The Four Political Parties Of Canada Essay

, Research Paper

The Four Political Parties of Canada

In a state as huge and as culturally diverse as Canada, many different

political sentiments can be found stretched across the state. From the flush

vicinities of West Vancouver to the little fishing towns located on the E

seashore of Newfoundland, political sentiments and associations range from the left

flying to the right wing. To stand for these changing political positions, Canada has

four official national political parties to take from: the Liberals ( who are

presently in power ) , the Progressive Conservatives, the New Democrats, and the

Reform Party. What is peculiarly interesting is that none of the latter three

parties compose Her Majesty & # 8217 ; s Official Opposition in the House of Commons. The

Bloc Quebecois, a Quebec separationist party who merely ran campaigners in the

state of Quebec in the last federal election in 1993, won 54 seats in that

state, and claimed the rubric of Her Majesty & # 8217 ; s Loyal Opposition over the

Reform Party, who garnered merely 52 seats. Because the Bloc ran campaigners merely

in Quebec, it would be hard to believe of them being a national political

party, even though they hold a important figure of seats in the national

legislative assembly. This paper will analyze the important early history of Canada & # 8217 ; s

four chief national political parties, and so will analyze their current province,

mentioning to recent major political victories/disasters, and the comparing of

major economic policy point of views, which will finally take to a anticipation of

which party will win the following federal election in Canada.

Get downing on the far left, there is the New Democratic Party of Canada.

Today & # 8217 ; s modern New Democratic Party was originally called the Co-operative

Commonwealth Federation ( CCF ) , and was founded in 1932. Originally led by a adult male

by the name of James Shaver Woodsworth, the CCF was formed by several extremist

farming groups who found out that they had more similarities with each other

than merely their destitution. The 1920 & # 8217 ; s had been a dark period for groups and

brotherhoods within Canada ; poorness and significantly lower rewards for workers were

prevalent, and apathy sing these issues was rampant. When the depression

wove its destructive web across Canada in the 1930s, advocates of capitalist economy

were staggered, but their leftist oppositions were excessively busy coming to the assistance of

the victims of the depression, and could non cover with the capitalists

efficaciously. When the CCF was officially formed in Calgary, they adopted the

rule policy of being & # 8220 ; a co-operative commonwealth, in which the BASIC

rule modulating production, distribution and exchange will be the provision

of human demands alternatively of the devising of profits. & # 8221 ; ( Morton, p.12, 1986 )

Meanwhile, in Eastern Canada, a group of bookmans formed the League for Social

Reconstruction ( LSR ) , and gave the Canadian left a version of socialism that was

related in some respects to the current societal and economic state of affairs in Canada.

In 1933, the CCF had its first major convention in Regina, Saskatchewan, and the

original policy platform foremost proposed by the CCF was replaced by a pronunciamento

prepared by an LSR commission and originally drafted by a Toronto bookman, Frank

Underhill. The Regina Manifesto, as it is known as today, put accent on

& # 8220 ; economic planning, nationalization of fiscal establishments, public public-service corporations

and natural resources, security of term of office for husbandmans, a national labor codification,

socialised wellness services and greatly increased economic powers for the cardinal

government. & # 8221 ; ( Morton, p.12, 1986 ) As a addendum to the hectic temper created

by the convention, the Regina convention concluded by stating & # 8220 ; no CCF Government

will rest content until it has eradicated capitalist economy and set into operation the

full programme of socialised planning which will take to the constitution in

Canada of the Co-operative Commonwealth. & # 8221 ; ( Morton, p.12, 1986 ) . The CCF tried

to earn more popular support subsequently down the route, and after naming itself the

New Party in 1960, it changed its name officially to the New Democratic Party

( NDP ) in 1962. Over the old ages, the NDP has become a big force in Canadian

political relations, going an option to the Conservatives and Liberals. ( Morton,

pgs.12-27, 1986 )

Even to the insouciant Canadian political perceiver, the NDP is by and large

regarded as the party at the underside of the political barrel at the federal degree.

In the last Canadian federal election in 1993 under the leading of Audrey

McLoughlin, the NDP went from keeping 43 seats in the House of Commons to merely 9.

McLoughlin resigned, paving the manner for the election of the former leader of

the Nova Scotia NDP to the federal station, Alexa McDonough in 1994. On the

provincial degree, nevertheless, the NDP has experienced some success of late.

Ontario, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan have had ( or presently

hold ) an NDP provincial authorization. ( Guy, p.384, 1995 )

On the policy forepart, the NDP seem to be most concerned with a program for

& # 8220 ; just revenue enhancements now. & # 8221 ; ( fairtaxnow.html, 1997 ) Harmonizing to the NDP, & # 8220 ; it & # 8217 ; s clip

Bankss and large corporations paid their just portion & # 8212 ; so we can break afford

wellness attention, instruction and other services for in-between category and working

families. & # 8221 ; ( fairtaxnow.html, 1997 ) Some of the cardinal points of the NDP & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; carnival

revenue enhancements now & # 8221 ; run include & # 8220 ; a minimal corporate revenue enhancement, a minimal wealth revenue enhancement, an

terminal to revenue enhancement interruptions for profitable corporations that lay people off, an terminal to

corporate tax write-offs for repasts and amusement, and increased federal auditing

and enforcement of bing corporate revenue enhancements, & # 8221 ; ( fairtaxnow.html, 1997 ) to call a

few. Of class, these recommendations for revenue enhancement reform reflect the typical

left-wing, socialistic point of views that the NDP has stood for of all time since its


Traveling farther towards the Centre of the political graduated table, the current

federal regulating party in Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, is found.

Liberals in an independent signifier started to be elected to the assorted

legislative assemblies around the state in the center of the 1800s, with a formal party

being created in the late 1800s. The intent of organizing a formal party was a

response to the increasing popularity of the Conservatives in Canada ; & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; the

rural Clear Grits of Upper Canada, the anti-clerical paints, and the reform

component in the Maritimes came together bit by bit as the Liberal Party. & # 8221 ;

( McMenemy, pg.10, 1976 ) In its early old ages, the Liberal Party reflected the

assorted demographics of faith and geographics among the voting populace in Canada.

With widespread support in Canada & # 8217 ; s rural countries several old ages after

Confederation, & # 8220 ; the Liberal Party opposed protectionism and supported commercial

reciprocality with the United States. It besides opposed MacDonald & # 8217 ; s plan of

railroad building. Led by Sir Wilfred Laurier, the Liberals supported

unrestricted reciprocality and suffered for it in the election of 1891. & # 8221 ;

( McMenemy, pg.12, 1976 ) The Liberals & # 8217 ; policy on trade annoyed industrialists,

who were intimidated by the chance of limitless trade. British Loyalists

regarded the trade reciprocality as being anti-British. In the latter portion of the

1890s, nevertheless, Laurier adjusted the party & # 8217 ; s policy on trade reciprocality. & # 8220 ; In

the budget of 1897, the Liberals neatly undercut the Conservatives by

presenting the rule of a lower limit and a maximal duty. A main consequence of

this Broad protectionism was to give British goods a penchant in Canada. & # 8221 ;

( McMenemy, pg.12, 1976 ) Another important move made by the Liberals was in

1903, when Prime Minister Laurier announced the building of a 2nd

transcontinental railway. Laurier & # 8217 ; s curate of railroads dissented on the thought

and in bend was sacked by the Prime Minister. & # 8220 ; By the election of 1904, the

Liberals had acquired MacDonald & # 8217 ; s railroad and duty policy and could therefore

wear the antecedently Conservative mantle of? party of national

development. & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ; ( McMenemy, pg.12, 1976 )

The Liberal Party of Canada presently forms the federal authorities of

Canada. Their current leader, Jean Chretien, was elected to win John Turner

in 1990. Around the clip Chretien was elected leader, inquiries within and

outside the party were raised sing the political & # 8220 ; luggage & # 8221 ; that Chretien

carried from old Broad authoritiess. Despite the contention, Chretien

won his party & # 8217 ; s leading rather comfortably, and returned his party to

prominence one time once more in 1993 by organizing a federal authorities with a big

bulk in the House of Commons. Looking back, this current Broad authorization

has weathered comparatively small unfavorable judgment until late. One of Chretien & # 8217 ; s

run promises in 1993 was to trash the Goods and Services Tax ( GST ) if the

Liberals were to organize a authorities. To complement that promise by Chretien,

Sheila Copps, another outstanding Liberal from Hamilton, Ontario, vowed to vacate

if the GST was non scrapped under a Broad authorization. Three old ages into the

Broad authorization, contention began to lift over Chretien & # 8217 ; s and Copps & # 8217 ; promises

sing the GST. Copps finally resigned after much unfavorable judgment, and won back

her place in her Hamilton equitation in a by-election several hebdomads subsequently. Chretien

was subjected to big sums of public unfavorable judgment, particularly during one of Complete blood count

Television & # 8217 ; s electronic & # 8220 ; town hall & # 8221 ; meetings. Chretien argued the fact that the

Liberals ne’er said that they were traveling to trash the GST, and that people

should read their policy usher, the & # 8220 ; Red Book, & # 8221 ; to happen out where precisely the

Liberals stood on the issue of the GST. Chretien argued during this argument that

the Liberals wanted to replace the GST alternatively of trashing it. Earlier cartridge holders

taken from the parliamentary channel and wireless interviews seemed to belie

his claim that the Liberals wanted to replace the GST. & # 8220 ; We hate it and we will

kill it! & # 8221 ; ( the GST ) were the exact words that came out of Jean Chretien & # 8217 ; s mouth

during a argument in the House of Commons over the GST, before the Liberals took

power in 1993. Since the federal election has non been called yet, it has yet

to be seen whether or non the Canadian populace has lost any religion in the current

Prime Minister.

The Liberals have made the economic resurgence of Canada one of their top

policy platforms, so much so that in the on-line edition of the Red Book,

economic policy is chapter one. The Liberals explain their attack to

economic policy by stating that they will concentrate on the five major jobs confronting

the current Canadian economic system: & # 8220 ; deficiency of growing, high unemployment, high long-run

existent involvement rates, excessively high degrees of foreign liability, and inordinate

authorities debt and deficits. & # 8221 ; ( chapter1.html, 1997 ) In the on-line edition of

the Red Book, the Liberals besides province that the & # 8220 ; better co-ordination of federal

and provincial revenue enhancement and economic policies must be achieved in the involvements of

all Canadians & # 8230 ; .we will work with the states to redesign the current societal

aid plans, to assist people on societal aid who are able to work to

move from dependance to full engagement in the economic and societal life of

this state & # 8230 ; .and that Canadians are entitled to merchandise regulations that are just

that secure entree to new markets, and that do non sabotage Canadian

committednesss to labor and environmental standards. & # 8221 ; ( chapter1.html, 1997 )

There is besides a brief subdivision about the Liberals & # 8217 ; program to make many more occupations

for Canadians, which was one of their big run platforms during the 1993

election. ( chapter1.html, 1997 )

Right of Centre on the political graduated table, the Progressive Conservative

Party of Canada can be found. The Progressive Conservatives ( Personal computers ) were, in

their newcomer old ages, known as the Conservative Party ( and before that, the

Liberal-Conservatives ) , and was founded before the Liberal Party of Canada,

doing it the oldest political party in Canada. & # 8220 ; While it is hard to pin-

point a precise day of the month of beginning of the Conservative Party there is however

good ground for sing 1854 as the inaugural twelvemonth for the political group

which has continued to this twenty-four hours as the conservative component in Canadian

politics. & # 8221 ; ( Macquarrie, pg.3, 1965 ) In 1854, John A. MacDonald, who was to

become Canada & # 8217 ; s first Prime Minister of all time, led the Conservative Party to office

and & # 8220 ; began the procedure which established a state in the northern portion of this

continent and set the form for that state & # 8217 ; s political institutions. & # 8221 ;

( Macquarrie, pg.4, 1965 ) Since Confederation, many events in Canadian political relations

have held huge significance in Canada & # 8217 ; s history. For illustration: Alliance

( 1867 ) , Hudson Bay districts fall ining the rule ( 1870 ) , Arctic Islands added

to the rule ( 1880 ) , the licking of reciprocality ( 1911 ) , the enfranchisement of

adult females ( 1918 ) , the providing of cosmopolitan right to vote under the Dominion Elections

Act ( 1920 ) , the Statute of Westminster ( 1931 ) , and eventually, the add-on of

Newfoundland to the Dominion ( 1949 ) . It is interesting to observe that all of

these important political happenings were made under Conservative Party

authorizations. ( Macquarrie, pg.2, 1965 ) & # 8220 ; It has been said that if Canada had an

Independence Day it would be December 11, 1931, the day of the month of the announcement of

the Statute of Westminster under the government of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett. & # 8221 ;

( Macquarrie, pg.3, 1965 ) The Statute of Westminster & # 8220 ; repealed the Colonial Laws

Validity Act and gave Canada absolute legislative liberty except as requested

by Canada in the instance of amendments to the British North America Act. & # 8221 ;

( Macquarrie, pg.107, 1965 ) This was a acknowledgment of an constitution which was

long delinquent. Before the Statut

vitamin E of Westminster was implemented in 1931, it was

under the regulation of another conservative Prime Minister, Sir Robert Borden, in

which Canada took its largest stairss towards holding & # 8220 ; full independency and

complete national sovereignty. Vigorously and successfully he ( Borden ) asserted

the equality of states consisting the Commonwealth. & # 8221 ; ( Macquarrie, pg.3, 1965 )

In December of 1942, the Conservative Party met at a leading convention in

Winnipeg, and after some goad by one of the campaigners, John Bracken, the

name of the Conservative Party was changed to that of the Progressive

Conservatives, in order to reflect the party & # 8217 ; s progressive ends and purposes.

( Macquarrie, pg.122, 1965 ) Under the name of Progressive Conservative party,

John Diefenbaker led the party to the largest landslide triumph in the history

of Canadian political relations in 1958, merely one twelvemonth after the Diefenbaker authorities had

won a minority authorities. ( Guy, pg.393, 1995 )

In recent old ages, the Progressive Conservatives have been dealt terrible

blows at the polls. In 1993, the Progressive Conservatives went from holding the

bulk authorities in the House of Commons to a mere two seats: current Personal computer

leader Jean Charest in Sherbrooke, and Elsie Wayne in Saint John. The Personal computers can

attach their monolithic licking in the 1993 election to nine old ages of regulation by Brian

Mulroney. Mulroney won two big bulk authoritiess in 1984 and 1988, but in

the 1988 term, his lucks turned south. His authorities was responsible for

the execution of the hated Goods and Services revenue enhancement, the Free Trade Agreement

with the United States, and the Meech Lake Accord. Several months before the

1993 federal election was called, Mulroney stepped down as party leader, which

paved the manner for the election of Kim Campbell, so Justice Minister, to the

station of Prime Minister. Campbell was the first female Prime Minister of Canada,

even though she was non elected by the general vote populace. Her early yearss of

runing were regarded every bit successful for herself and the party, but in the

latter portion of the election run, debates over whether or non Campbell was a

competent leader were raised. Her stumble in the late phases of the election

run set the phase for the Custer-like pass overing out of her party ; she was even

soundly defeated in her ain equitation of Vancouver Central. Even though the

federal party was decimated, provincial Personal computer parties seemed to keep their ain

during the federal dark times. Presently, there are Progressive Conservative

provincial authoritiess in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Prince Edward Island.

PEI Conservatives won the most recent election, traveling from merely one place in the

PEI legislative assembly to a bulk. The Conservatives in Ontario were besides recent

victors. Under the leading of Mike Harris, the Ontario Conservatives ousted

the Ontario NDP in the 1994 provincial election in a landslide triumph, possibly

conveying on a 2nd moving ridge of the Big Blue Machine in old ages to come. Even

though the Conservatives were given a serious reverse in the 1993 federal

election, their committedness to policy-making has non been affected. They have

drafted a Tory Top Ten list of policies that they will run with during the

following federal election. Their figure one policy point of view on the Top Ten is revenue enhancement

cuts for occupations: & # 8220 ; Canadians today are overtaxed. The high revenue enhancement load is killing

occupations and cut downing Canada & # 8217 ; s fight. We need to make permanent occupations and

rekindle the entrepreneurial spirit. Tax cuts will shoot life back into the

Canadian economic system by advancing investing, consumer ingestion and occupation

creation. & # 8221 ; ( library4.html, 1997 ) On the income revenue enhancement forepart, the Personal computers are besides

committed to giving Canadians a 10-20 per cent personal income revenue enhancement cut, which

would be phased in over their first term in office. They have besides given the

state of affairs sing the federal debt and shortage a just sum of idea. They

intend to equilibrate the federal budget within their first authorization in office, and

that by the clip the shortage is eliminated through disbursement cuts, & # 8220 ; specific

marks for decrease of the federal debt must be set with mensurable

milestones. & # 8221 ; ( Planing a Blueprint for Canadians, pp.6-7, 1996 ) Finally,

their overall economic policy provinces that & # 8220 ; Canada should represent an economic

brotherhood within which goods, services, individuals and capital may travel freely. Any

steps which unduly discriminate between persons, goods, services and

capital on the footing of their beginning or their finish should be

unconstitutional. The strengthening of the Canadian economic brotherhood is important to

furthering economic growing, the flourishing of a common citizenhood, and assisting

Canadians reach their full potential. & # 8221 ; ( Planing a Blueprint for Canadians,

pgs.40-41, 1996 ) On the whole, it would look to the indifferent reader that the

Progressive Conservative Party of Canada knows precisely what it stands for.

Even further to the right side of the political graduated table, the comparatively

new Reform Party of Canada can be found. On the last weekend of October in 1987,

306 delegates from Western Canada converged on Alberta, in order to establish the

party. These people were fed up with the traditional Liberal/Conservative regulation

in Ottawa, and wanted a party that could efficaciously stand for the concerns of

Western Canadians. ( Harrison, pgs.110, 112,114, 1995 ) & # 8220 ; The delegates faced

three undertakings as they met that weekend: to make up one’s mind upon a name for the party, to

invent a fundamental law, and to pick a leader. The delegates chose the party & # 8217 ; s

name & # 8211 ; the Reform Party of Canada & # 8211 ; the first day. & # 8221 ; ( Harrison, pg.114, 1995 )

On the 2nd twenty-four hours of the convention, the party started the procedure of choosing

a leader. There were three possible campaigners: Preston Manning ( the current

leader ) , Ted Byfield, and Stan Roberts. Byfield was non wholly comfy

with the thought of being the Reform Party & # 8217 ; s leader, nevertheless, and wanted to

continue to run his ain personal concern. A theory that came out of the

convention was that this leading race was a conflict between & # 8220 ; Roberts & # 8217 ; old

political manner and money against Manning & # 8217 ; s grass-roots populism. & # 8221 ; ( Harrison,

pg.117, 1995 ) There was besides some contention over the sum of money Roberts

spent on his cordial reception suite at the convention, which was an estimated $ 25000.

Maning was regarded as being quite frugal, passing about $ 2000. Even though

the difference in the sum of money spent between the two chief campaigners was

instead big, Manning was regarded as being the stronger of the two campaigners,

holding the unquestionable commitment of many of the delegates. ( Harrison,

pg.117, 1995 ) Roberts knew of the huge support Manning had, and it was

rumoured that he was traveling to convey in a important sum of & # 8220 ; blink of an eye

delegates & # 8221 ; ( Harrison, pg.117, 1995 ) to force him over the top. The Manning

cantonment got word of this thought, and later closed delegate enrollment on the

Friday dark of the convention ( it was supposed to run until Saturday forenoon ) .

This action sent a Roberts protagonist by the name of Francis Winspear into a fury,

badly knocking the determination to suspend enrollment and impeaching the

Maning cantonment that some rank money had been unaccounted for. & # 8220 ; With

animuss lifting, Jo Anne Hillier called a meeting between the two sides on

Saturday dark to try to decide the differences. The effort at

rapprochement failed. & # 8221 ; ( Harrison, pg.117, 1995 ) The following forenoon, during an

emotional address, Roberts decided to drop out of the race, all the piece

oppugning whether or non the party stood true to its founding rules of

unity and honestness. He referred to Manning & # 8217 ; s protagonists as & # 8220 ; overzealous

Albertans & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; petty evangelical cranks. & # 8221 ; ( Harrison, pg.118, 1995 )

This left Preston Manning as the first ( and current ) leader of one of Canada & # 8217 ; s

newest political parties, the Reform Party of Canada.

In its short history to day of the month, the Reform Party of Canada has had some

success federally, and has weathered its portion of unfavorable judgment. In the last

federal election, they won a sum of 52 seats, about crushing out the Bloc

Quebecois for the rubric of Her Majesty & # 8217 ; s Loyal Opposition, who won 54 seats.

The Reform took one place in Ontario, one place in Manitoba, four seats in

Saskatchewan, 22 seats in Alberta, and 24 seats in British Columbia. ( Guy,

pg.434, 1995 ) There was some argument at the beginning of the Liberals & # 8217 ; authorization

from the Reform Party whether or non a separationist party ( Bloc Quebecois ) should

be allowed to be the resistance in Parliament, but the Bloc remained as official

resistance. Recently, nevertheless, a Bloc MP resigned his place, go forthing the Bloc with

a one place lead over the Reform Party in the race for official resistance. The

following federal election should be really interesting, as these two parties might

conflict it out for the right to be resistance once more. One nickname that the Reform

Party wears that could damage their hopes of of all time being the resistance or the

authorities is the fact that many Canadians have the stereotype that Reform MPs

and protagonists are red-necked bushwhackers from out West. A small piece back, a

Reform MP by the name of Robert Wringma made remarks of a racial nature towards

black and Aboriginal people. Wringma suggested that if he were a tradesman,

and if his frequenters were offended by inkinesss or Aborigines working up in the

forepart of his store, he would do certain that the black or Aboriginal individual ( s )

working for him would be in the dorsum of the store while his racialist clients were

on the premises. This prompted indignation from minority groups and the general

Canadian population, and Preston Manning was finally pressured into kicking

Wringma out of caucus. That peculiar incident summed up the Reform stereotype

of utmost rightist positions, and it should besides be interesting whether or non

this topic surfaces once more during the following federal election run.

On the Reform Party & # 8217 ; s web page, the policy subdivision is entitled & # 8220 ; a 6

point program to construct a brighter hereafter together. & # 8221 ; ( summary.html, 1997 ) Their

figure one precedence is to & # 8220 ; make growing, chance, and enduring occupations through

smaller authorities, an terminal to overspending, and lower revenue enhancements, to do authorities

smaller by extinguishing waste, duplicate, and ruddy tape to salvage $ 15 billion a

twelvemonth, and to equilibrate the budget by March 31, 1999. & # 8221 ; ( summary.html, 1997 ) The

Reform Party besides intends to give the public revenue enhancement alleviation, by holding & # 8220 ; lower revenue enhancements

for all Canadians: $ 2,000 by the twelvemonth 2000 for the mean household, an addition

in the Basic Personal Amount and Spousal Amount, cut capital additions revenue enhancements in half,

cut employers & # 8217 ; U.I. premiums by 28 % , and extinguish federal supertaxs and last but

non least, flatten and simplify the income revenue enhancement system. & # 8221 ; ( Summary.html, 1997 )

Their programs for the Unemployment Insurance system are non all that extravagant,

but on the place page, they are quoted as stating that they are traveling to: & # 8220 ; return

Unemployment Insurance to its original intent: protection against impermanent occupation

loss. & # 8221 ; ( summary.html, 1997 ) These economic reform policies seem to be related

slightly to the Progressive Conservatives & # 8217 ; economic reform policies, but they do

non travel into about every bit much item as the Conservatives do.

Politicss in Canada is an highly volatile concern. One twenty-four hours a party

can be on top of the universe, and the following twenty-four hours they can be the flagellum of the

planet. Politicss in Canada has a long and interesting history, so much so that

this paper has hardly even scratched the surface. While the New Democrats and

Reform are garnering support in different countries of the state, it must be

remembered that the lone two parties to of all time keep federal office in this state

have been the Conservative and Broad parties. From analyzing the assorted

party & # 8217 ; s web pages, it seems that the Liberals and Conservatives have the most

elaborate policy platforms, the Reform Party is merely missing the item of the

Conservatives and Liberals, and the New Democrats have small information to

research at all. History tends to reiterate itself, particularly in elections in

this state, and it would non be surprising if the Liberals won another federal

authorization this twelvemonth. The Conservatives look like they are doing the long trek

back to prominence, but the Reform Party and New Democrats seem to be steping

H2O. The existent trial that will find which paths these parties will take

during the trek into the twenty-first century, nevertheless, will be made in the soon-to-be-

called Canadian federal election. Democracy will talk out one time once more.


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Macquarrie, Heath. The Conservative Party. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart

Limited, 1965.

McMenemy, John, Winn, Conrad. Political Parties in Canada. Montreal: McGraw-

Hill Ryerson, 1976.

Morton, Desmond. The New Democrats, 1961-1986. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd. ,


( 1996 ) New Democrats of Canada [ Online ] . Available:

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Ottawa, 1997.

( 1996 ) Progressive Conservative Youth [ Online ] . Available:

hypertext transfer protocol: // [ 1997, Feb.25 ] .


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