The Cold War 2 Essay Research Paper

The Cold War 2 Essay, Research Paper


When World War II in Europe eventually came to an terminal on May 7, 1945, a

new war was merely get downing. The Cold War: denoting the unfastened yet restricted

competition that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union and

their several Alliess, a war fought on political, economic, and

propaganda foreparts, with limited resort to arms, mostly because of

fright of a atomic holocaust.1 This term, The Cold War, was foremost used by

presidential adviser Bernard Baruch during a congressional argument in 1947.

Intelligence operations ruling this war have been conducted by the

Soviet State Security Service ( KGB ) and the Central Intelligence Agency

( CIA ) , stand foring the two power axis, East and West severally, that

arose from the wake of World War II. Both have conducted a assortment of

operations from big scale military intercession and corruption to covert

descrying and surveillance missions. They have known success and failure. The

Bay of Pigs fiasco was shortly followed by Kennedy & # 8217 ; s ft handling of the Cuban

missile crisis. The determinations he made were helped immeasurably by

intelligence gathered from reconnaissance exposures of the high height plane

U-2. In understanding these bureaus today I will demo you how these

bureaus came approximately, discourse yesteryear and present operations, and speak about

some of their tools of the trade.

Beginning of the CIA and KGB

The CIA was a direct consequence of American intelligence operations during

World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt recognized the demand to

co-ordinate intelligence to protect the involvements of the United States. In

1941, he appointed William J. Donovan to the caput of the Office of

Strategic Services ( OSS ) with central office in London. Four sections made

up the Os: Support, Secretariat, Planning, and Overseas Missions. Each of

these sections directed an array of subdivisions known as & # 8216 ; operation groups & # 8217 ; .

This organisation had fallen into the disfavour of many involved in the

federal disposal at this clip. This included the manager of the

Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) , J. Edgar Hoover, who did non like

competition from a rival intelligence organisation. With the decease of

Roosevelt in April of 1945, the OSS was disbanded under Truman and

sections were either relocated or wholly dissolved. Soviet

intelligence began with the formation of the Cheka, secret constabulary, under

Feliks Dzerzhinsky at the clip of the revolution. By 1946, this bureau had

evolved into the Ministry of Internal Affairs ( MVD ) , and the Ministry of

State Security ( MGB ) both ruled by Lavrenti Beria. This adult male was doubtless

the most powerful adult male in the Soviet Union with a huge imperium of prison

cantonments, and sources to oppress any hints of dissent. Of considerable

importance to Beria was the race for the atomic bomb. The Soviet Union and

the United States both plundered the German V-2 projectile sites for stuffs

and forces. In 1946 the MVD was responsible for the rounding up of 6000

scientists from the Soviet zone of Germany and taking them and their

dependants to the Soviet Union.2 The political struggles of the 1930 & # 8217 ; s and

World War II left many educated people with the feeling that merely

communism could battle economic depression and fascism. It was easy for

Soviet agents to enroll work forces who would subsequently lift to places of power

with entree to sensitive information. & # 8216 ; Atom spies & # 8217 ; were good positioned to

maintain the Soviets informed of every American development on the bomb. Of

considerable importance was a adult male by the name of Klaus Fuchs, a German

Communist who fled Hitler & # 8217 ; s purging and whose ability as a atomic physicist

earned him a topographic point on the Manhattan Project. Fuchs passed information to

the Soviets get downing in 1941, and was non arrested until 1950. Besides

go throughing secrets to the Soviets were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, executed in

the United States in 1953. The latter two were likely among the first who

believed in atomic disincentive, whereby neither state would utilize atomic

arms because the other would utilize his in response, hence there would

be no ssible victor. It is by and large believed that with such scientists as

Andrei Sakharov, the Soviets were capable of working it out for themselves

without the aid of intelligence. ( better passage ) The National Security

Act of 1947 gave birth to the CIA, and in 1949 the CIA Act was officially

passed. & # 8220 ; The act exempted the CIA from all Federal Torahs that required the

revelation of & # 8216 ; maps, names, official rubrics, and wages or figure of

forces employed by the bureau & # 8217 ; . The manager was awarded staggering

powers, including the right to & # 8217 ; pass money without respect to the

commissariats of jurisprudence and ordinances associating to the outgo of authorities

financess & # 8217 ; . The act besides allowed the manager to convey in 100 foreigners a twelvemonth

secretly. & # 8221 ; 3 The 1949 charter is basically the same 1 that the CIA utilizations

to transport out covert operations today.

The U-2 Incident

In 1953, the CIA contracted Lockheed Aircraft Corporation of Burbank CA

to construct a plane that would travel higher and farther than any yet produced.

Kelly Johnson came up with the design for the U-2, a plane that would wing

with a record high ceiling of 90,000 ft. and a scope of 4,000 foot. The U-2

flights are perchance the greatest victory achieved by the CIA since its

establishing. This is because of the planes success at hedging sensing for

such a long clip and the huge sums of information gathered. & # 8220 ; We & # 8217 ; ll ne’er

be able to fit that one. Those flights were intelligence work on a mass

production basis. & # 8221 ; 4 On the fatal twenty-four hours of May 1, 1960, Gary Powers was sent

up in his U-2 over the Soviet Union from the United States Air Force Base

at Peshawar, Pakistan. His mission was to snap countries of military and

economic signifigance and record wireless transmittals. The plane he flew was

equipped with cameras, wireless receiving systems and tape recording equipments to carry through

this mission. In add-on to these devices, the plane was besides equipped

with self devastation capablenesss to blow up the U-2 if it was forced to

land, and a blasting mechanism fitted to the tape recording equipment to destruct any

grounds of the CIA & # 8217 ; s monitoring of wireless signals. As his plane flew over

the Soviet Union, the cameras recorded ammo terminals, oil storage

installings, the figure and type of aircraft at military airdromes, and

electric transmittal lines. When the plane did non return to its base

after a sensible allowance of clip, it was assumed it had crashed for

some ground or another. The fortunes environing the clang of the

plane Powers flew on this is a still a enigma today, depending on whether

you believe the Soviets or the Americans. The Soviets claim that & # 8220 ; in position

of the fact that this was a instance of the calculated invasion of Soviet

air space with hostile aggressive purpose, the Soviet Government gave orders

to hit down the plane & # 8221 ; 5, and that they shot it out of the air with an SA-

2 missile at 8:53 A.M. at the height of 68,000 foot. The Americans declared

that the U-2 was disabled by a flameout in its jet engine. Whatever the

truth possibly, or combination of truths, the fact remains that Powers

survived the brush by parachute in the locality of Sverdlovsk. Upon

landing, he was apprehended, disarmed, and escorted to the security constabulary

by four occupants of the little town. The mistake of the incident ballad with the

American disposal & # 8217 ; s handling of the state of affairs, non with the flight

itself. It was assumed that Powers had died in the clang, and this was the

error. The initial narrative released was non widely reported and merely told

of a losing pilot near the Soviet boundary line who & # 8217 ;

s O equipment was out of

order. & # 8220 ; From an intelligence point of position, the original screen narrative seemed

to be peculiarly awkward & # 8230 ; A screen narrative has certain demands. It must

be believable. It must be a narrative that can be maintained [ no unrecorded pilots

strike harding about ] and it should non hold excessively much item. Anything that & # 8217 ; s

losing in a cover narrative can be taken attention of by stating the affair is being

investigated. & # 8221 ; 6 The farther lies the State Department released about the

incident merely strained U.S. and Soviet dealingss. These included studies of

an unarmed conditions research plane, piloted by a civilian, that had problem

with O equipment traveling down over the Soviet Union. Under oppugning

by the imperativeness, Information Officer, Walt Bonney, admitted that the U-2 had

cameras on board, but they were non reconnaissance cameras. Rather, the

cameras were & # 8220 ; to take cloud screen & # 8221 ; . When it became publically known that

Khrushchev had known what had taken topographic point all along and had known for some

old ages, President Eisenhower justified the presence of a spy plane over the

Soviet Union with it being & # 8220 ; in the involvement of the free world. & # 8221 ; Khrushchev

proverb through the gambit and revoked his invitation for Eisenhower to see the

Soviet Union for a acme.

Bay of Pigs

By 1959, Fidel Castro and his Rebels were able to set up their ain

government in Cuba. Americans shortly became hostile to this new authorities when

it became evident that Castro endorsed the Soviets. He declared his

purposes of back uping guerilla motions against US backed

absolutisms throughout Latin America and seized US assets in Cuba. He

besides established friendly dealingss with the Soviet Union although he was

non communist. The US recognized this menace to their involvements and

proceeded to organize a particular CIA undertaking force that was make an armed force

of exiled Cubans, organize a insurgent organisations within Cuba, and if

possible assassinate Castro. The initial program was to discredit the

magnetic adult male in forepart of his state. Some thoughts that were considered to

carry through the undertaking were farcical in the least. The first was to spray

Cuban Television studios with LSD prior to Castro airing a address in hopes of

him doing a complete sap of himself. The bureau had been experimenting

with the acid for some clip. However, the thought was rapidly abandoned

because no 1 could vouch with any certainty that the drug would hold

the coveted consequence. Further efforts were stabs at the expression of Castro

himself. One thought was to sophisticate his celebrated insignia, the cigars he is

ever seen with. This thought was discontinued because no 1 could calculate

out how to acquire the cigars to him. From an angle of more a chemical nature,

the bureau planned at one clip to do his face fungus autumn out. Scientists at

the bureau knew that when Tl salts contact tegument, they act as a

depilatory and do hair autumn out. The thought goes farther into concluding

that when Castro aveled he would go forth his places outside of his hotel

sleeping room and the salts could be sprinkled in so. This thought became

impossible when Castro announced that all extroverted foreign trips were to

be cancelled. With these failures, the US felt that it had no pick but to

continue with the organisation of zealots and assist them assume the

absolutism of Cuba. By the clip John F. Kennedy was elected President in

1960, the development of the invasion was already in full force. Eisenhower

had earmarked $ 13 million and a force of 1300 work forces had been assembled.7

Cuban pilots were being trained how to wing B-26 bombers by National

Guardsmen. The operation was monolithic, plenty so that the public took notice.

Kennedy was highly wary of any direct US engagement and put about a

series of via medias for the Cuban expatriates. The air screen was reduced and

the landings were shifted from a more favourable site to the Bay of Pigs

where it was determined that the landing force could acquire ashore with a

lower limit of naval and air force back up. Escorted by US naval vass, the

force landed in the Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961. The six B-26s assigned

to the operation were clearly unequal and the support from within the

state ne’er to the full materialized. Wholly exposed to countermoves of

the Cuban air and land forces, the whole invasion force was either killed

or taken captive. When Kennedy & # 8217 ; s statement that & # 8220 ; the armed forces of this

state would non step in in any manner & # 8221 ; was an straight-out prevarication. The expatriates

utilizations American equipment. They were trained by American military mans, and the

planes flown were Americans. The ships that carried the work forces to the invasion

were American, with American naval units for support. Americans were killed

in operation. When caught in his prevarication, Kennedy was forced to cover the US by

widening the Monroe Doctrine to cover communism. He declared that the US

would stay free of all Central and Latin American matter every bit long as they

were non communist. This debacle doubtless led to Khrushchev & # 8217 ; s belief that

he could deploy missiles to his newfound ally without any touchable reprisal

from the Americans.

Practices of Spies

Some of the devices used seem to come directly from a James Bond film.

Hollow rings or talcum pulverization tins with false undersides were some of the

points used for concealing microfilm. An interesting method involves the usage of

a microdot whereby pages of information is reduced to the size of a colon

and used in an appropriate topographic point on a papers. The procedure is reversed for

the extraction of information and the point is enlarged to expose all the

information. Hiding topographic points for secret bundles were inventive to state the

least and ranged from trees, to destroy walls, to get off boxes. Listening

devices were non restricted to telephone bugs, and on one juncture there

was a handcarved Great Seal of the United States presented to the US

embassador in Moscow by the Soviet Union. It turned out that concealed interior

was a listening device. Microwave receiving systems exist all over the universe for

the interception of messages, the Soviet embassy in San Francisco has its

ain battery of dishes erected on top of its edifice. In 1978, a Bulgarian

expatriate by the name Georgi Markov who was working for the Radio Free Europe

was fatally poisoned with a pellet most likely hidden in an umbrella.

Vladimir Kostov was killed under really similar fortunes in 1978, and it

is believed that the toxin used was ricin. This is an highly toxic

substance derived from Castor oil. Political and intelligence related

blackwashs have abounded in the 20th century with the coming of

the Cold War. The populace will ne’er cognize when one of slayings takes topographic point by

ground of secretiveness unless it is a public figure.


The bureaus discussed supra are built-in to the peace that exists

today. There is no other manner in the age we live in today to supervise the

enemy and ally likewise so as to be able to understand their capablenesss and

defects without intelligence bureaus. The CIA and KGB by themselves

can non guarantee peace. With the cognition supplied by each to its leaders,

intelligent determinations can be made in the universe & # 8217 ; s best involvement. Furthermore,

the position quo and power base remains comparatively stable with the East and

West on opposing sides. There can ne’er be true and utterly complete peace,

these organisations will go on to be contrary nescient ideals of the

populace for peaceable coexistence.

1Encyclopedia Britannia index page 237 2KGB/CIA, Jonathon Bloch page 12

3KGB/CIA, Jonathon Bloch page 21 4CIA: The Inside Story, Andrew Tully page

113 5CIA: The Inside Story, Andrew Tully page 119 6General Thomas R.

Phillips, U.S. Army, retired. 7Bay of Pigs, Peter Wyden page 59? ?

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