The Effects of Classical Music on Cognition
Alma of project To test the effects of classical music from the Baroque era on the short term memory and mathematical problem solving components of cognition. * Hypotheses Primary Hypothesis * The “spring” segment from the classical Baroque composition “Four Seasons” by Antonio Vivaldi, improves the short term memory and mathematical problem solving components of cognition respectively. Secondary Hypothesis * The short term memory component of cognition will show a higher Improvement as a result of stimulation by the classical Baroque music than the mathematical problem solving component of cognition. * IntroductionThe “Mozart effect”, a widely debated topic between 1990 and 1999, was what many researchers used to describe the effects of classical music on cognitive abilities.
The relationship between music and learning has been an area of Interest for researchers for many years. Some studies have shown that music can enhance cognitive abilities and others have shown that it can interfere with complex cognitive processes but not simple processes. In 2004, researchers conducted a study that presented the effect of Mozart music on learning, The effect demonstrated that there may be an important relationship between certain types of music (e. Classical) and learning. The proposed Increase In the construction of alpha waves may result In positive learning ability. Other studies on the Mozart Effect, however, have produced inconsistent results, often showing no significant increase in cognitive abilities. The effect of classical music on heart rate is what led me to believe that classical music from the Baroque era could enhance learning abilities.
Baroque music is the style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. It is often composed of a very complex combination on dramatic high and low notes, played in kick succession.It is believed that Baroque music triggers the left and right sides of the brain, which stimulates and optimizes learning and information retention. The stimulation of the brain as a result of classical music can be associated with lowering of heart rate when listening to classical music. The listeners’ heart beats slower and as a result of this their respiratory system functions at a more relaxed pace as well. They take deeper breaths resulting more oxygenated blood (as opposed to when not listening to classical music) reaching the brain and stimulating cerebral activity.The listeners’ blood pressure also drops as a result of the relaxed heart rate and they feel less stressed and more confident when carrying out tasks especially useful to students as it could help them retain more information in less time resulting in higher test scores.
By conducting a survey to determine whether or not students use classical music to enhance cognitive abilities and an experiment to determine if classical does in fact enhance cognitive abilities, I hope introduce a method of cerebral stimulation capable of improving the problem solving and short-term memory components of ignition to improve students’ academic abilities. Variables * Independent Variable: Whether or not the classical music is being played. * Dependent Variables: Amount of correctly solved equations correctly : Amount of words remembered : Effect of classical music on heart rate * Controlled/Constant variables: The test subjects (test subjects must have completed both sections of the test) seconds) equations look at : Period for which music is played (30 : Difficulty of : Amount of time test subject is given to word lists (1 5 seconds) : The amount of words on the word : The classical composition played to test object (“Spring” by Antonio Vivaldi) at which test subjects heart rates are taken. Method : The periods l. Test subject is given a form consisting of three parts: A questionnaire for survey purposes, Test 1 to be completed with no stimuli; consisting of test 1 . 1: Simple Equations and test 1. 2: Memory and Test 2 to be completed using the composition segment “Spring” by Antonio Vivaldi as stimulus; consisting of test 2.
1 : Simple Equations and test 2. 2: Memory. II. Test subject is given unlimited amount of time to complete questionnaire section of form for survey purposes. This includes the following questions: a.Do you use any other kind of stimuli to improve your cognitive abilities? (If Yes, please elaborate) b. Do you listen to music while studying or doing homework? (If yes, why and what kind of music? ) c.
Do you listen to classical music on a regular basis? (Why or why not? ) Ill. The test subject’s heart rate in beats per minute is taken using the Android “Cardiograph” application by MACROSCOPIC. IV. The test subject is timed while completing four simple algebraic equations taken from the eighth grade algebra a) x+7=1 5 b) 1 5-y=45 c) 1 5-P=30 d) 12+f=100 V.The time taken for the test subject to complete this section is recorded. VI. The test subject is given a list of ten words and fifteen seconds to memories as many of the words as possible.
List consists of the following words. * Hammer * Number * Fish * Purple * Bag * Ribbon * Mouse * Slippers * Finger * Doll VI’. The test subject is instructed to say “stop” when they cannot remember any more words. VIII. The test subject is timed while writing down as many of the words as they can remember ‘X. The time taken for the test subject to complete this section is recorded.X.
The test subject listens to thirty seconds of the “spring” segment of Antonio Vivaldi “Four Seasons” composition. X’. The test subject’s heart rate in beats per minute is taken using the Android “Cardiograph” application by MACROSCOPIC XII. The test subject is timed while completing four simple algebraic equations taken from the eighth grade algebra section of www. Antihistamines. Com , the following equations must be completed: a) 13+1–?20 b) 4-k=16 c) a+17=80 d) c-4=8 XIII. The time taken for the test subject to complete this section is recorded.
XIV.Increase I Same I Decrease * Analysis In the math section five of the ten test subjects (50%) had no change in their marks Ninth and without classical music. Four (40%) experienced a decrease in the second math section of the test and only one (10%) experienced an increase. This shows that In the five test subjects who experienced a change in mathematical cognition) the classical music actually decreased majority of the test subject’s mathematical cognitive ability during the period of the test. 0% of the test subjects experienced an Increase in the amount of time they took to complete the equations (respective of Neither the answers were correct or not) and 30% experienced a decrease in the amount of time they took. In the memory section three test subjects (30%) remembered the same amount of Norms in both sections, while only one (10%) could remember an increased amount of Norms and the other six (60%) remembered fewer words. By this it can be concluded that the classical music did not enhance the short term memory aspect of cognition either.
Six students reached the maximum amount of words they could remember in smaller amount of time with the classical music, and four took longer to reach the maximum amount of remembered words. One of the trends I noted in the experiment was that the increase in test scores “here increases occurred where at higher percentages than the decreases; which could be seen in the short term memory cognition test; a student experiencing an example, whilst the percentages of the decreased test scores showed decreases of marginally smaller amounts like 10% in most cases.There appeared to be no trend in the increase or the decrease of the students heart rates and the test scores as students with an increased heart rate experienced increases as well as decreases in test scores and students a decreased heart rate experienced the same phenomenon This opposes the belief that a more relaxed or more anxious state influences cognitive abilities, and instead leads me to believe that each individuals cognitive abilities function at different optimal levels depending on the individuals preferences I. E. Whether they prefer to work under pressure or not.There also appeared to be no relation between the test subjects’ prior use of classical music as stimuli and the results of the experiment, as the 20% of test subjects who had used classical music as stimuli experienced similar effects to the 80% who had tot. Ere findings of this experiment have led me to believe that the supposed effect of classical music from the baroque era on cognition can be explained by a phenomenon similar to the placebo effect; that the effect of the classical music on cognition is entirely dependent on the test subjects individual belief in the classical music’s ability to improve their cognition.
If I were to repeat the experiment I would use a larger group of test subjects and different genres of music to determine if music has any effect on cognitive abilities and increase the accuracy of my results. The experiment could have been limited by the fact that test subjects would already have varying individual cognitive abilities and different levels of academic abilities. So the effect of the classical music could only be explained for each individual and not students in general. Conclusion Through my experiment and my analysis I was able to conclude that classical music has negative effects on the short term memory and mathematical problem solving components of cognition, because of this my primary hypothesis has been disproved. Ere secondary hypothesis of this experiment has been disproved as well, as neither impotent of cognition showed a overall increase in the test subjects so the short term memory component of cognition does not show a bigger improvement than the mathematical problem solving component. References * Bowman, B. (2007).
Does listening to Mozart affect listening ability? International Urinal of Listening, 21, ALL-139. * Festoon, S. (1973). Music as a distracted on reading-test Performance of eighth grade students. Perceptual and I Motor skills, 36, 1265-1266 * Hall, J. (1952) The affect of background music on the reading comprehension of 278 eighth and ninth * Journal of Educational Research, 45,ALL-458. Hall, S.
The effects of background music on primary school Pupils task performance. Educational Studies, 28, 113-121. * Jackson, C. 2004). Route learning and the Mozart effect. Psychology of Music , * Acknowledgements would like to thank the following test subjects for their participation in this experiment by taking part in all components of the form handed to them: * Chance Fishhook * Noblemen Abide * Casey Pierce * Tootles Fakir * Dados Therefore * That Mongolia * Shawn Petersen * National Moles * Yeshiva Pictogram’s * Robin Arnold * Shania Modally * Ethyl Hubbard.