The Hundred Years

7 July 2017

& # 8217 ; War Essay, Research Paper

The Hundred Years War was a long, complicated war with

it? s roots in political battles, the privation of Kings and the people of

their states to spread out district, and to take district that they believe

is theirs. This war lasted more than a century, from 1337-1453, and

was a really a series of wars broken merely temporarily by pacts

doomed to neglect.

The English male monarch controlled much of France, peculiarly in

the fertile South. These lands had come under control of the English

when Eleanor of Aquitaine, inheritress to the part, married King Henry

II of England in the mid-12th century. There was changeless spat

along the French-English frontier, and the Gallic male monarchs ever had to

fright an English invasion from the South. Between Flanders in the North

and the English in the South, they were caught in between the two

English settlements.

The Gallic responded by making the same to the English.

They allied with the Scots in an agreement that persisted good into the

eighteenth century. Thus the English faced the Gallic from the South and the

Scottishs from the North.

The Gallic trap would merely work if the French could occupy

England across the English Channel. Besides, England could back up

their Flemish Alliess merely if they could direct assistance across the North Sea,

and, furthermore, English trade was dependent upon the free flow of

naval traffic through the Channel. Consequently, the Gallic continually

tried to derive the upper manus at sea, and the English invariably resisted

them. Both sides commissioned what would hold been plagiarists if they

had non been runing with royal permission to feed upon each other & # 8217 ; s

transportation, and there were frequent naval clangs in those constricted

Waterss.

The last boy of King Philip IV, the carnival, died in 1328, and the

direct male line of the Capetians eventually ended after about 350 old ages.

Philip had had a girl, nevertheless. This girl, Isabelle, had

married King Edward II of England, but her and a group of barons had

murdered him, because they thought he was unqualified. So, Edward

III their boy was declared male monarch of England. He was hence Philip & # 8217 ; s

grandson and replacement in a direct line through Philip & # 8217 ; s girl. The

French could non digest the thought that Edward might go King of

France, and Gallic attorneies brought up some old Salic Laws, which

stated that belongings, including the throne, could non fall through a

female. The Gallic so gave the Crown to Philip of Valois, a nephew

of Philip IV. Nevertheless, Edward III had a valid claim to the throne

of France if he wished to prosecute it.

Although France was the most thickly settled state in Western

Europe and besides the wealthiest, England had a strong cardinal

authorities, many veterans of difficult contending on England & # 8217 ; s Welsh and

Scots boundary lines, every bit good as in Ireland, a booming economic system, and a

popular male monarch. Edward was disposed to contend France, and his topics

were more than ready to back up their immature male monarch who was merely 18

old ages old at the clip. Besides many went to? booty and plunder the carnival and

ample land of France. ? 1

The war genuinely started in 1340. The Gallic had assembled a

great fleet to back up an ground forces with which they intended to oppress all

opposition in Flanders. When the ships had anchored in a heavy battalion at

Sluys in modern Netherlands, the English attacked and destroyed it

with fire ships and triumph in a conflict fought across the anchored ships,

about like a land conflict on a wooden battleground. The English now had

control of the Channel and North Sea. They were safe from Gallic

invasion, could assail France at will, and could anticipate that the war

would be fought on Gallic dirt and therefore at Gallic disbursal. ? A three

twelvemonth armistice was signed by England and France in 1343, but in 1345

Edward once more invaded northern France1. ? The Black Death had

arrived, and his ground forces was weakened by illness. As the English force

tried to do its manner safely to strengthen Channel port, the Gallic

attempted to coerce them into a conflict. The English were eventually pinned

against the seashore by a much superior Gallic ground forces at a topographic point called

Crecy. Edward & # 8217 ; s ground forces was a combined force: bowmans, pikemen, visible radiation

foot, and horse ; the Gallic, by contrast, clung to their

antique feudal horse and used the powerful, but slow fire

crossbow. The English had bowmans utilizing the longbow, a arm with

great penetra

ting power that could sometimes kill armoured knights, and

frequently the Equus caballuss on which they rode. Besides, the longbow could fire three

of its pointers to the crossbow? s one in the same sum of clip. As a

ensue the Gallic knights were unhorsed by a blinding shower of

pointers. The conflict was a catastrophe for the Gallic. The English took up

place on the crest of a hill, and the Gallic horse tried to sit up

the incline to acquire at their oppositions. The long ascent up boggy land

tired and slowed the Gallic Equus caballuss, giving the English bowmans and pes

soldiers ample chance to bring mayhem in the Gallic ranks. Those

few Gallic who reached the crest of the hill found themselves faced

with rude, but effectual, barriers, and, as they tried to retreat, they

were attacked by the little but fresh English force of mounted knights.

Another interesting thing about this conflict, was that for the first clip the

cannon was used. Therefore presenting heavy weapon to war in the west.9+

As the war dragged on, the English were easy forced back.

They had less Gallic land to back up their war attempt as they did so,

and the war became more expensive for them. This caused struggles at

place, such as the Peasants & # 8217 ; Revolt of 1381 and the beginning of civil

wars. However, in the reign of Henry V, the English took the

violative one time once more. At Agincourt, non far from Crecy, the Gallic

relapsed into their old tactics of feudal warfare one time once more, and were

once more disastrously defeated in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt. Durring

this conflict? Gallic casualties totaled about 5000 work forces. English loses

numbered fewer than 200 men.1? The English recovered much of the

land they had lost, and a new peace was based upon Henry & # 8217 ; s

matrimony to the Gallic princess Katherine.

In the undermentioned old ages, the Gallic developed a sense of

national individuality, as illustrated by Joan of Arc, a peasant miss who is

said to hold played a major portion in the English withdrawing from their

besieging on Orleans, and 10 yearss subsequently, Charles VII being crowned male monarch at

Reims. These two things were the true tuning points in the war. The

Gallic now had a greater integrity, and the Gallic male monarch was able to field

monolithic ground forcess on much the same theoretical account as the British. In add-on,

nevertheless, the Gallic authorities began to appreciate the & # 8220 ; modern & # 8221 ;

manner of warfare, and new military commanding officers, such as Bertran du

Guesclin, began to utilize guerrilla and & # 8220 ; little war & # 8221 ; tactics of combat.

This war marked the terminal of English efforts to command

Continental district and the beginning of its accent upon maritime

domination. By Henry V & # 8217 ; s matrimony into the House of Valois, an

familial strain of mental upset was introduced into the English

royal household. There were great progresss in military engineering and

scientific discipline during the period, and the military value of the feudal knight

was exhaustively discredited. The order of knighthood went down

combat, nevertheless, in a moving ridge of civil wars that racked the states of

Western Europe. The European states began to set up

professional standing ground forcess and to develop the modern province necessary

to keep such forces.

In both of these states the thought of Nationalism, which is a

feeling of integrity and individuality that binds together a people who speak the

same linguistic communication, have common lineage and imposts, and live in the

same country, spread durring the war. ? By the late center ages, a vague

loyaltyto a peculiar dynasty might hold been created, and in a sense,

derived from the Hundred Old ages? War of being differeent from other

people.1?

There was no true victor of this war. Both sides suffered

terrible losingss. Even for England when none of the war was fought in

England. The cost for them was an astonishing sum of more than five

million lbs. The monetary value, although non as much in dollars, may hold

been even greater. The English had laid waste to 100s of

1000s of estates of rich farm land, go forthing the rural economic system, and

many parts of Franch in shambles.

Monetary value, Roger, A Concise History of France, Cambridge

Concise Histories, New York, New York, 1993.

Schama, Simon, Citizens, Alfred A. Knopf Inc. , New York,

New York, 1989

Schom, Alan, One Hundred Days, Maxwell Macmillan

International, New York, New York, 1992

Barnie, J. , War in Medieval English Society: Socail Valuess and

the Hundred Old ages? War, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New

York, 1974

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