The effectiveness of direct method in improving the students’ vocabulary
Mastering English in the global era is very important. English is the most widely used language in international events. Many countries use English in their affairs, such as business, politics, education, science and technology, that is why English becomes a very important language. It takes a big role in many affairs. In the teaching-learning process of English as a foreign language, students must master all of the English skills consisting of speaking, reading, writing and listening.
All language English skills always include vocabulary in their activities. And the students in the first grade of Junior High School is hoped to be master ± 500 words, by having a lot of vocabularies learner will be easier to show their ideas, making compositions, and many activities dealing with language. In other words by knowing and understanding the vocabulary, students will successfully achieve the four English language skills. Large vocabulary helps us to express our ideas precisely in communication.
Vocabulary knowledge enables language use, language use enables an increase of vocabulary of vocabulary knowledge, and knowledge of the world enables the increase of vocabulary knowledge and language use and so on. Mastering vocabulary is not easy, yet other aspects of the language are considered such as; sound, and structure. Vocabulary is one of the most important elements in a language. We cannot speak the language well if we do not master it.
No matter how well we learn grammar, how successfully the sound of the foreign language is mastered, without words to express a wider range of meanings, communication in the foreign language just cannot happen in any meaningful way. Teaching English as a foreign language is not similar to the teaching of vernacular. We know English is different from other language whether on the vocabulary, phonology, and structure system. Those have a great deal interest in learning vocabulary has always been one of the principal challenges for the teachers.
In addition, to help students in mastering English, many teachers have used different methods for the same purpose, to understand, to learn and to remember vocabulary more easily. In Indonesia, the usual technique to handle this problem is by supplying a list of words and the definition of them or allows the students to use a bilingual dictionary or teacher the definition of every single word of the passage. There are many methods that can be used in teaching or learning vocabulary. However, there are some advantages and disadvantages in every method.
Based on the fact above, it is necessary for anyone who concerns in teaching English to find out the easier technique of the method, which can improve students’ motivation for improving their vocabulary. Methods in teaching vocabulary usually help the students to memorize, and give the opportunity for students to self-assess their progress in learning vocabularies. He teacher is hoped to be smart to choose an approach and method of teaching that is suitable for the condition and the need of the learners, so the goal of teaching and learning can be achieved.
Based on the method the teacher would decide the procedures, the activities and the instruments that are needed in teaching-learning process, even though there are other factors that determine the success of teaching learning process. From the description above the writer chooses this study to examine the effectiveness of the Direct Method of teaching English in enhancing the students’ English achievement especially on vocabulary achievement compared with Grammar Translation Method. Grammar Translation Method and Direct Method are two different methods that can be used in the process of teaching and learning vocabulary.
Grammar Translation Method is a way of studying a language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language while the Direct Method has one basic rule. No translation is allowed, that second language learning should be more like first language learning-lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the language, no translation between first and second languages, and little or no analysis of grammatical rules.
Based on the discussion above, the writer wants to know whether there are some differences in students’ vocabulary through Direct Method compared with Grammar Translation Method. B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic The reasons why this topic chosen: 1. Vocabulary is very important in learning a new language and can be one of the factors that determine someone success in learning the language. 2. The students have a lack of vocabulary. 3. The method that used in the teaching learning process is not appropriate. C. Problems of Study
The problem of this study is stated by the question: “Do the students who are taught by using a Direct Method have better vocabulary achievement rather than the students who are taught by using Grammar Translation Method? D. Aims of Study Actually, this research is aimed to find out whether there is a significant difference of students’ achievement in learning vocabulary through Direct Method and Grammar Translation Method. E. Contributions of Study The significance of this writing may be expected as follows: 1. For the students.
The research is expected to be useful input for the students to encourage them to master and improve their English vocabulary. 2. For the English teacher The result of this study hopefully can give useful contribution for the institution and practice of foreign language teaching. 3. For the writer The researcher who is interested in the teaching of English at Junior High School get useful information from the result of this study. F. Clarification of Term In order to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding some terms are clarified as follow: a. Effectiveness
Hornby states that effectiveness is noun from of effect which means having of effect ; able to bring about the result intended. b. Direct Method The Direct Method is a method of language teaching that was developed by Maximilian Berlitz towards the end of the 19th century as a reaction to the Grammar Translation Method. In the Direct Method, the second language learning should be more like first language learning-lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the language, no translation between first and second languages, and little or no analysis of grammatical rules. c. Grammar Translation Method
Grammar Translation Method is a traditional way in learning foreign language. It is a method that has been used since nineteenth century. Here, vocabulary is taught in the form a list. d. Vocabulary Vocabulary is a List of words and its meaning. It has a correlation in compression ability. The more vocabulary we have, the better comprehension we have. CHAPTER II THEORITICAL REVIEW A. Vocabulary Vocabulary is very important in English teaching and learning. If the learners do not know the meaning of the words, they will have difficulty in understanding what they see, read, and learn. Their vocabulary will increase if they read more words.
This reason makes vocabulary very important, a bad vocabulary will cause bad understanding of the text. Vocabulary has an important role in determining the successful achievement of each skill. Daily communication needs vocabulary. The more vocabulary the learners have, the more easily they will communicate and express what they want to say. The four language skills that are listening, speaking, reading, and writing always include vocabulary in their activities. By having a lot of vocabularies learner will be easier to show their ideas, making compositions, and many other activities dealing with language.
In other words, by knowing and understanding the vocabulary, learners will successfully achieve the four English language skills. 1) Definition of Vocabulary Several definitions of vocabulary are listed below. Hornby (1995:1331) states that vocabulary is the total numbers of words which (with rules of combining them) make up a language. In addition, Dupuis et al (1989: 67) state that vocabulary refers to “a set of words or phrases which label the parts of material to be learned and which are necessary for students to use in talking and writing about the material.
” Vocabulary mastery is a great skill of knowledge about a set of words known by a person as a part of specific language. Vocabulary is one of the aspects of language besides grammar and pronunciation. Vocabulary mastery is crucial to language acquisition. One of the greatest inhibitors to communication in the target language is the lack of vocabulary. Barnett (1989:60) states that “foreign and second language students repeatedly claim that lack of vocabulary knowledge is a major problem when reading. ” Moreover, Levine (1965:1) states that “research has established a close correlation between vocabulary and intelligence”.
Student is identified as that of superior mental ability if she/he has good vocabulary. It means that she/he has done wide reading since reading is the principal way of developing a good vocabulary. It enables students to find new words and their meanings in different context. By reading much, their vocabulary will develop greatly. According to Russo (1983: 25), an individual’s vocabulary, in the native tongue and the target language, falls into two categories: passive and active. The passive vocabulary includes the reading and writing vocabulary.
It encompasses more words because its individual components appear in a context which allows the reader or writer time for reflection and comprehension of meaning based on contextual clues. The passive vocabulary is generally much more extensive than the active vocabulary. The active vocabulary refers to the words that students have been taught or have learnt and they are expected to be able to use them. 2) Types of Vocabulary Donoghue (1990) cited in Risdiana (1997:3) states that there are four categories of vocabulary. 1. Listening Vocabulary
Listening vocabulary refers to all the words that children recognize and understand when they hear them in oral context. It is the first vocabulary to develop during the language acquisition stage and is also the one that continues to grow most rapidly during Elementary school years. 2. Speaking Vocabulary Speaking vocabulary includes all the words that children use in everyday speech. It forms the basis for development of the reading and writing vocabulary. 3. Reading Vocabulary Reading vocabulary consists of all the words that children recognize and understand in writing.
The students’ vocabulary mastery is generally limited when they enter schools. By the time they reach reading maturity in the upper grades, their reading vocabulary overtakes and surpasses their oral vocabulary. The more students read, the larger is their reading vocabulary. 4. Writing Vocabulary Writing vocabulary is the last to develop and includes only the words that children can use in written compositions. It is closely tied to spelling instruction. In this study, the writer used reading vocabulary to teach to the students.
The materials were taken from their English books, Get Ready for Beginners and Happy with English adjusted to the syllabus given by the teacher. Cheek, et. al (1989:113) state that there are three reading vocabulary the students may encounter when they are reading. 1. General vocabulary: referring to the words that comprise the major portion of one’s vocabulary usage in everyday communication, such as “house”, “table”, and “chair”. 2. Specialized vocabulary: referring to the words with multiple meanings that change from one content to another, such as “mass”, “root”, and “raise”.
3. Technical vocabulary: referring to the words that are essential to the understanding of a specific content area. These words only relate to one content area and the understanding of its concepts, such as “gene” (science), “embargo” (social studies) and “exponents” (mathematics). General vocabulary is the main vocabulary found in the primary school students’ reading text. The writer focused on the general vocabulary since it contains the words used in daily communication and is useful for the students as their basic knowledge. 3) Vocabulary Development
Seven kinds of principles of vocabulary development are described by Gunning (1992:159). Their description is as follows: 1. Building experiential background: The most effective step to build vocabulary is to provide students with a variety of rich experiences, for examples, taking children to a supermarket, zoo, museum etc. 2. Relating vocabulary to background It is essential to relate new words to experiences that students may have had. Students were asked to respond to new words that required some sort of personal judgment or observation. 3. Building relationship Show how new words are related to each other.
For example, students are about to read a selection about autobiographies and biographies that include the unfamiliar words accomplishment, obstacles and nonfiction along with autobiography and biography. Instead of simply presenting them separately, demonstrate how they are related to each other. Autobiography and biography are two similar types of nonfiction, and they often describe the subject’s accomplishments and obstacles that he/she had to overcome. 4. Developing depth of meaning There are two methods of developing depth of meaning: definitions and simulation.
Definition, however, may provide only a superficial level of knowledge, while simulation is the thoughtful level of knowledge. 5. Presenting several exposures Gunning (1992:163) suggests that students study new words at least ten times. It also helps if words appear in different context so that students experience their shade of meaning. 6. Creating an interest in words In experiment program, Gunning (1992:163) awarded students the title of “Word Wizard” if they come on an example of a taught word outside of the class and reported to the group.
Children virtually swamped their teachers with instances of seeing, hearing or using the words as they worked toward gaining points on the word wizard chart. On some days every child in the class comes in with a word wizard contribution. Children occasionally cause a minor description, for example, at an assembly when a speaker used one of the taught words and the entire class would use buzz with recognition. 7. Promoting transfer Students have to learn thousands of words, so teachers also have to show them to use the tools of vocabulary acquisition: (1) context clues, (2) morphemic analysis and (3) dictionary skills.
Context clues refers to words or phrases, stated or implied, in a sentence, a paragraph or a passage that help students to understand new and difficult vocabulary. Morphemic analysis refers to the ability to determine a word meaning through examining its prefix, root or suffix. Dictionary skills refer to skills of looking up words, obtaining appropriate definition and deriving the correct pronunciations. 4) Vocabulary Teaching Techniques There are numerous techniques concerning vocabulary presentation. Gairns and Redman (1986) suggest the following options for vocabulary presentation. 1 visual techniques2 verbal techniques 3 dictionaries Visual techniques for the presentation of new lexical items pertain to visual memory, which is considered helpful especially with vocabulary retention. Learners can remember the presented material far more effectively if it has been presented by means of visual aids. They help students associate presented material in a meaningful way and incorporate it into their existing system of language. Teachers can benefit from the use of: 1 flashcards, 2 photographs and pictures, blackboard drawings 3 word pictures 4 information on culture 5 labelling pictures / objects 6 mime and gesture7 action 8 incongruous visuals However, before I start to present a new vocabulary, it is useful to implement some recommendations: 1 Spoken language precedes written mode. When our students can pronounce words, we can introduce their written form. This can prevent them from trying to pronounce English words as if they were written in their own language. 2 Try to present new words in context. 3 Revision is essential. We can blend new words into later practice. Teacher can choose from several ways of presenting vocabulary and making clear its meaning. He can use these separately or in combination with each other.
The way to present the meaning of many abstract words is through the creation of a context or a situation that is helpful when deducing the meaning of a word. When we want to present person’s feature as “innocent” it is very useful to create a character who is innocent (e. g. a figure taken from the history). If it is necessary we can accompany example by mime or drawing. Ur, in this connection, offers the following ways of presenting the meaning of new vocabulary items: concise definition (taken from dictionary, or invented by the teacher him/herself) detailed description (appearance, qualities) examples (hyponyms)illustration (picture, object) demonstration (acting, mime) context (story or sentence in which the item occurs) synonyms opposites (antonyms) translation associated ideas, collocations B. Direct Method 1. Understanding Direct Method At the turn of 20th century the Direct Method became quite widely known and practiced. The basic premise of the Direct Method was similar to that of Gouin’s Series Method, namely, that second language learning should be more like first language learning-lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the lan¬guage, no translation between first and second languages, and littleor no analysis of grammatical rules. Richards and Rodgers summarize the principles of the Direct Method As with the Grammar-Translation Method, the Direct Method is not new. Its principles have been applied by language teachers for many years. Most recently, it was revived as a method when the goal of instruction became learning how to use a foreign language to communicate. Since the Grammar-Translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively, the Direct Method became popular. The Direct Method has one very basic rule: No translation is allowed.
In fact, the Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be connected directly with the target language, without going through the process of translating into the students’ native language. The Direct Method enjoyed considerable popularity through the end of the nineteenth century and well into this one. It was more widely accepted in private language schools where students were highly motivated and where native-speaking teachers could be employed. One of the best known of its popularizers was Charles Berlitz (who never used the term Direct Method and chose instead to call his method the Berlitz Method).
To this day “Berlitz” is a household word; Berlitz language schools are thriving in every country of the world. Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method introduced it in France and Germany (it was officially approved in both countries at the turn of the century), and it became widely known in the United States through its use by Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitz in successful com¬mercial language schools. (Berlitz, in fact, never used the term; he referred to the method used in his schools as the Berlitz Method) 2. Principles
Richards and Rogers (1986:9-10) summarized the principles of the Direct Method: 1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language. 2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught. 3. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. 4. Grammar was taught inductively. 5. New teaching points were introduced orally. 6. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
7. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught. 8. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized. 3. Reviewing the Principles What are the goals of teachers who use the Direct Method? Teachers who use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language. In order to do this successfully, students should learn to think in the target language. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? Although the teacher directs the class activities, the student role is less passive than in the Grammar-Translation Method.
The teacher and the students are more like partners in the teaching/learning process. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Teachers who use the Direct Method believe students need to associate meaning and the target language directly. In order to do this, when the teacher introduces a new target language word or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomime; he never translates it into the students’ native language. Students speak in the target language a great deal and communicate as if they were in real situations.
In fact, the syllabus used in the Direct Method is based upon situations (for example one unit would consist of language that people would use at a bank, another of the language that they use when going shopping) or topics (such as geography, money, or the weather). Grammar is taught inductively; that is the students are presented with examples and they figure out the rule or generalization from the examples. An explicit grammar rule may never be given. Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
The initiation of the interaction goes both ways, from teacher to students and from student to teacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed. Students converse with one another as well. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed? Language is primarily spoken, not written. Therefore, students study common, everyday speech in the target language. They also study the culture consisting of the history of the people who speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language is spoken, and information about the daily lives of the speakers of the language.
What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized? Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic. Thus the reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first. Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course. What is the role of the students’ native language? The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom. How is evaluation accomplished?
We didn’t actually see any formal evaluation in the class we observed; however, in the Direct Method, students are asked to use the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language. They are asked to do so using both oral and written skills. For example, the students might be interviewed orally by the teacher or might be asked to write a paragraph about something they have studied. How does the teacher respond to student errors? The teacher, employing various techniques, tries to get students to self-correct whenever possible. 4. Reviewing the Techniquesa. Reading Aloud Students take turns reading sections of a passage, play, or dialogue out loud. At the end of each student’s turn, the teacher uses gestures, pictures, realia, examples, or other means to make the meaning of the section clear. b. Question and Answer Exercise This exercise is conducted only in the target language. Students are asked questions and answer in full sentences so that they practice with new words and grammatical structure. They have the opportunity to ask questions as well as answer them. c. Getting Students to Self-correct
The teacher of this class has the students self-correct by asking them to make a choice between what they said and an alternate answer he supplied. There are, however, other ways of getting students to self-correct. For example, a teacher might simply repeat what a student has just said, using a questioning voice to signal to the student that something was wrong with it. Another possibility is for the teacher to repeat what the student said, stopping just before the error. The student knows that the next word was wrong. d. Conversation Practice
The teacher asks students a number of questions in the target language, which the students have to understand to be able to answer correctly. In the class observed, the teacher asked individual students questions about themselves. The questions contained a particular grammar structure. Later, the students were able to ask each other their own questions using the same grammatical structure. e. Fill-in-the-blank Exercise This technique has already been discussed in the Grammar-Translation Method, but differs in its application in the Direct Method.
All the items are in the target language; furthermore, no explicit grammar rule would be applied. The students would have induced the grammar rule they need to fill in the blanks from examples and practice with earlier parts of the lesson. f. Dictation The teacher reads the passage three times. The first time the teacher reads it at a normal speed, while the students just listen. The second time he reads the passage phrase by phrase, pausing long enough to allow students to write down what they have heard.
The last time the teacher again reads at a normal speed, and students check their work. 5. Advantages of Direct Method 1) It makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond between a word and its meaning. 2) It is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils. 3) According to Macnee, “It is the quickest way of getting started”. In a few months over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences. This serves as a strong foundation of further learning.
4) Due to application of the Direct Method, students are able to understand what they learn, think about it and then express their own ideas in correct English about what they have read and learnt. 6) This method can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class. 7) Through this method, fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of expression are properly developed. 6. Disadvantages of Direct Method 1) There are many abstract words which cannot be interpreted directly in English and much time and energy are wasted in making attempts for the purpose.
2) This method is based on the principles that auditory appeal is stronger that visual. But there are children who learn more with visual than with their oral- aural sense like ears and tongue. 3) The method ignores systematic written work and reading activities and sufficient attention is not paid to reading and writing. 4) Since in this method, grammar is closely bound up with the reader, difficulty is experienced in providing readers of such kind. 5) There is a dearth of teachers trained and interested in teaching English in this method. 6) This method may not hold well in higher classes where the Translation Method is found suitable.
7) In larger classes, this method is not properly applied and teaching in this method does not suit or satisfy the needs of individual students in large classes. C. Grammar Translation Method 1. Understanding Grammar Translation Method The grammar-translation method of foreign language teaching is one of the most traditional methods, dating back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was originally used to teach ‘dead’ languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek GTM is not a new thing in language learning, which is only slightly different. The name has been used by language teachers for a few years ago.
In ancient times this method is called the “classical method” of the time used in the classical language learning, such as Latin and Greek. At the beginning of this century, this method is used to assist students in reading and understanding a foreign language literature. But it is also expected that it is in studying or understanding the grammar of the desired target language, students will become more familiar with the language rules in accordance with the source language and a deeper understanding of this will further help them in reading and writing according to the source language to be better.
Finally concluded that it is studying a foreign language will help the development of students in developing intellectual, it can be recognized that the students will never use the target language, but learning is very much needed mental. 2. Caracteristic The Grammar Translation Method has eihgt caracteristic 1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. 2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. 3. Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.
4. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. 5. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early. 6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. 7. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue. 8. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. 3. Techniques The Grammar Translation Method has nine techniques : 1.
Translation of a Literary Passage (Translating target language to native language) 2. Reading Comprehension Questions (Finding information in a passage, making inferences and relating to personal experience) 3. Antonyms/Synonyms (Finding antonyms and synonyms for words or sets of words). 4. Cognates (Learning spelling/sound patterns that correspond between L1 and the target language) 5. Deductive Application of Rule (Understanding grammar rules and their exceptions, then applying them to new examples) 6. Fill-in-the-blanks (Filling in gaps in sentences with new words or items of a particular grammar type).
7. Memorization (Memorizing vocabulary lists, grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms) 8. Use Words in Sentences (Students create sentences to illustrate they know the meaning and use of new words) 9. Composition (Students write about a topic using the target language). 4. Advantages a. The phraseology of the target language is quickly explained. b. Teacher’s labor is saved. 5. Disadvantages a. It is an unnatural method. b. Speech is neglected. The Grammar Translation Method lays emphasis on reading and writing. c. Exact translation is not possible d. It does not give pattern practice.
D. Hypothesis 1. Alternative hypothesis (Ha) : there is significant difference between teaching vocabularies by using Direct Method compared with Grammar Translation Method. 2. Null Hypothesis (Ho) : There is no significant difference between teaching vocabularies by using Direct Method compared with Grammar Translation Method. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Objective Of Research The objective of this research is to find out whether there is a significant difference of students’ achievement in learning vocabulary through Direct Method and Grammar Translation Method. 2. Time and Place
The research will be conducted at SMP N 1 Rembang, Purbalingga. The time will be started from April to June 2014. Research Timeline No Week Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Proposal preparation X 2. Instrument preparation X 3. Testing the validity and reliability of the instrument X X 4. Sampling X X 5. Data collection X X X 6. Data analysis X X 7. Drafting a report X X X 3. Population and Sample The population of this research consists of six classes, namely VII. A, VII. B, VII. C, VII. D, VII. E, VII. F. The sample of this research is 80 students, which is divided into two classes, namely VII. A and VII. F. The