The Agony of Reconstruction

Fifty percent take oath of loyalty 2. Only those who swore having never supported the Confederacy could elect delegates to constitutional conventions 3.

Did not require black suffrage but gave federal government power to enforce emancipation 4. Lincoln pocket vetoes the bill and dies before compromise plan is worked out Ill. Andrew Johnson presidency A. Background B. Reconstruction policy 1. Placed southern states under appointed provisional governors 2. Appointed governors to call constitutional conventions (and participants had to swear loyalty oath) 3.

Confederate Military officers and political leaders had to seek residential pardons to regain political and property rights 4. Unlike Lincoln, Johnson added people whose taxable property greater than $20,000 to the list of those needing presidential pardons C. Johnny’s recommendations to the conventions 1. Declare secession illegal 2. Refuse to pay Confederate debts 3. Ratify 13th Amendment (Jan 1 865) that abolished slavery D. Conventions results 1 .

Reluctantly approved Johnny’s recommendations, some with qualifications 2. Limited suffrage to whites 3. Black Codes”-?laws designed to keep blacks a semi-free, cheap abort and place limits on socioeconomic opportunities for blacks 4. Ex-Confederate leaders were elected to office because of Johnny’s generous pardon and amnesty policy. IV. Split between Johnson and Congress A. Issues 1.

House and Senate refuse to seat southern delegation Congress wants further conditions for readmission 3. Johnson wants quick Reconstruction and return to normalcy a. Vetoes the extension of the Freedman’s Bureau B. Results b. Vetoes the Civil Rights Act 1 . Shocked moderate Republicans ally themselves with Radicals 2.Congress overrides veto of the Civil Rights Act C.

National Union Party-?Johnny’s parry uniting reviving Democratic Party With Republicans who support him D. 14th Amendment (June 1866) 1 . Gave citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U. S. 2. Passed by Congress and required southern states to ratify 3. Johnson opposed it because it denied states the right to manage their own affairs 4.

Weakened by the Slaughterhouse cases of 1 873 a. Federal government obliged to protect only basic rights of NATIONAL citizens IP state b.Federal government did not have to protect such rights against violations E. Causes of Radical Reconstruction plan 1 . Black codes enrage Congress 2. Race riots in New Orleans and Memphis 3. Election of former Confederates to Congress 4.

Resistance of southern legislatures to the 14th Amendment 5. Radical Republicans favored black suffrage and federal support of schools 6. Radical Republicans wanted to crush the planter aristocracy and revolutionize southern institutions, habits, and manners 7. Radical Republicans believed that Congress should direct construction V.

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