The ADDIE model is the systemic approach towards instructional design; it consists of five essential phases. The sequence of these phases and the ability to follow the principles of the ADDIE model determines the success of any learning process. Analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation are the five processes integrally linked into one central element named the ADDIE model.
Analysis is the first stage of instructional design process. The ADDIE model refers to analysis as the process during which instructional designers “define the needs and constraints” of the instructional process, the target audience, the knowledge, and other elements related to instructional design (McGiff, 2000). Here, the instructional designer is fully responsible for performing profound research of the current learning performance, and listing the tasks of the curriculum.
These tasks are to be compared and related to the target audience’s skills, abilities, and knowledge. Analysis stage is designed to see the gap between what people know and what their job or curriculum requires them to know. At this stage of curriculum development, sample tasks may include needs assessment, problem identification, and / or task analysis (McGiff, 2000).
In the design phase, the instructional designer’s main task is to decide, how the required knowledge will be delivered to the target audience. In other words, “the instructional developer develops a detailed plan of instruction that includes selecting the instructional methods and media and determining the instructional strategies” (McGiff, 2000). This stage requires developing, reviewing, and analyzing instructional objectives.
Instructional materials should be reviewed, too, to ensure that they correlate with the predetermined and approved learning performance objectives. The instructional designer may also be involved into writing objectives, developing test items, planning instruction, and identifying resources (McGiff, 2000).
In the development phase of the ADDIE model the instructional materials are authored and produced. This is the central element of the formative evaluation process and requires that lesson materials and media for delivering the learning information are created, analyzed, and integrated into the learning process (Allen, 2006). At this stage of instructional design process, the developed instructional plan should be revised.
Revision is the final step of the development phase, when “instructional developers validate each unit and / or module of instruction and its associated instructional materials as they are developed” (Allen, 2006). Any identified deficiencies should be corrected before the instructional developer passes on to the next phase. To guarantee the validity of instructional materials, instructional designers are recommended to perform internal review of instructional materials’ accuracy and to revise the most problematic units based on the results of the formative and summative evaluation (Allen, 2006).
At the next stage (implementation), the instructional project is incorporated into the real learning context. The whole instructional system is checked under operational conditions (McGiff, 2000). Student comments may serve the basis for reviewing certain or all elements of the curriculum. Implementation is actually the tryout for the instruction that has been designed during analysis, design, and development phases of the ADDIE design process.
Evaluation is the final stage and is the final set of activities aimed at developing viable, valid, and measurable learning course. At this stage, the instructional developer determines the adequacy of the instruction as related to the operational conditions under which knowledge should be delivered. It should be noted that evaluation is not only the last phase of the ADDIE model; evaluation is a continuous process that takes place throughout the instructional project’s life cycle, and requires implementing formative, summative, and operational evaluation procedures at all stages of instructional design process.
It is difficult, and probably, unreasonable to decide which of the five ADDIE’s stages is the most important. However, I think that the development phase is the central element of the whole instructional process. It is the core and the essence of the instructional design model.
Development opens unlimited opportunities for designers; development creates the major challenges designers must face to ensure that the new instructional project can further be implemented in the real learning environment. Development reflects the instructional designer’s ability to analyze previous steps and to look several steps ahead. Ultimately, development forms the basis for the implementation and evaluation activities within the ADDIE framework.
Until present, ADDIE has remained the central model of instructional development and design. The ADDIE model provides instructional designers with sufficient opportunities to create effective learning projects with clear measurable outcomes, and offers the possibility to track the progress at each stage of the instructional design process.
Allen, W.C. (2006). Overview and evolution of the ADDIE training system. Advances in
Developing Human Resources, 8 (4): 430-441.
McGiff, S.J. (2000). Instructional System Design (ISD): Using the ADDIE Model. Retrieved
July 28, 2008 from http://ehopac.org/TransformationReports/ISD-ADDIEmodel.pdf