The Glass Cileing Essay Research Paper Youve
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The Glass Cileing Essay, Research Paper
? You? ve Come a Short Way, Baby! ?
Professor Diana Bilimoria hit it on the nail when she proclaimed, ? Even when adult females do all the right things, and have all the right material, they continue to be blocked from the innermost circles of power? ( Daily ) . The increasing figure of working adult females with an instruction and experience in the concern universe continue to meet this encirclement mentioned by Professor Bilimoria. Suzanne M. Crampton and Jitendra M. Mishra find that the publicities to managerial places achieved by adult females have, unluckily, non kept up with the addition of adult females in the work force. This barrier that keeps adult females from publicities is called the glass ceiling. ? Glass ceiling is a term coined in the 1970? s to depict the unseeable unreal barriers, created by attitudinal and organisational biass, which bar adult females from top executive occupations? ( ? Glass Ceiling Separates Women for Top? ) . Robert B. Reich, Secretary of Labor, informs his readers that the look? glass ceiling? foremost appeared about ten old ages ago in a column entitled? Corporate Womans? in the Wall Street Journal? ( three ) . Since the mid to late 1880ss, the term has been applied to place state of affairss where adult females have bumped their caputs in attempts to make high-ranking places. One beginning studies that the consequences of a Labor Department survey prove that the? glass ceiling? prevents adult females from accomplishing publicities in direction and leading places ( Crampton ) . Women? s? highest degrees tend to be in staff places, such as human resources, or research or disposal, instead than line places, such as selling, or gross revenues, or production? ( Reich three ) . Crampton finds that out of all direction places of modern organisations adult females hold merely 16 per centum of them. Even worse, adult females reside in 4 per centum of the highest-level places in direction and disposal ( Crampton ) . Even with the aid of affirmatory action, the glass ceiling still does non shatter.
Affirmative action was developed in reaction to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights Act declared that favoritism on the footing of race, faith, or sex was illegal. The President? s call for affirmatory action acted as a accelerator for the Civil Rights Act. The Random House Dictionary defines affirmatory action as? the encouragement of increased representation of adult females and minority members, particularly in employment. ? With the constitution of affirmatory action adult females have gained promotions and prestigiousness in the concern universe ; nevertheless, the phenomenon known as the glass ceiling hinders adult females from accomplishing publicities to high-ranking places in corporate America. Similar to how the authorities recognized affirmatory action as a solution to implementing the Civil Rights Act, it recognized the demand for a solution to the glass ceiling state of affairs. Reich believes that due to the attempts of Secretary Elizabeth Dole and Secretary Lynn Martin? the Department of Labor became closely involved in placing and publicising the glass ceiling job? ( three ) . Senator Bob Dole proposed the Glass Ceiling Act in order to turn to the state of affairs. The Glass Ceiling Act designed a committee, known as the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, to analyze and suggest agencies for extinguishing the glass ceiling ( three ) .
Fortune magazine sporadically ranks and publishes a list of America? s largest companies. Many adult females advocators use these studies as trials to see where adult females stand in the selected companies. Crampton studies? of the Fortune 50 companies, merely 1.3 per centum of corporate officers are adult females, while 1.7 per centum are adult females within the Fortune 500 companies. Among two-hundred of America? s largest companies, adult females hold less than a one-fourth of executive occupations and less than five per centum of the vice-presidents are women. ? One may believe good at least adult females have broken through the glass ceiling and that promotions have been made. However, in the past 10 old ages no more than two adult females have served as CEO? s for a Fortune 500 company ( Daily ) . The figure of adult females who serve on the boards for these major corporations? consist a comparatively modest per centum of all board members? ( Daily ) . A catch-22 is established because most male board members one time served as CEO? s, and that experience is sometimes an unestablished regulation to going a board member. If few adult females can do it to the top, how will adult females of all time make it on the boards? The adult females that
are board members normally serve on more than one, or two boards ; the statistics are unable to convey that the same few adult females make up that? modest per centum? ( Daily ) .
Kaufman relays that the Bureau of Labor estimations that in five old ages adult females will do up 48 per centum of the American work force. Advocates for adult females? s patterned advance in concern businesss would trust that with the addition in working adult females, the figure of adult females in CEO places would besides increase. Unfortunately, this position does non look excessively promising. In Fortune magazine? s study of America? s largest companies? merely 16 indicated that they thought it really likely or slightly likely that their company would hold a female Chief executive officer within the following 10 old ages, while 18 per centum believed it was really likely within the following 20 old ages? ( Crampton ) . Several cardinal factors hold fast the glass ceiling and prevent adult females from patterned advance.
Discrimination against adult females still plays a big portion in implementing the unreal barrier. Crampton reported that a recent survey found that 79 per centum of the CEO? s believed that? bias and stereotypes are among the most identifiable barriers to adult females? s advancements. ? ? Discrimination can happen in the signifier of organisational construction policies, informal webs, and civilizations that are so male-dominated that they become barriers for adult females to lift in the organisation? ( Crampton ) . Womans can trust that over the following twosome of old ages favoritism will get down to disintegrate, which will let for more incursion through the glass ceiling. Even though adult females can non command the biass held by work forces, adult females can seek to interrupt and free of the gender stereotypes. By confuting that non all adult females fit the stereotypes, calling adult females may be able to help their promotion to higher places.
? Females are frequently thought of as being dependent, inactive, delicate, non aggressive, non competitory? adult females lack calling committedness, Ate non tough plenty, wear? T want to work long and unusual hours, are excessively emotional, won? t relocate, lack quantitive and analytical accomplishments and have problem devising determinations? ( Crampton ) .
Since work forces and adult females? s features differ in certain facets, the male-dominate concern universe believes that adult female lack the? qualities that are considered good to be effectual directors, and traditionally masculine traits have a higher sensed value? ( Crampton ) . Womans are non even given opportunities because of pre-established beliefs even when they may be more qualified and better educated than their male opposite numbers. This state of affairs occurs more frequently than non, and companies create alibis that will look legitimate. Catherine M. Daily informs that when Mr. Preston, the CEO of Avon, resigned, legion top female executives within the company possessed the qualities and experiences to make full the vacancy. However, the board elected an outside manager, Charles R. Perrin, to replace Preston ( Daily ) . Even though favoritism and stereotypes basically preserve the barriers, other factors contribute to their upholding.
Another commanding factor that reinforces the glass ceiling is the deficiency of wise mans.
Womans? s biological characteristics, which work forces do non possess besides hinders adult females from making high-ranking places. ? Womans have to cover with the complexnesss of the double function as working adult female and female parent? ( Crampton ) . Even though adult females about make up half of the work force, they entirely are still expected to transport out all of the family jobs and responsibilities. Most adult females leave work merely to travel place and run about, clean and cook. ? Uniting of a household and a calling and the behavioural outlook placed on adult female? at times seems impossible ( Crampton ) .
Crampton, Suzanne M and Jitendra M. Misha. ? Womans in Management. ? Public Personnel Management 28.1 ( Spring 1999 ) : 87-107. ( Epscohost )
Daily, Catherine M. , and Dan R. Dalton. ? Cracks in the Glass Ceiling? ? Directorship 25.3 ( March 1999 ) : 4-7. ( Epscohost )
? Glass Ceiling Separates Women from Top. ? Worklife Report 11.1 ( 1997 ) : 15.
Kaufman, Laura. ? Women CEO? s See the Sky through Glass Ceiling. ? Westchester County Business Journal. 38.20 ( 17 May 1999 ) : 15-17. ( Epscohost )
Reich, Robert B. ? The Glass Ceiling Fact-Finding. ? Message from the Chairman. Cornell U. 5 Feb. 2000. & # 225 ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.irl.cornell.edu/library/e_archive/Glass Ceiling/ & # 241 ; .