The Emotional Impact of Bullying and Cyberbullying on Victims
Traditional bullying or bullying is considered as the infringement of the rights of a child to a happy and productive life, inside and outside the school (Greene, 2006). Cyberbullying is defined as disseminating harmful or cruel speech or engaging in other forms of social cruelty using the internet or other information communication technologies (Willard,2005). Arguments have been made by some researchers whether Cyberbullying is just a distinct phenomenon or rather be considered as a part or extension of traditional bullying behaviors (Olweus, 2012 and Li, 2007). Comparing risk factors on cyberbullying and that of traditional bullying is one way to identify key similarities and differences between the two behaviors. It is important to establish whether these are two separate types of bullying or whether cyberbullying is an extension of traditional bullying and how they are related with each other. Many studies have shown relation or involvement between traditional form and cyber form of bullying. A study conducted by Dehue, Bolman, Vollink and Pouwelse (2012) among a sample of adolescents found out that only 7.1% were inclusively involved in cyberbullying, while 22.8% experienced both cyberbullying and traditional bullying as a victim or either the bully. Another study of Smith et al. (2008) found that over 80% of cybervictims were former traditional victims and the results also shows that three quarters of cyberbullies were also traditional bullies. It appears that traditional bullies also have the potential to develop and become cyber bullies which is a negative effect, and those victims of bullying at school could also be cybervictims. A study of Raskauskas and stoltz(2007) found that 85% of cybervictims were also traditional victims and 94% of cyberbullies were also traditional bullies. Olweus (2012) found that 10% of children that have experienced cyberbullying did not experience traditional bullying and that few new victims or bullies are created because of cyberbullying. And it just shows that bullying is integrated from one setting which is the school to a place which is the cyber world.