The Crusades Essay Research Paper The crusades

The Crusades Essay, Research Paper

The campaigns were military expeditions launched against the

Moslems by the Christians in an effort to recover the Holy Land. They

took topographic point between 1095 A.D. and 1270 A.D. It was one of the most

violent periods in the history of world.

The get downing point of the campaigns was on November 18, 1095

A.D. when Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. On November

27, outside the Gallic metropolis of Clermont-Ferrand, the Pope made an

of import address. He called upon everyone to assist the Christians in

the E to reconstruct peace. The crowd & # 8217 ; s response was really positive.

Garments were cut into crosses which were attached to people & # 8217 ; s

shoulders in an imitation of Christ ( Matthew 10:38 ) . ( 1 ) The original

object of the First Crusade was to assist Christian churches in the

E. The new end became to liberate the Holy Land from Muslim control,

particularly Jerusalem.

Pope Urban II stayed in France until September 1096 to supply

leading and counsel for the members of the First Crusade. He

urged clerics to prophesy the cross in France. Urban wanted the

fighting ground forces to be largely made up of knights and other military

forces. Since the intelligence of his address at Clermont spread through

the West, people from all societal categories and businesss joined the

Campaign. As a consequence of Urban losing control of forces, force

was launched against the Jews of northern France. This force was

largely instigated by sets of the urban and rural hapless led by work forces like

Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans-Avoir.

These groups lacked supplies and subject. They attempted

to make Constantinople but most of them ne’er got that far. The

leaders in lands which they passed through were frightened and killed

many of the crusading sets. Some did acquire to Constantinople and

traveled across the Bosphorus in August 1096. There they split into

two groups. One tried to catch Nicaea and was unsuccessful. The

other was ambushed and slaughtered near Civetot in October. The

staying reformers retreated to Constantinople and joined the 2nd

moving ridge of the Crusade.

The reformers were eager to get down the journey to Jerusalem but

they needed to capture the Anatolian Turkish capital of Nicaea foremost

because it blocked the route that would be their chief supply path. It

was held by Seljuk Turks. In May 1097, the reformers attacked Nicaea.

The Turks realized that they were defeated and agreed to give the metropolis

to the Byzantines in exchange for the lives of their work forces. The

Byzantines agreed to this and on June 18, Nicaea was under Byzantine

control. The leaders of the campaign disagreed and wanted to butcher

the Turks because they were enemies of Christ. ( 2 ) On June 30, 1097,

the reformers were ambushed at the metropolis of Dorylaeum by Seljuk Turks

led by Kilij Arslam the Seljuk Sultan. The battle continued until July

1. The reformers won a large triumph and about wiped out the Turkish

force. This triumph opened up the manner to Anatolia.

The reformers attacked Anitoch in northern Syria on October

21, 1097. & # 8220 ; This was the chief obstruction on the route to Jerusalem. & # 8221 ; ( 3 )

In a long and ghastly conflict, the metropolis eventually fell on June 2, 1098.

The reformers were rapidly attacked by a new Turkish ground forces from Al

Mawsil. They arrived excessively late to resuscitate Anitoch & # 8217 ; s Turkish guardians

and they were forced to withdraw on June 28.

The starting day of the month for the March to Jerusalem was set for

November 1, 1098 but was delayed by an epidemic every bit good as contending to

the South of Anitoch. On January 13, 1099 the commander-in-chief,

Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, led the reformers & # 8217 ; March to Jerusalem.

They avoided onslaughts on metropoliss to conserve forces. In May 1099 they

reached the northern boundary line of Palestine. On June 7 they camped on

the acme of a hill where they could see Jerusalem. Many soldiers

had cryings of joy on that twenty-four hours. The hill was named Montjoie.

Jerusalem was good fortified and merely vulnerable from the

North and the sou’-west. On June 13 they tried to ramp Jerusalem but

were driven back because of deficient supplies. Extreme heat and a

H2O deficit lowered morale. A priest called Peter Desiderius told

them that if they fasted and held a emanation around the walls of

Jerusalem with sufficient piousness, the metropolis would be theirs within nine

yearss. The reformers did this and, when they completed edifice

three mini palaces, they assaulted Jerusalem on July 13. & # 8220 ; There was a

craze of killing as everyone was hacked down. & # 8221 ; ( 4 ) The governor and

his staff were the lone Muslims to get away alive. The Judaic library

incorporating 8 Torah axial rotations and 330 manuscripts survived.

After the First Crusade, four Levant provinces were established:

Jerusalem, Tripoli, Anitoch, and Edessa. The success of this

campaign was mostly due to the isolation and failing of the Muslim

powers. ( 5 )

The Muslim reunion started in the Middle East under Imad

ad-Din Zangi, the swayer of Al Mawsil and Halab. The Muslims got their

foremost great triumph versus the reformers when they captured Edessa in

1144 and destroyed the reformer province in that part. This led to the

Second Crusade, which was proclaimed tardily in 1145. Many people joined

the campaign, including the King Louis VII of France and the sanctum Roman

emperor, Conrad III.

Conrad & # 8217 ; s ground forces left Nuremberg, Germany for Jerusalem in May

1147. A few hebdomads subsequently the Gallic ground forces set out for Metz. The

Germans tried to traverse cardinal Anatolia in October, but the Seljuks

defeated them near Dorylaeum. The subsisters fled to Nicaea. The

other German contingent, led by Otto of Freising, was defeated by

Turks at Ladoicea. The staying reformers fled to the seashore of

Pamphylia and were slaughtered in February 1148. Few subsisters

finished the trip to Syria by ship.

The Gallic ground forces had reached Constantinople on October 4,

1147. The Gallic so journeyed through Byzantine district in West

Asia Minor. The Turks destroyed most of them, but the Gallic male monarch,

the German Emperor, and some knights survived and traveled by ship to

Outremer from Antalya on the southern seashore of Asia Minor. Zengi had

died before the reformers arrived so his boies took control, Saif

al-Din in Mosul and Nur al-Din in Aleppo. Joescelin II, the Frankish

count of Edessa, took advantage of Zengi & # 8217 ; s decease and tried to recover

his capital, but Nur al-Din massacred the Edessan population and

retook it.

On June 24, 1148 the High Court of Jerusalem met at Palmarea

near Acre. The determination was made to assail Damascus, since Edessa was

no longer the war aim. On July 24, they camped along the West

side of Damascus. The Palestinian barons convinced the two male monarchs that

the groves on the West were doing the besieging more hard, so they

moved to the sou’-east. They couldn & # 8217 ; t remain really long in the

sou’-east because it was a hot waterless field. On that same twenty-four hours they

retreat their ground forces. The Second Crusade had failed miserably. There

was merely one success from the whole campaign: a group of Dutch and

English reformers had captured the metropoliss of Libson and Tort

osa. ( 6 )

The Muslims had clip to reorganize after the Second Crusade, and in 1169,

Nur al-Din & # 8217 ; s forces took Egypt. Saladin took control of the Muslims

when Nur al-Din died on May 15, 1174 in Damascus. In 1180 he joined

forces with the Anatolian Seljuk grand Turk, Kilij Arslan II. Saladin

stopped the fusion of Aleppo and Mosul in 1182, brought Aleppo

under his control in 1183, and made a four twelvemonth armistice with the Franks

in 1185 after occupying Palestine in 1183. Reynald of Ch? tillon,

leader of the Franks, broke the armistice when he heard of a rich train

of unarmed merchandisers going on the east bank of Jordan. In

revenge, Saladin invaded Palestine in 1187. The Franks got their

forces together to defy Saladin at Zippori.

On July 4 Saladin defeated the Latin ground forces at Hattin in

Galilee. Jerusalem surrendered on October 2. On October 29, 1187,

Pope Gregory VIII, who succeeded Pope Urban II after he died

from daze of the licking at Hattin, declared the Third Crusade. Three

major European sovereigns joined: the holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I ;

the Gallic King, Philip II ; and the English King, Richard I. It was

the largest force of reformers since 1095. Frederick died in

Anitoch along with many others as a consequence of an epidemic. Most of his

ground forces returned to Germany. Philip and Richard reached Palestine but

couldn & # 8217 ; t recover Jerusalem. Many metropoliss along the Mediterranean seashore

were freed from Saladin & # 8217 ; s control. On July 12, 1191 Acre

surrendered to the Christians. Richard left the Holy Land on October

9, 1192. The Latin Kingdom had been restored.

In 1198 Pope Innocent III proclaimed a Fourth Crusade. In

April 1202 the reformers asked the Venetians for conveyance because

they overestimated the figure of people who would sail. The Venetians

agreed to prorogue the payment due to them if the reformers helped

them recapture Zara which had been taken from them by Hungary. The

leaders of the campaign had no other pick. Some protested, stating

that an onslaught on a Christian metropolis is a wickedness. On November 24, Zara was

captured. The full ground forces was excommunicated but the Pope lifted it

when he heard of the state of affairs. On June 24, 1203, the fleet anchored

at Chalcedon, and on July 17, Constantinople was attacked from sea and

land. Emperor Alexius III fled in fright. Isaac II Angelus and his boy

Alexius IV became co-emperors. In a rebellion in January 1204, both were

murdered. Alexius V Ducas Murzuphlus became emperor. On April 12,

1204, they stormed the metropolis and took control of the walls. On April

14 Constantinople was captured. The Crusaders and Venetians murdered

and looted for three yearss. Afterwards the reformers started their ain

imperium in the Byzantine ruins with a Catholic faith, Gallic address,

and Italian commercial


The Albigensian Crusade was from 1202-1229. During the 12th

Century Albigensians made many converts in western Languedoc.

Innocent III preached a campaign against Raymond VI of Toulouse,

defender of the Albigensians. The campaign turned into a battle for

control of the Pyrenean land of Catalonia and southern France.

There was a batch of blood shed. In the Peace of Paris in 1229, the

Capetian monarchy began determining Languedoc into a Gallic land.

The church of Rome got a house clasp on southern France. The Christians

failed to convey Catharss under their control.

The Children & # 8217 ; s Crusade of 1212 began in Rhineland and Lower

Lorraine. In the spring big crowds of kids gathered at that place. The

leader was a male child named Nicholas from Cologne. The end of this

campaign was to capture the Holy Land. The Gallic King persuaded a

big group of Gallic kids to return place. The group led by

Nicholas reached Genoa on August 25. They expected God to let them

to walk across the sea but that didn & # 8217 ; t go on. What happened

after that is a enigma. The narrative most believe says that two

Marseilles merchandisers provided seven ships for the kids. Two

wrecked off Sardinia and the kids on the other five ships were

sold into bondage in North Africa and Egypt.

In 1213 Innocent III opened a new campaign. He had no uncertainty

about the Fifth Crusade because the Book of Revelations said that

Islam would last less than 666 old ages. It started in 622 A.D. so they

idea it would stop by 1288 A.D. Innocent III died on July 16, 1216

and Honorlus III became his replacement. & # 8220 ; He was dedicated to the

campaign but lacked the political strength and energy of Innocent

III. & # 8221 ; ( 7 ) In return for the gaining control of Zara during the Fourth Crusade

, the Venetians agreed to transport the Magyar ground forces. The reformers

arrived at Acre in May 1218. Egypt was now the mark. If they could

acquire it, all of southern Palestine could be easy attained. On May

29, 1218, the fleet anchored off shore and the ground forces was placed on the

west bank of the Nile. The reformers overtook a tower protecting

Damietta. Alternatively of assailing Damietta, the reformers waited for

supports. Saladin & # 8217 ; s nephew, Sultan al-Kamil, attacked the

reformer cantonment but was defeated. In September al-Kamil offered

Jerusalem, Palestine, Galilee, and the return of the true cross if the

Christians evacuated Egypt. Cardinal Pelagius, leader of the

Christian ground forces, rejected the offer. He didn & # 8217 ; t want to come to footings

with the Muslims. On November 5, 1219, Damietta was captured. In

August 1221 the Crusaders attacked the Egyptians but were forced to

resignation Damitetta.

Emperor Frederick II took up the Sixth Crusade in 1215.

Political jobs in the West kept him from fall ining. He wanted to

hike his visual aspect by recovering the Holy Land. Pope Gregory IX

excommunicated him in 1227 when his journey was delayed more because

of an unwellness. He eventually left for the Holy Land in June 1228. In

February 1229, Sultan al-Kamil surrendered Jerusalem because he was

afraid of Frederick & # 8217 ; s expedition. A 10 twelvemonth armistice was agreed upon.

No blood was shed during this peaceable, political campaign.

King Louis IX of France organized the Seventh Crusade after

the Muslims recaptured Jerusalem in 1244. Louis spent four old ages

planning and at the terminal of August 1248, Louis and his ground forces sailed to

Cyprus. The ground forces spent the winter in Cyprus while waiting for

supports. The fleet left at the terminal of May and stopped off at

Damietta on June 5, 1249. On June 6 the citizens of Damietta

evacuated in a terror. The reformers spent the summer in Damietta

waiting for supports. On November 20, 1249, the ground forces started to

March to Cairo. In the spring of 1250, they attacked Cairo. Louis

surrendered to the Egyptians in April 1250. Damietta was given up and

a ransom was paid.

The Europeans & # 8217 ; calls for more campaigns were stupid and didn & # 8217 ; T

accomplish much. ( 8 ) Italian metropoliss had better commercialism and there was

a greater involvement in researching the orient thanks to the campaigns.

New trade markets were established. The direct general revenue enhancement

system was developed during the campaigns.

As you can see, the campaigns were one of the most violent

periods of clip in the history

of world.

A limited
time offer!
Save Time On Research and Writing. Hire a Professional to Get Your 100% Plagiarism Free Paper