The History of Hip Hop
The History of Hip Hop Introduction Hip hop music is a style of popular music. It is usually composed of two elements: rapping (also known as emceeing) and Digging. When combined with break dancing and graffiti art, these are the four components of hip hop, a cultural movement which began In New York City In the asses, predominantly by African Americans and Latino.
[l] The term rap music is sometimes used synonymously with hip hop music. Though it is also used to refer specifically to the practice of rapping.Origins of hip hop The roots of hip hop are found In West African and African-American music. The grits of West Africa are a group of traveling singers and poets, whose musical style is reminiscent of hip hop. Within New York City, grist-like performances of poetry and music by artists such as The Last Poets and Jackal Mansard Unhurried had a great Impact on the post-civil rights era culture of the asses and asses. HIP hop arose during the 1 sass when block parties became common in New York City, especially the Bronx. Block parties were usually accompanied by music, especially funk and soul music.
The early Des at block parties began Isolating the percussion breaks to hit songs, legalizing that these were the most dance-able and entertaining parts; this technique was then common in Jamaica and had spread via the substantial Jamaican immigrant community in New York City, especially the “godfather” of hip hop, DC Cool Here. Dub had arisen in Jamaica due to the influence of American sailors and radio stations playing R&B, Large sound systems were set up to accommodate poor Jamaican, who couldn’t afford to buy records, and dub developed at the sound system.Here was one of the most popular Des in early ass New York, and he quickly switched room using reggae records to funk, rock and, later, disco, since the New York audience did not particularly Like reggae. Because the percussive breaks were generally short, Here and other Des began extending them using an audio mixer and two records. Mixing and scratching techniques eventually developed along with the breaks. (The same techniques contributed to the popularization of remixes. Later Des such as Grandmaster Flash refined and developed the use of breakfast, Including cutting.
 As in dub, performers began speaking while the music played; hose were originally called Masc.; Here focused primarily on Digging, and began working with two Masc., Coke La Rock and Clark Kent-?this was the first emcee crew, Cool Here & the Hercules. Originally, these early rappers focused on Introducing themselves and others in the audience (the origin of the still common practice of “shouting out” on hip hop records).These early performers often emceed for hours at a time, with some improvisation and a simple four-count beat, along with a basic chorus to allow the performer to gather his thoughts (such as “one, two, three, hall, to the beat, hall”). Later, the Masc. grew more varied In their vocal and rhythmic approach, Incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort at differentiating FIFO rhyming lyrics from African American culture (see roots of hip hop music), such as the dozens.
While Cool Here & the Hercules were the first hip hoppers to gain major fame in New York, more emcee teams quickly sprouted up. Frequently, these were collaborations between former gang members, such as Afrikaans Bombast’s Universal Zulu Nation (now a large, international organization). Melee Mel, a rapper/ wrist with The Furious Five is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an “MS. ” During the early asses, break dancing arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style.The style was documented for release to a world wide audience for the first time in Beat Street. Origin of The Term “Hip Hop” Coinage of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, a rapper with Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. Though Lovable Stark, Keith Cowboy, and DC Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed hat Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had Just Joined the US Army, by scat singing the words “hip/hop/hip/hop” in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers.
Cowboy later worked the “hip hop” cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly copied by other artists; for example the opening of the song “Rapper’s Delight” by The Sugarbird Gang. Former Black Spades gang member Africa Bumboat is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture that hip hop music belongs to, although it is also suggested hat the term was originally derisively used against the new type of music. Diversification of styles in the later part of the decade In the mid-asses, hip hop split into two factions.One sampled disco and focused on getting the crowd dancing and excited, with simple or no rhymes; these Des included Pete DC Jones, Eddie Achebe, DC Hollywood and Love Bug Stark. On the other hand, another group were focusing on rapid-fire rhymes and a more complex rhythmic scheme. These included Africa Bumboat, Paul Winkle, Grandmaster Flash and Bobby Robinson. As the ass became the asses, many felt that hip hop was a novelty ad that would soon die out.
This was to become a constant accusation for at least the next fifteen years.Some of the earliest rappers were novelty acts, using the themes to Sailing’s Island and using sweet do hop-influenced harmonies. With the advent of recorded hip hop in the late asses, all the major elements and techniques of the genre were in place. Though not yet mainstream, it was well-known among African Americans, even outside of New York City; hip hop could be found in cities as diverse as Los Angels, Washington, DC, Baltimore, Dallas, Kansas City, Miami, Seattle, SST. Louis, New Orleans, and Houston.Philadelphia was, for many years, the only city whose contributions to hip hop were valued as greatly as New York City’s by hip hop purists and critics. Hip hop was popular there at least as far back as 1976 (first record: “Rhythm Talk”, by Cocky Henderson in 1979), and the New York Times dubbed Philly the “Graffiti Capital of the World” in 1971, due to the influence of such legendary graffiti artists as Cornbread.
The first female solo artist to record hip hop invent what became known as gangs rap.The asses The asses saw intense diversification in hip hop, which developed into a more complex form. The simple tales of asses emcees were replaced by highly metaphoric lyrics rapping over complex, multi-layered beats. Some rappers even became mainstream pop performers, including Curtis Blow, whose appearance in a Sprite commercial made him the first hip hop musician to be considered mainstream enough to represent a major product, but also the first to be accused by the hip-hop audience of selling out.Another popular performer among mainstream audiences was EL Cool J, who was a success from the release of his first LIP, Radio. Hip hop was almost entirely unknown outside of the United States prior to the asses. During that decade, it began its spread to every inhabited continent and became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries.
In the early part of the decade, breakfasting became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Germany, Japan and South Africa, where the crew Black Noise established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade.Meanwhile, recorded hip hop was released in France (Dee Nanny’s 1984 Panama City Rapping’) and the Philippines (Doors Saver’s “An Nosing Delight” and Vincent Daffodil’s “Annual”). In Puerco Rice, Vice C became he first Spanish language rapper, and his recorded work was the beginning of what became known as regnant. Plasticization The first rap records (Fatback Band’s King Tim Ill, Grandmaster Flash’s “Super Rapping'” and The Sugarbird Gangs Rapper’s Delight) were actually recorded by live musicians in the studio, with the rappers adding their vocals later.This changed with DC records such as Grandmaster Flash’s “Adventures on the Wheels of Steel” (known for pioneering use of scratching, which was invented by Granddaddy Theodore in 1977) as well as electronic recordings such as “Planet Rock” by Africa Bumboat and Run Dam’s very basic, all electronic “Sucker Mac’s” and “Peter Piper” which contains genuine cutting by Run DIM member Jam Master Jay. These early innovators were based out of New York City, which remained the capital of hip hop during the asses. This style became known as East Coast hip hop.
Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five released a “message rap”, called “The Message”, in 1982; this was one of the earliest examples of recorded hip hop with a socially aware tone. In 1984, Marble Marl accidentally caught a drum machine snare hit in the sampler; this innovation was vital in the development of electro and other eater types of hip hop. Popularization The mid-asses saw a flourishing of the first hip hop artists to achieve mainstream success, such as Curtis Blow (Curtis Blow), EL Cool J (Radio) and especially Run-D. M. C. Harry rapping in the first non-black hit to feature rapping, “Rapture”.EL Cool G’s Radio spawned a number of singles that entered the dance charts, peaking with “l Can Give You More” (#21).
1986 saw two hip hop acts in the Billboard Top Ten; Run-D. M. C. ‘s “Walk This Way” collaboration with Aerostatic, and the Beastie Boys “(You Goat) Fight for Your Right (To Party! )”. The pop success of both singles was unheard of for the time; “Walk This Way” has proved especially memorable for its early mixture of hip hop and rock (though it was not the first such mixture), and it peaked at an unheard of #4 on the pop charts.Also, the mid-asses saw the rise of the first major black female group, Salt-N-Peep, who hit the charts with singles like “The Show Stoops” in 1985. Ice-TV’s seminal “an’ Dad Morning'” (1986) is one of the first nationally successful West Coast hip hop singles, and is often said to be the beginning of gangs hip hop (along with School D, EL Cool J and N.
W. A. ). In 1987, Public Enemy brought out their debut album (You! Bum Rush the Show) on Deaf Jam – one of hip hop’s oldest and most important labels, and Boogie Down Productions followed up in 1988 with By All Means Necessary; both records pioneered wave of hard-edged politicized performers.The late asses saw a flourishing of like-minded rappers on both coasts, and Public Enemy’s It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back became surprisingly successful, despite its militant and confrontational tone, appearing on both the club and rap charts, and peaking at 17 and #11, respectively. Aside from the lyrical innovations, Public Enemy’s Terminator X (along with Eric B. , of Eric B.
& Raking) pioneered new techniques in sampling that resulted in dense, multi-layered sonic collages.The Rise of Gangs Rap The first gangs rap album to become a mainstream pop hit, selling more than 2. 5 million copies, was N. W. A. ‘s Straight Auto Compton (1988). N.
W. A. ‘s controversial subject matter, including drugs, violence and sex, helped popularize what became known as gangs rap (said to have begun with Ice-TV’s “AN’ Dad Morning”). Specifically, the song “F*** That Police” earned the foursome the enmity of law enforcement, resulting in a strongly-worded letter of discontent from the FBI. N. W. A.
‘s most lasting impact, however, was placing the West Coast on the hip hop map.Diversification Though women, whites and Latino had long been a part of the hip hop scene, it was not until the asses that groups other than young African American males began creating popular, innovative and distinctive styles of hip hop music. The first rap recording by a solo female was Ph leadership-based Lady B. ‘s “To the Beat, HAWAII” (1980), while The Sequence became the first female group to record. It was, not, however, until Salt-N-Peep in the middle of the decade that female performers gained mainstream success.The first groups to mix hip hop and heavy metal included sass’s “Rock Box” (Run-D. M.
C. ) and “Rock Hard” (Beastie Boys). Later in the decade, Ice-T and Anthrax were among the most innovative mixers of thrash introduced it to legions of new fans in the States and abroad. International spread Beginning in the early asses, hip hop culture began its spread across the world. By the end of the asses, popular hip hop was sold almost everywhere, and native performers were recording in most every country with a popular music industry.Elements of hip hop became fused with numerous styles of music, including raga, cambium and samba, for example. The Senegal embalm rhythm became a component of hip hop, while the United Kingdom and Belgium produced a variety of electronic music fusions of hip hop, most famously including British trip hop.
Hip hop also spread to countries like Greece, Spain and Cuba in the asses, led in Cuba by the elf-exiled African American activist Unhanded Abidjan and aided by Fidel Castor’s government.In Japan, graffiti art and breakfasting had been popular since the early part of the decade, but many of those active in the scene felt that the Japanese language was unsuited for rapping; nevertheless, by the beginning of the asses, a wave of rappers emerged, including Tit Seeks, Chickadee Harsh, Tinnier Pun and Taking Kane. The New Zealand hip hop scene began in earnest in the late asses, when Maori performers like Upper Hut Posse and Dalmatians Prime began recording, gaining territory for lyrics that espoused tint reinvigorating (Maori sovereignty).The asses In the ass, gangs rap became mainstream, beginning in about 1992, with the release of Dry. Dress The Chronic. This album established a style called G Funk, which soon came to dominate West Coast hip hop. Later in the decade, record labels based out of Atlanta, SST.
Louis and New Orleans gained fame for their local scenes. By the end of the decade, especially with the success of Mine, hip hop was an integral part of popular music, and nearly all American pop songs had a major hip hop component. The rise of the West Coast After N. W. A. Broke up, Dry.Drew (a former member) released The Chronic (1992), which peaked at #1 on the R&B/hip hop chart and #3 on the pop chart and spawned a #2 pop single in “Nothing’ But a ‘G’ Than”.
. The Chronic took West Coast rap in a new direction, influenced strongly by P funk artists, melding the psychedelic funky beats with slowly drawled lyrics-?this came to be known as G funk, and dominated mainstream hip hop for several years through a roster of artists on Death Row Records, including most popularly, Snoop Doggy Dog, whose Doggedly included What’s My Name” and “Gin and Juice”, both Top Ten pop hits.Though West Coast artists eclipsed New York, some East Coast rappers achieved success. New York became dominated in terms of sales by Puff Daddy (No Way Out), Mass (Harlem World) and other Bad Boy Records artists, in spite of often scathing criticism for a perceived over-reliance on sampling and a general watered-down sound, aimed directly for pop markets. Other New York based artists continued with Rhymes (The Coming) and The Www-Tang Clan (Enter the Www-Tang (36 Chambers)), for example, received excellent reviews but generally mediocre or sporadic sales.The sales rivalry between the East Coast and the West Coast eventually turned into a personal rivalry, aided in part by the music media. Many reporters were not aware that MS battles were an integral part of hip hop since its inception, and that, generally, little was meant by open taunts on albums and in performances.
Nevertheless, the East Coast-West Coast rivalry grew, eventually resulting in the still unsolved deaths of Tuba Shaker and Notorious B. I. G… Diversification of styles In the wake of declining sales following the deaths of both superstar artists, the sounds of hip hop were greatly diversified.Most important was the rise of Southern rap, starting with Outcast (Italians) and Goodie Mob (Soul Food), based out of Atlanta.
Later, Master P (Ghetto D) built up an impressive roster of popular artists (the No Limit posse) based out of New Orleans and incorporating G funk and Miami bass influences, and distinctive regional sounds from SST. Louis, Chicago, Washington D. C. , Detroit (ghettos) and others began to gain some popularity. Also in the asses, rapport (a fusion of hip hop and heavy metal) became popular among mainstream audiences. Rage against the Machine, Link Park and Limp Bikini were among the cost popular rapport bands.Though Caucasian rappers like the Beastie Boys (Pall’s Boutique), Vanilla Ice (To the Extreme) and 3rd Bass (The Cactus Album) had had some popular success and/or critical acceptance from the hip hop community, Detroit-native Amine’s success, beginning in 1999 with the triple platinum The Slim Shady LIP, came as a surprise to many.
Like most successful hip hop artists of the time, Mine came to be criticized for alleged glorification of violence, misogyny, and drug abuse, as well as homophobia and albums laced with constant profanity. ASSESIn the year 2000, The Marshall Matters LIP by Mine sold over nine million copies in the United States, and Knell’s debut LIP, Country Grammar, sold over six million copies. In the next several years, a wave of increasingly pop-oriented R&B crossover acts, like Jag Rule and Destiny’s Child, dominated American popular music. It was not until the sudden breakthrough success of the hard-edged 50 Cent that hardcore hip hop returned to the pop charts. The United States also saw the rise of alternative hip hop in the form of moderately popular performers like The Roots, Dilated Peoples ND Moss Deaf, who achieved unheard-of success for their field.