The in-Vitro Acetylcholine Antagonism Study of Tomato Essay Sample

Bronchial asthma is a chronic backsliding inflammatory upset with increased reactivity of tracheobronchial tree to assorted stimulations. ensuing in paroxysmal contraction of bronchial air passages. It refers to a status of topics with widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways which alterations in badness over short periods of clip. either spontaneously or under intervention. and is non due to cardiovascular disease Harmonizing to the CDC. more than 22 million Americans. including 6. 5 million kids under 18. suffer with asthma today. Allergy clearly plays an of import function in many asthma instances but non in all. Although drug-induced bronchospasm occurs most normally in patients with known asthma. the agents themselves may bring forth asthma. The best-known of these is aspirin. but several other anti-inflammatory agents have been implicated.

Tomatos are normally used for cooking. They are rich in lycopene and glutamate which is why they are both healthy and delightful. Although tomatoes are perceived as veggies. fact is. they are fruits. They are made in different signifiers such as tomato sauce. tomato juice. tomato soup. sundried tomatoes. canned tomatoes and many more. They contain such wellness benefits. one of which is its ability to handle asthma. So many people suffer from this sort of illness. and sometimes. it causes an individual’s decease. The medicine for asthma is expensive. therefore we. the research workers. decided to look into whether the tomato juice infusion can be used as a replacement anti-asthma medical specialty.

Statement of the Problem:
Basically. the job of the research workers in this survey is to find whether there is any scientific footing for the folkloric claim that Solanum Lycopersicon ( Plum Tomato ) possesses anti-asthma ( bronchodilating ) belongings comparable to the herbal criterion bronchodilator. which is Vitex negundo ( Lagundi aqueous ) infusion.

Aims:

Specifically. it sought to:

1. Compare the hostility consequence of tomato given in different dose rates with acetylcholine treated duodenum of rats.
2. Determine the one-dimensionality consequence of increasing dose rates of tomato against supramaximal contracted duodenum.
3. Compare the average hostility consequence of different dose rates against the supramaximal contracted duodenum.
4. Compute for the ED 50 of the tomato fruit infusion.


Significance of the Survey:
The survey seeks to turn out the folkloric claim of tomato fruits or effectual bronchodilator. When proven successful. this survey will profit the people who can non afford to purchase expensive anti-asthma medical specialties since tomatoes are abundant in the vicinity. Furthermore. there will be now more picks of autochthonal workss that can alleviate asthma. aside from the Indian Mango and Lagundi foliages.

Scope and Restriction:
This survey is limited to the usage of the tomato fruit infusion of the “Plum” tomato assortment. It is besides limited to the finding of pharmacologic consequence ( bio-assay ) of a drug. an in-vitro bio-assay type of survey of tomato fruit infusion utilizing the duodenum of five ( 5 ) ICR Albino rats.

Hypothesiss:
Nothing: There is no important difference in the bronchodilating of tomato fruit infusion and Lagundi.
Option: The tomato fruit infusion is a better bronchodilator compared to Lagundi.

Chapter III
Methodology
Materials:

1. 2 kg of tomato fruits
2. Acetylcholine concentration
3. Physiologic saline solution – Tyrode Solution dwelling of solutions A and B

A:
Sodium Chloride or NaCl = 80 gram
Calcium Chloride or CaCl = 2 gram
Potassium Chloride or KCl = 2gms
Magnesium Chloride or MgCl? = 0. 1gms



Bacillus:
Sodium Carbonate or NaHCO? = 10gms
Sodium Phosphate or NaH2PO4 = 0. 5gms

4. 8 litres of distilled H2O
5. 5 stray rat duodenum tissue

14
Apparatus:
1. Muscle warmer – container of the tissue ( broken fluorescent bulb ) 2. Oxygenator – O armored combat vehicle. regulator ground tackle glass tubing 3. Changeless temperature bath
4. 2 laboratory thermometers 0-50° C
5. Analytic balance
6. Glassware:
1000ml graduated cylinder
500ml beaker
Tuber culin syringe
Stiring rod
Glass tubing’s Y or T tubing
7. Surgical setup:
Needle ( 1round. 1 curve )
Iris scissors ( 1 curved. 1 heterosexual )
8. Electrical:
2 = 50 W2H bulb
2 = sockets ( female )
9. Kymograph – electrical ( 1 )
10. Heart lever
11. Clamps: pinchcock ( 3 ) . prison guard clinch ( 3 ) .
15
Hoffman’s screw
12. Iron base





















Procedure:

1. Two kgs of tomatoes were washed and squeezed off their juice utilizing fabric. The juice extracted was farther strained from foreign stuffs. 2. The Tyrode solutions and acetylcholine were prepared. 3. The Kymograph machine was set up by preheating at 37 grade centigrade and was maintained. 4. The rats were decapitated and excised of mere duodenum at approximative length of 25mm 5. Immerse duodenum specimen in Physiologic Saline Solution and carefully rinse off content and cutting fatty tissues attached to the duodenum specimen. 6. Leash by polyester thread the duodenum specimen and ground it to the lever consequently.

7. Let 1 ? hr stabilisation clip and rinse it off several times until a changeless baseline is obtained. Explore for the supramaximal dosage of acetylcholine utilizing dose rates as: 0. 2ml. 0. 4ml. 0. 8ml and 1. 6ml merely. E. g. 0. 2ml from concentration of 1:1. 000 acetylcholine solutions. Let a 1-minute reaction clip after rinsing it to the baseline. 8. Get down proving for suppression and step in millimeter amplitude for 3 proceedingss utilizing dose rates at 0. 2ml/50ml tyrode. 0. 4ml/50ml tyrode. 0. 8ml/50ml tyrode and 1. 6ml/50ml tyrode severally. If from any of those rates cause 50 % amplitude of suppression. stop up for another duodenum 9. Compute for the Percent Amplitude Inhibition ( Mean Percent Inhibition ) rate and secret plan on a log probit paper and compare it to the standard curve. Test drug base on ballss ED50 criterion if it falls within – or + 25 % scope.

Bibliography:

0http: //www. histopathology-india. net/BrAs. htm

0http: //www. webmd. com/asthma/guide/bronchial-asthma

0http: //respiratory-lung. health-cares. net/bronchial-asthma. php

0Past fact-finding undertakings at the High School Library

0http: //www. wikipedia. com/tomatoes. hypertext markup language

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
Bronchial asthma is a disease caused by increased reactivity of the tracheobronchial tree to assorted stimulations. The consequence is paroxysmal bottleneck of the bronchial air passages. Bronchial asthma is the more right name for the common signifier of asthma. The term ‘bronchial’ is used to distinguish it from ‘cardiac’ asthma. which is a separate status that is caused by bosom failure. Although the two types of asthma have similar symptoms. including wheezing ( a whistle sound in the thorax ) and shortness of breath. they have rather different causes.

Bronchial asthma is a disease of the lungs in which an clogging airing perturbation of the respiratory passages evokes a feeling of shortness of breath. The cause is a aggressively elevated opposition to airflow in the air passages. Despite its most strenuous attempts. the respiratory muscular structure vitamin E is unable to supply sufficient gas exchange. The consequence is a characteristic asthma onslaughts. with cramps of the bronchial muscular structure. dropsical puffiness of the bronchial wall and increased mucous secretion secernment. In the initial phase. the patient can be wholly symptom-free for long periods of clip in the intervals between the onslaughts. As the disease progresses. increased mucous secretion is secreted between onslaughts every bit good. which in portion builds up in the air passages and can so take to secondary bacterial infections.

Bronchial asthma is normally intrinsic ( no cause can be demonstrated ) . but is on occasion caused by a specific allergic reaction ( such as allergic reaction to model. dander. dust ) . Although most persons with asthma will hold some positive allergic reaction trials. the allergic reaction is non needfully the cause of the asthma symptoms. Symptoms can happen spontaneously or can be triggered by respiratory infections. exercising. cold air. baccy fume or other pollutants. emphasis or anxiousness. or by nutrient allergic reactions or drug allergic reactions. The musculuss of the bronchial tree become tight and the liner of the air passages become conceited. cut downing airflow and bring forthing the wheezing sound. Mucus production is increased.

Typically. the single normally breathes comparatively usually. and will hold periodic onslaughts of wheezing. Asthma onslaughts can last proceedingss to yearss and can go unsafe is the airflow becomes badly restricted. Treatment is aimed at avoiding known allergens and commanding symptoms through medicine. A assortment of medicines for intervention of asthma are available. Peoples with mild asthma ( infrequent onslaughts ) may utilize inhalators on an as-needed footing. Persons with important asthma ( symptoms occur at least every hebdomad ) should be treated with anti-inflammatory medicines. sooner inhaled corticoids. and so with bronchodilators such as inhaled Alupent or Vanceril. Acute terrible asthma may necessitate hospitalization. O. and endovenous medicines. Tomatos:

Most people realize that tomatoes are healthy for them that they have a figure of of import substances that help us remain off from cardiovascular disease. malignant neoplastic diseases. cataracts and other wellness concerns. We are happening that tomatoes contain so many critical foods and we are coming to recognize how of import it is to hold tomatoes as portion of a wellness diet. When you eat tomatoes. it is the colour in them that makes them so good for you. The colour comes from lycopene which is besides found to be an unbelievable antioxidant. Antioxidants block the consequence of O free groups in the cells and hence. barricade the harm they can make to cells that cause malignant neoplastic disease in the right fortunes.

This is why tomatoes appear to hold cancer-fighting belongingss. The astonishing thing about lycopene is that it is about twice a good as many of the other antioxidants in nutrients. It has been found by research to be effectual in forestalling chest malignant neoplastic disease. lung malignant neoplastic disease and prostate malignant neoplastic disease. Lycopene is effectual against aging every bit good. A plum tomato ( Solanum Lycopersicon ) . besides known as a processing tomato or paste tomato. is a type of tomato bred for sauce and wadding intents. They are by and large egg-shaped or cylindrical in form. with significantly fewer seed compartments than standard unit of ammunition tomatoes ( normally merely two ) and a by and large higher solid content. doing them more suited for processing.

Plum tomatoes are besides sometimes favored by cooks for usage during the tomato off-season. as they are by and large considered more conformable to managing and are hence available in a province closer to ripe than other supermarket tomatoes. Harmonizing to researches around the WWW ( World Wide Web ) . tomatoes have the ability to bring around asthma. Although. research workers haven’t done any survey yet to turn out that tomatoes are truly capable of bring arounding asthma. and so it remains as a folkloric claim. Lagundi ( scientific name: Vitex negundo ) is a bush that grows in the Philippines. It is one of the 10 herbal medical specialties endorsed by the Philippine Department of Health as an effectual herbal medical specialty with proved curative value.

Normally known in the Ilocos part as Dangla. lagundi has been clinically tested to be effectual in the intervention of colds. grippe. bronchial asthma. chronic bronchitis. and sore throat. Surveies have shown that Lagundi can forestall the body’s production of leukotrienes. which are released during an asthma onslaught. Lagundi contains Chrysoplenol D. a substance with anti-histamine and musculus relaxant belongingss. Even in Japan. lagundi is going recognized as an effectual herbal medical specialty. particularly since researches have shown that it contains belongingss that make it an expectorant and it has been reported to map as a quinine water every bit good. More than that. most of the parts of the lagundi works are associated with medicative value. The roots of this bush are besides used as intervention for rheumatism. indigestion. furuncles. and leprosy. The foliages. flowers. seeds. and root of Lagundi can wholly be used as herbal medical specialty.

Chapter IV
Consequences and Discussion
The chapter presents the informations obtained. and the analysis of this information.
Table 1 shows the average per centum hostility of the different interventions of tomato against the acetylcholine supramaximal contracted duodenum of rats. Table 1. Average Percent Antagonism to the Acetylcholine Contracted Duodenum with Different Application of Tomato Treatments.


Treatments Mean Percent Antagonism|
Treatment 133. 6
Treatment 248. 2
Treatment 367. 2
Treatment 490. 4
As seen in Table 1. the highest hostility was obtained with intervention 4 ( 1. 6ml / 50ml PSS ) with a average consequence of 90. 4 and the lowest was obtained with intervention 1 ( 0. 2ml/ 50ml PSS ) at 33. 6.




Beginning of variance| DF| SS| Ms| F- Ratio| |
Between treatments| 4| 80. 701| 20. 175. 25| 5. 75HS| 3. 014. 77| Between replications| 16| -56. 106. 36| 3506. 64| | | Total| 20| | | | |

Table 3 shows the Analysis of discrepancy. This shows a important F ratio of 5. 75. This means that the different interventions of tomato had different consequence on per centum hostility. Figure 1 shows that the increasing dosage had a corresponding addition consequence on per centum hostility. The ED 50 was found to be 0. 8ml / kilogram.

The effectual hostility consequence to the acetylcholine contracted duodenum suggests that the mechanism by which wheezing onslaughts caused by acetylcholine undertaking the bronchioles is relieved by application of bronchodilating agents. In this survey. the hostility to the acetylcholine medicated duodenum of rats corroborated the phenomenal alleviation of asthma onslaughts.

Chapter V
Decision:

Based on the consequence of the survey. the undermentioned decisions were drawn:

1. Different dose rates of tomato application had different consequence on per centum hostility affect with highest consequence of 90. 4 ( 1. 6ml / 50ml PSS ) . 2. the lowest consequence was obtained at 0. 2ml / 50ml PSS at 33. 6 3. Addition of dose rates increases the per centum hostility consequence 4. The ED 50 is 0. 8 ml / 50ml PSS

Recommendations:

1. It is strongly recommended that reproductions of this investigatory undertaking should be done to turn out consistence of consequences therefore beef uping the decision that the infusion of the Tomato Fruit are good.

2. It is besides recommended that another investigatory undertaking related to this survey must be done which aims to find the Oral LD 50 ( Lethal Dose 50 ) but this clip it is a Quantitative Bioassay In-Vivo Type of Experiment. Lethal Dose 50 means the does by which 50 % of the experimental animate beings will decease. There is as yet no Animal Toxicity Studies that were done on the tomato fruit.

The In-Vitro Acetylcholine Antagonism Study of Tomato ( Solanum Lycopersicon ) compared to Lagundi ( Vitex negundo L ) Using Rat Duodenum

An Entry to the Division Science Fair
September 9-10. 2010

Bunch I – life Science
Team Class

Fatima Jamsuri
Judiel Bugnay
Josephine Dumlao
( Advocates )


Mrs. Rita Daliwag
( Adviser )
Abstraction:

In this survey the over-all aim is to find and compare the bronchodilating consequence of Tomato fruit infusion with that of Lagundi foliage infusion utilizing stray tissue experinment. This survey utilizes an experimental design. which is a quantitative type of bioassay in-Vitro type of experiment. The sedative or loosen uping consequence ( bronchodilator consequence ) of one hundred per centum decoction or aqueous infusion of Tomato fruit infusion ( Solanum Lycopersicum ) on Five ( 5 ) supramaximally contracted stray rat duodenums was determined and was compared with that of the sedative or relaxing ( bronchodilator consequence ) of one hundred per centum decoction or aqueous infusion of Lagundi foliages ( Vitex negundo L. ) Acetylcholine was used to supramaximally contract the duodenum.

Increasing doses of 100 % tomato fruit aqueous infusion was applied to the stray rat duodenum. which was suspended in a physiological salt solution. and the depressant consequence was determined which can be measured by the length of relaxation in millimetres get downing from the maximal tallness of supramaximal contraction besides in millimetres. The per centum suppression in the full five ( 5 ) rat duodenums was so computed for each of the four ( 4 ) dosage degrees ( 0. 2ml. 0. 4ml. 0. 8ml. and 1. 6ml ) . Percent suppression was determined by spliting the length of relaxation by the length of supramaximal for each contraction for each dose degree. Finally. the average per centum suppression for each dose degree of five ( 5 ) rat duodenums was computed and plotted in a dose response curve. The dose response curve of 100 % tomato fruit infusion or aqueous infusion was compared to that of the criterion dosage response curve of 100 % Lagundi leaves extract or aqueous infusion.

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