The History of Alaska èñòîðèÿ Àëÿñêè
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Municipal Educational Institution
Lyceum & # 8470 ; 130 & # 8220 ; RAVES & # 8221 ;
The History of Alaska.
Student: Protopopova N.S. , M-111
Teacher: Shipulina O.N.
Introduction & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 3
1. Beginnings of Alaska & # 8217 ; s Groups & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 4
The Northwest Coast Indians
2. From the Russian Empire to the USA & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 7
3. Alaska today & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..8
4. The most of import day of the months in the history of Alaska & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 11
Conclusion & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..17
The list of literature & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; 18
Undoubtedly, the history is one of the most interesting and most of import scientific disciplines. It incorporates experience of each individual and all world. The history acquaints us with procedure of development of a world. Behind Acts of the Apostless and determinations of separate people, behind actions of weights there is a bright, multilateral and alone image of the universe, different continents, the states and people. To understand history of the Native land, it is necessary to understand universe history. In the exam paper I will state about history of Alaska & # 8211 ; history, which connects two great powers – Soviet union and the USA. The intent of the given work is to analyze political and societal life of Alaska, its day-to-day life, stuff, religious and spiritual civilization. I will state about the grounds and effects of historical events of Alaska, I will mention statistical informations. To be prepared of this exam paper I used the educational and scientific literature and stuffs of periodic printed editions.
1. Beginnings of Alaska & # 8217 ; s Native Groups
No 1 knows precisely when people foremost found the land that would be called Alaska. Some anthropologists believe that people migrated from Asia to North America 40,000 old ages ago. Others argue it was every bit recent as 15,000 old ages ago. Whenever, the consensus is that they came from Asia by manner of a northern land span that one time connected Siberia and Alaska. That land span, now recalled as Beringia, was the first gateway to Alaska. But these first visitants were barely tourists purpose on researching new universes. Rather they were merely prosecuting their subsistence manner of life as they followed great herds of croping mammals across the grassy tundra and soft steppes of Beringia. Some groups settled in the Arctic. Others traversed the mountain base on ballss to other parts of Alaska. While still others migrated through Alaska, go oning on to distant lands — possibly every bit far as South America. Those who made Alaska their lasting place make up the province & # 8217 ; s four major anthropological groups: Eskimos, Aleuts, Athabascans, and Northwest Coast Indians. While all four groups shared certain basic similarities — all hunted, fished and gathered nutrient — they developed typical civilizations and sets of accomplishments.
Flexible Residents of the Arctic.
The Eskimos were chiefly a coastal people, puting along the shores of the Arctic and Bering seas. For millenary they lived a simple, subsistence life — much as they still do today — by reaping the fish and mammals of the seas, the fruits and game of the land. Somehow they learned how to boom despite the demanding conditions of the Arctic. Their sense of way was acute, about eldritch. Traveling in a consecutive line, sometimes through blizzards and whiteouts, they found their manner around the largely featureless terrain by observing wind way, the place of the stars, the form and size of a snowdrift. And they were resourceful. In a land where the summer Sun corsets at eye-level for hebdomads on terminal, ne’er puting below the skyline, the Eskimos fashioned the first sun-visor — which besides doubled as a snow mask to protect their eyes from the wind-driven snow.
Nomads of the Interior.
Like the Eskimos, the Athabascans were adept huntsmans, but they depended more on big land mammals for their subsistence — tracking elk and migrating reindeer. When it came to fishing, the Athabascans were perfectly clever, traping fish with maulerss, enticements, traps and cyberspaces that are the captivation of modern twenty-four hours anglers who visit their cantonments. Generally mobile, they lived in little, merely organized sets of a few households, and whenever possible pitched their cantonments in the sheltered white spruce woods of the Interior. Some adventuresome folks, nevertheless, wandered all the manner to the Southwest United States to go kin to the Navajos and Apaches.
Born of the Sea.
For the Aleuts, life centred on the sea as they distributed themselves among the 70-some islands in the Aleutian concatenation across the North Pacific. Life here was slightly more benign that in the Arctic, though air current storms were sometimes strong plenty to blow stones around. Since their nutrient supply was rich, varied and readily available, the Aleuts had clip to develop a complex civilization. Evidence indicates that they practiced surgery and that their luxuriant entombment rites included embalming. Instruments utensils, even their boats were made with astonishing beauty and exact symmetricalness. And everything was fashioned for a specific intent — the Aleuts used 30 different sorts of harpoon caputs for different species of game! Skilled sailing masters and crewmans, the Aleuts had the doubtful differentiation of being the first to meet the white adult male… Russian pelt bargainers who took them as slaves to reap the pelt seals in the Pribilofs.
The Northwest Coast Indians:
High Society of Alaska & # 8217 ; s sou’-east.
The milder, more temperate clime and an limitless supply of salmon and other seafood & # 8217 ; s enabled the Northwest Coast Indians to germinate a manner of life rather different from the Eskimos, Aleuts and Athabascans. They settled in year-around lasting small towns, took slaves and lived their lives harmonizing to the rigorous regulations, rites, and ordinances of their several kins. Their graphics was nil less than masterful… beautiful covers, finely woven cedar bark and titivate root baskets brilliant totem creative activities. Natives, who make up 15 per centum of the province ‘s population, maintain many traditions, such as whaling, subsistence hunting and fishing, and old ways of doing trades and art. Native heritage history and civilization can be found in such diverse topographic points as Ketchikan, Anchorage and Kotzebue, every bit good as in 100s of small towns where people live in traditional ways. But while Native civilization, as a whole, may specify much of Alaska ‘s visual aspect, the province contains a wide mixture of civilizations. In Anchorage, for illustration, the school territory has found that its pupil organic structure comes from places that speak 83 linguistic communications. Anchorage, the province ‘s biggest metropolis, has many Alaska influences but is besides sometimes called Los Anchorage for its Lower 48-style architecture and idiosyncrasies. Most occupants of Alaska were born outside the province, and when they came to Alaska they brought their ain traditions and desires. There are European influences every bit good. Petersburg, in the Inside Passage, has a strong Norse heritage. Cordova and Valdez bear names bestowed by a Spanish adventurer ; Cook Inlet is named for a British adventurer ; Russians left a bequest of the Orthodox Church
in much of the province.
2. From the Russian Empire to the United States of America.
The first written histories indicate that the first Europeans to make Alaska came from Russia. Vitus Bering sailed east and saw Mt. St. Elias. The Russian-American Company hunted otters for their pelt. The settlement was ne’er really profitable, because of the costs of transit.
At the abetment of U.S. Secretary of State William Seward, the United States Senate approved the purchase of Alaska from Russia for $ 7,200,000 on 9 April 1867, and the United States flag was raised on 18 October of that same twelvemonth ( now called Alaska Day ) . The first American governor of Alaska was W & # 322 ; odzimierz Krzy & # 380 ; anowski.
The purchase was non popular in the Continental United States, where Alaska became known as “ Seward ‘s Folly ” or “ Seward ‘s Icebox ” . Alaska celebrates the purchase each twelvemonth on the last Monday of March, naming it Seward ‘s Day.
President Dwight D.
signed the Alaska Statehood Act into United States jurisprudence on 7 July 1958 which paved the manner for Alaska ‘s admittance into the Union.
The name “ Alaska ” is most likely derived from the Aleut word for “ great state ” or “ mainland. ” The indigens called it “ Alyeska ” , intending “ the great land. ” It is bordered by the Yukon Territory and British Columbia, Canada to the E, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the South, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the West, and the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean to the North.
In 1976, the people of Alaska amended the province ‘s fundamental law, set uping the Alaska Permanent Fund. The fund invests a part of the province ‘s mineral gross, including gross from the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System, ‘to benefit all coevalss of Alaskans. ‘ In June 2003, the fund ‘s value was over $ 24 billion.
Over the old ages assorted vass have been named USS Alaska, in award of the province.
During World War II outlying parts of Alaska were occupied by Nipponese military personnels. It was the lone portion of the United States to hold land occupied during the war.
3. Alaska today.
Alaska is the lone province that is both in North America and non portion of the 48 immediate provinces. Alaska is the largest province in the United States in footings of land country, 570,374 square stat mis ( 1,477,261 km & # 178 ; ) . If you superimposed a map of Alaska on the Lower 48 provinces, Alaska would stretch from Minnesota to Texas and from Georgia to California.
One strategy for depicting the province ‘s geographics is by labeling the parts:
& # 8226 ; South Central Alaska is the southern coastal part with towns, metropoliss, and crude oil industrial workss ;
& # 8226 ; The Alaska Panhandle, besides known as Southeast Alaska, is place to towns, tidewater glaciers and extended woods ;
& # 8226 ; the Alaska Interior has large rivers, such as the Yukon River and the Kuskokwim River, every bit good as Arctic tundra lands and shorelines ; and
& # 8226 ; The Alaskan Bush is the distant, uncrowned portion of the province.
Alaska, with its legion islands, has about 34,000 stat mis ( 54,700 kilometer ) of tidal shoreline. The island concatenation widening West from the southern tip of Alaska is called the Aleutian Islands. Many active vents are found in the Aleutians.
Alaska is the easternmost province in the Union. The Aleutian Islands really cross longitude 180 & # 176 ; .
Alaska ‘s most thickly settled metropolis is Anchorage, place of 260,284 people, 225,744 of whom live in the urbanised country. It ranks a distant tierce in the List of U.S. metropoliss by country. Sitka ranks as the America ‘s largest metropolis by country, followed closely by Junea.
Much of Alaska is managed by the federal authorities as national woods, national Parkss, and national wildlife safeties. There are topographic points in Alaska that are general public lands ( BLM land ) but they are arguably more dramatic than many national Parkss in the Lower 48. Many of Alaska ‘s province Parkss would be national Parkss if they were in other provinces.
Much of Alaska is managed by corporations called ANCSA, or native, corporations, of which there are 13 regional 1s and tonss of local 1s.
Alaska has no counties in the sense used in the remainder of the state ; nevertheless, the province is divided into 27 nose count countries and boroughs. The difference between boroughs and nose count countries is that boroughs have an organized area-wide authorities, while nose count countries are unreal divisions defined by the United States Census Bureau.
Alaska ‘s chief agribusiness end product is seafood, although nursery stock, dairy merchandises, veggies, and farm animal are produced and used internally. Fabrication is limited, with most groceries and general goods imported from elsewhere. Employment is chiefly in authorities and industries such as natural resource extraction, transportation, and transit. There is besides a little but turning service and touristry sector. Its industrial end products are rough crude oil, natural gas, coal, gold, cherished metals, Zn and other excavation, seafood processing, lumber and wood merchandises.
Alaska has assorted transit options. Some of Alaska is connected by roads ( and sometimes a tunnel ) to the main roads of Canada and of the remainder of the United States. These topographic points are “ on the route system ” . Along the Pacific Ocean, many topographic points have freight and passenger service from ocean-going ships. Most topographic points have air service, runing from jets on tarmac to floatplanes on lakes.
most of import day of the months in the history of Alaska.
– In 1732, a Russian expedition under
surveyor Mikhail Gvozdev sights
the Alaska mainland at Cape Prince
– In 1741
, Vitus Bering, on St. Elias Day, sights the Alaskan
mainland. In honor of the saint, the most
outstanding extremum was named ; this was the first point
on the northwest seashore named by Europeans.
– In 1741
, Vitus Bering died after his ship was wrecked on an
island off the Alaskan seashore.
– In 1745, a Russian pelt huntsman, Mikhail Nevodchikov, ranges
Attu in his hunt for sea otters.
– In 1778
, Captain James Cook entered Prince William Sound.
– In 1778
, Captain James Cook entered Cook Inlet.
– In 1778
, Captain James Cook turned back South
– In 1786
, while charting Lituya Bay, 2 little boats are
swamped by rake tides, and 21 Gallic crewmans drown.
– In 1799
, the Russian American Company is formed by Royal
Charter ; they were given a 20-year monopoly on
trading on the seashore from 55 grades north.
– In 1812
, the Russian American Company establishes a station at
Fort Ross, California to turn harvests for their Alaska.
– In 1848
, the Hudson ‘s Bay Company builds Fort Selkirk, at
the meeting of the Pelly and Yukon Rivers.
, Fort Selkirk is destroyed by a group of Tlingits who
objected to the Hudson ‘s Bay Company seeking to
interrupt the Tlingit monopoly on trade with the
– In 1867
, the United States purchased Alaska for
– In 1867
, Alaska ‘s first station office is authorized, to
be opened at Sitka.
– In 1867
, official ceremonials at Sitka transferred
Alaska from Russia to the United States.
– In 1868
, the Customs Act is amended to include Alaska.
– In 1869
, the anticipation of a entire solar occultation by American
scientist George Davidson so impressed Kohklux,
head of the Chilkat Indian small town of Klukwan, he
drew him an improbably elaborate map of a huge portion
of the inside of the Yukon and Alaska.
– In 1871
, of the 41 whaling ships runing in the Bering Sea,
32 are trapped by early ice ; all of the 1,200 people
on the ships escaped, but 31 of the ships were
destroyed the undermentioned spring.
– In 1876
, twelve whaling ships are trapped by ice near Point
Barrow ; 50 work forces die trying to make safety.
– In 1882
, George Krause becomes the first white adult male
allowed to traverse the Chilkat Pass to the inside.
–In 1894, a declaration of the Privy Council authorizes the
North-West Mounted Police into the Yukon “ in
the involvements of peace and good authorities, in
the involvements besides of the public gross. ” By June
26, Inspector Charles Constantine and Staff-
Sergeant Charles Brown were at Juneau, heading
for the Lasthenia chrysostomas of the British Yukon.
– In 1895
, the North-west Territories was divided into the
Districts of Franklin, Mackenzie, Ungava and
– In 1896, a party consisting of George Carmack, his married woman
Kate, Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and Patsy
Henderson interest placer gold claims on Rabbit
Creek, and rename the brook Bonanza Creek.
– In 1897
, the Excelsior reaches San Francisco with the first
big cargo of Klondike gold.
– In 1897
, the Portland reached Seattle with a big cargo
of Klondike, turning the exhilaration caused by the
Excelsior ‘s reaching at San Francisco into an all-out
gold was discovered near the future site of Nome,
triping a stampede.
– In 1898, a series of 5 avalanches in the Chilkoot Pass between
2:00 AM and midday killed over 70 people.
– In 1898
, the Yukon Territory is created.
– In 1900
, the White Pass & A ; Yukon Route railway was
completed, with the Golden Spike driven at
– In 1900
, Congress authorized a monolithic telegraph building
undertaking in Alaska.
– In 1902
, Felice Pedroni ( “ Felix Pedro ” ) discovered gold in
the Tanana Hills, doing a stampede which
resulted in the initiation of Fairbanks.
– In 1904
, the first commercial radio communicating
installation in the U.S. opened, between Nome and St.
– In 1906
, the Alaska Delegate Act was passed by Congress,
giving the district ‘s 40,000 people the right to elect
a non-voting delegate to Congress.
– In 1912
, the Alaska Territorial Act was passed by Congress.
– In 1913
, the first aeroplane in Alaska made a presentation
flight at Fairbanks, piloted by James V. Lilly.
– In 1914, a measure authorising the building of the
government-financed Alaska Railroad was signed by
President Wilson. Construction started in 1915, and
some subdivisions were opened as they were completed,
but the full line, running from Seward to Fairbanks,
was non completed until July 15, 1923.
– In 1918
, the coastal soft-shell clam Princess Sophia sunk near
Juneau, killing 463 people, approximately 10 % of the
Yukon ‘s white population.
– In 1919
, the Yukon eventually allowed adult females to vote in Territorial
elections. Manitoba had been the first state to
enfranchise adult females.
– In 1919
, Louis Beauvette staked the first Ag claim at Keno
Hill, in the cardinal Yukon ; by 1930 this territory was
bring forthing 14 % of all the Ag mined in Canada.
enfranchisement was passed in May 1918.
– In 1923
, the Alaska Railroad was completed, following 8 old ages
– In 1924
, Carl Ben Eielson made Alaska ‘s first Air Mail flight.
– In 1942, a big carrier-based Nipponese force attacked
– In 1942
, the Japanese landed about 2,500 military personnels on the
Aleutian islands of Attu and Kiska. It took a immense
Allied force until August 15, 1943 to recover control.
– In 1942
, the Alaska Highway opened at Contact Creek, 305
stat mis north of Fort Nelson, B.C.
– In 1951
, after 3 old ages of rumor, the federal authorities
approved traveling the capital of the Yukon from
Dawson City to Whitehorse. A new Federal Building
was constructed in 1952, and the Territorial
Council Chamberss were moved the undermentioned twelvemonth,
with the first meeting held in Whitehorse in April.
– In 1951
, the Alaska Highway was turned over to Canada, in a
ceremonial at Whitehorse.
– In 1959
, Alaska became the 49th State.
– In 1964
, an temblor with a magnitude of 8.4 on the
Richter graduated table hits the Anchorage country, killing 115
people and destructing 100s of places.
– In 1967
, Jean Gordon, the Yukon ‘s first female member of
the Territorial Council, takes her place.
– In 1968
, the oil wealths of Alaska ‘s North Slope, foremost
reported about 100 old ages ago, were confirmed by
a boring plan at Prudhoe Bay. The following
twelvemonth, a sum of $ 990,220,590 was bid in a one-day
lease sale of those belongingss.
– In 1971
, the temperature at Prospect Creek, Alaska,
dropped to 80 grades below nothing, the lowest
temperature of all time recorded in the United States.
– In 1971
, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act ( ANCSA )
was signed into jurisprudence by the President. Among the
major commissariats were the transportation of rubric to 40
million estates of land to native corporations, and a
hard currency payment of $ 962.5 million.
– In 1973
, the Yukon Native Brotherhood presented a
Statement of Claim to the federal authorities,
saying their place on land claims, self-
authorities and other issues which had been
published in January in “ Together Today For Our
Children Tomorrow ” .
, the first subdivision of pipe for the Trans-Alaska
Grapevine from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez was laid. By
August, 21,600 people were working on the undertaking.
The first oil was put through the 800-mile line on
June 20, 1977.
– In 1988
, PL 100-241, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement
Act Amendments, was signed by President Regan.
The amendments gave more flexibleness to the
corporations pull offing Settlement lands.
– In 1989
, the oil oiler Exxon Valdez went aground on Bligh
Reef, pouring about 11 million gallons of oil into
Prince William Sound.
– In 1993
, the Umbrella Final Agreement is signed by
representatives of the Council for Yukon Indians
and the Yukon and federal authoritiess,
set uping the basic format for all 14 Yukon First
States land claims understandings.
Summarizing up to the aforesaid, it would be desirable to stress, that Alaska is a hamlets of a sea, air truck conveyance between Northern America, Asia and the Europe, that & # 8217 ; s why Alaska is one of the most perspective provinces of USA by manner of development of economic system and touristry. The assortment of wealths of civilization, an copiousness of national Parkss attracts tourers from the universe.
The considerable part to development of Alaska was brought by Russian imperium. The general yesteryear, the general cultural wealth is what unites Russia and Alaska and today.
The list of literature.
& # 1044 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1052 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1101 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 171 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; .
& # 1041 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1063 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 171 ; & # 1044 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; .
Marcia Simpson & # 171 ; Rogue ‘s Yarn & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; Crow in Stolen Colors & # 187 ; ,
& # 171 ; Sound Tracks & # 187 ; .
Gore Vidal & # 171 ; Williwaw & # 187 ; .
Borneman & # 171 ; The Native Peoples of Alaska & # 187 ;
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