While, Titters has goats he “can hardly lead” [E. I .
1 3] and is losing his land, Titters invited Melodious to enjoy his abundance of milk cheese with him, to experience his mealy chestnuts. Despite being told of all the dreadful places that Titters will have to relocate to, “thirsty Africa”, “Britannic quite cut off from he whole world”, and his “poor cabin’s turf-heaped roof’, Titters asserts himself and his prosperity, inviting Melodious to see all that he is missing. Also, in this passage, the second reference to shade and shadows is made.Of course, high mountains will cause taller shadows, however shadows often have a otherworldly meaning to them in Roman literature. There’s a sense of spirits and ghosts that goes along with the word, providing for an eerie end to the first Eclogue. A similar line is said in the third book of Horse’s odes, “as the sun moved around the mountain shadows..
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. [H. 3. 6. 41] This poem, Horse’s 3rd ode and 6th poem, is his most depressing and, not surprisingly most similar to Horse’s first eclogue.They both deal with the dismal aftermath of the Punic wars. However, Horse’s poetry focuses on the progeny of the warriors in Romeos civil war.
He pays attention mostly to the decay of the morality and sense of duty in the generations after the war. This poem opens with a warning to the current “Roman,” “you will pay for the sins four fathers until you restore the crumbling temples and shrines of the gods and their smoke-blackened images. But this is immediately followed by a reasoning behind this warning, making it seem as if this isn’t arbitrary.It is said that because their “neglect of the gods has brought many ills to the sorrowing lands of Hesperus. ” Similarly, as Titters was dealing with relationship problems, so are the Romans of Horse’s poetry. He has attributed the “disaster” that has “flowed over our whole land and its people” CHI. 3.
6. 19] to its “corrupted marriage, family, and home. ” [H. 3. 6. 1 8] The Roman people have lost their sense of family and home, most probably because of the land confiscation’s. Home and property are a major symbol of belonging and stability for the Romans.
With that lost, what is left to hold on to? The generations after the wars have lost their way and their direction. The women no longer have a a moral compass to guide them. A wife is easily persuaded to indulge in “illicit pleasures”: listening to any “calls for her” from a Spanish sea captain that will “pay for a good price for her shame. ” [H. 3. 6. 32] After, Horace adds a couple more lines describing the steep decline of the generations after the Punic wars.
Saying things like how these cannot be the hillier of men ‘Voodoo stained the sea with Punic blood. ” [H. . 6. 33] The men who fought in the civil wars were “the manly sons of farmer soldiers” The men who fought in the wars were the sons of a “strict mother. Here, note the singular use of mother. Horace is not describing mother as the maternal figure in a familial setting, which would make sense in this poem due to its ancestral descriptions.
But, here, “mother” is used to describe Rome. These were the children of a strict mother, that lived in a “household” that was well put together and orderly. The placement of mother and “sun” so lose to each other is ironic.Even though this irony can only be found through an English translation, it is evocative of lyrics written by The Smiths. In the song “How Soon Is Now? “, they play with the words “son” and “heir”, which, go without saying sound like the elements “sun” and “air”. Just like in Horse’s third ode, he plays with “mother’ and “sun” and the idea of progeny in terms of a greater scale: the generations to come and their mother, Rome. But, “as the sun moved round the mountain shadows,” [H.
3. 6. 41] things began to change. Here, the second reference to shadows and shade is made.Just as in Virgin’s first eclogue when Titters takes refuge in the cool shade, the “weary oxen” take this time to loose themselves from the yoke. As they are being let go of their duties on their yoke, a chariot “brought on the hour they longed for. ” [H .
3. 6. 44] Concluding this poem is a pessimistic message regarding the present, as well as future generations: “Our parents were not the men their fathers were, and they bore children worse than themselves, whose children will be baser still. ” [H. 3. 6. 45] The final line is not hopeful in the slightest way for a better enervation.
It says that it is expected that the people of Rome will only get worse with time. However, saying something like that could be just the motivation that someone needs to better themselves. Comparing these two passages, one will notice the similarities in pastoral imagery and the references to shade and shadow. In addition, it can also be noted that these both have very dark and pessimistic tones to them. Having both been written after the Punic wars and the rise of Augustus, these poems show the displacement of familial values and the daily struggles of the people f Rome after Julius Caesar.Titters has lost his land and has to resort to leaving the country. Girls of the land cannot learn traditional “Ionian dance steps” because they have been lost to “obscene lusts” and wives have been lost to “Spanish sea captain calls”.
Horace and Virgil, through Odes and Eclogues, respectively, have shown the downfall of Roman culture after the ascent of Augustus Caesar. Their statuses as respected poets amongst the people of Rome allow them a position of influence to restore the society to what it once was, perjuries.