The Java Ring Essay Sample
The Java Ring is an highly unafraid Java-powered electronic item with a continuously running. inalterable realtime clock and rugged packaging. suited for many applications. The gem of the Java Ring is the Java iButton — a one-million transistor. single-chip trusted personal computer with a powerful Java practical machine ( JVM ) housed in a rugged and unafraid stainless-steel instance. Designed to be to the full compatible with the Java Card 2. 0 criterion ( for more on Java Card 2. 0. see last month’s Java Developer column. “Understanding Java Card 2. 0 “ ) the processor features a high-velocity 1024-bit modular exponentiator for RSA encoding. big RAM and ROM memory capacity. and an inalterable realtime clock.
The packaged faculty has merely a individual electrical contact and a land return. conforming to the specifications of the Dallas Semiconductor 1-Wire coach. Lithium-backed non-volatile SRAM offers high read/write velocity and alone tamping bar opposition through near-instantaneous glade of all memory when annealing is detected. a characteristic known as rapid zeroization. Data unity and clock map are maintained for more than 10 old ages. The 16-millimeter diameter chromium steel steel enclosure accommodates the larger bit sizes needed for up to 128 Ks of high-speed nonvolatilizable inactive RAM. The little and highly rugged packaging of the faculty allows it to attach to the accoutrement of your pick to fit single life styles. such as a cardinal watch pocket. billfold. ticker. necklace. watchband. or finger ring.
In the summer of 1989. Dallas Semiconductor Corp. produced the first stainless-steel-encapsulated memory devices using the Dallas Semiconductor 1-Wire communicating protocol. By 1990. this protocol had been refined and employed in a assortment of self-contained memory devices. Originally called “touch memory” devices. they were subsequently renamed “iButtons. ” Packaged like batteries. iButtons have merely a individual active electrical contact on the top surface. with the chromium steel steel shell functioning as land. Datas can be read from or written to the memory serially through a simple and cheap RS232C consecutive port arranger. which besides supplies the power required to execute the I/O. The iButton memory can be read or written with a fleeting contact to the “Blue Dot” receptor provided by the arranger. When non connected to the consecutive port arranger. memory informations is maintained in non-volatile random entree memory ( NVRAM ) by a life-time Li energy supply that will keep the memory content for at least 10 old ages. Unlike electrically effaceable programmable read-only memory ( EEPROM ) . the NVRAM iButton memory can be erased and rewritten every bit frequently as necessary without have oning out. It can besides be erased or rewritten at the high velocities typical of complementary metal oxide semiconducting material ( CMOS ) memory. without necessitating the time-consuming scheduling of EEPROM.
Since their debut. iButton memory devices have been deployed in huge measures as rugged portable informations bearers. frequently in rough environmental conditions. Among the large-scale utilizations are as theodolite menu bearers in Istanbul. Turkey ; as care record bearers on the sides of Ryder trucks ; and as letter box identifiers inside the mail compartments of the U. S. Postal Service’s outdoor letter boxs. They are worn as earrings by cattles in Canada to keep inoculation records. and they are used by agricultural workers in many countries as rugged replacements for timecards. The iButton merchandise line and its many applications are described at Dallas Semiconductor’s iButton Web site. which is listed in theResources subdivision. Every iButton merchandise is manufactured with a alone 8-byte consecutive figure and carries a warrant that no two parts will of all time hold the same figure. Among the simplest iButtons are memory devices that can keep files and subdirectories and can be read and written like little floppy discs. In add-on to these. there are iButtons with password-protected file countries for security applications. iButtons that count the figure of times they have been rewritten for procuring fiscal minutess. iButtons with temperature detectors. iButtons with continuously running date/time redstem storksbills. and even iButtons incorporating powerful microprocessors. The postal security device
For over 10 old ages. Dallas Semiconductor besides has been planing. doing. and selling a line of extremely unafraid microprocessors that are used in satellite Television descramblers. automatic Teller machines. point-of-sale terminuss. and other similar applications necessitating cryptanalytic security and high opposition to assail by hackers. The U. S. Postal Service’s ( USPS ) Information Based Indicia Program Postal Security Device Specification. intended to allow printing of valid U. S. postage on any Personal computer. provided the first chance to unite two countries of expertness when a secure microprocessor was designed into an iButton. The resulting merchandise. named the Crypto iButton. combines high processor public presentation. high-velocity cryptanalytic primitives. and exceeding protection against physical and cryptanalytic onslaught. For illustration. the big whole number modular involution engine can execute 1024-bit modular involutions with a 1024-bit advocate in significantly less than a 2nd. The ability to execute big whole number modular involutions at high velocity is cardinal to RSA encoding. Diffie-Hellman cardinal exchange. Digital Signature Standard ( FIPS 186 ) . and many other modern cryptanalytic operations.
An understanding between Dallas Semiconductor and RSA Data Security Inc. provides a paid-up licence for anyone utilizing the Crypto iButton to execute RSA encoding and digital signatures so that no farther licensing of the RSA encoding engineering is required. High security is afforded by the ability to wipe out the contents of NVRAM highly rapidly. This characteristic. rapid zeroization. is a demand for high security devices that may be subjected to onslaughts by hackers. As a consequence of its high security. the Crypto iButton is expected to win the FIPS 140-1 security enfranchisement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST ) . A particular operating system was designed and stored in the ROM of the Crypto iButton to back up cryptanalysis and all-purpose fiscal minutess — such as those required by the Postal Service plan.
While non a Java practical machine. the E-Commerce microcode designed for this application had several points of similarity with Java. including an object-oriented design and a bytecode translator to construe and put to death Dallas Semiconductor’s custom-designed E-Commerce Script Language. A compiler was besides written to roll up the high-ranking linguistic communication representation of the Script Language to a bytecode signifier that could be interpreted by the E-Commerce VM. Although the E-Commerce microcode was intended chiefly for the USPS application. the microcode supports a assortment of general electronic commercialism theoretical accounts that are suited for many different applications. The E-Commerce microcode besides supports cryptanalytic protocols for secure information exchange such as the Simple Key-Management for Internet Protocol ( SKIP ) developed by Sun Microsystems Inc. The E-Commerce iButton and the SDK for programming it are described in item on the Crypto iButton place page.
The Java connexion
With experience planing the E-Commerce operating system and VM for the Crypto iButton hardware platform. the microcode design squad at Dallas Semiconductor could readily appreciate the advantages of a new operating system for the Crypto iButton based on Java. With a Java iButton. a huge figure of bing Java coders could easy larn to compose applets that could be compiled with the criterion tools available from Sun Microsystems. loaded into the Java iButton. and run on demand to back up a broad assortment of fiscal applications. The Java Card 2. 0 specification provided the chance to implement a utile version of the JVM and runtime environment with the limited resources available to a little processor. The Crypto iButton besides provides an first-class hardware platform for put to deathing Java because it utilizes NVRAM for plan and informations storage. With 6 Ks of bing NVRAM and the possible to spread out the NVRAM capacity to every bit much as 128 Ks in the bing iButton signifier factor. the Crypto iButton can put to death Java with a comparatively big Java stack situated in NVRAM.
This memory acts as conventional high-velocity Random-access memory when the processor is put to deathing. and the Li energy preserves the complete province of the machine while the Java Ring is disconnected from the reader. There is hence no demand to cover with relentless objects in a particular manner — objects persist or non depending on their range so the coder has complete control over object continuity. As in standard Java. the Java iButton contains a refuse aggregator that collects any objects that are out of range and recycles the memory for future usage.
Applets can be loaded and unloaded from the Java iButton every bit frequently as needed. All the applets presently loaded in a Java iButton are efficaciously put to deathing at zero velocity any clip the iButton is non in contact with a Blue Dot receptor. As the Java Card 2. 0 specification was proposed. Dallas Semiconductor became a JavaSoft licensee. The understanding called for the development of a Java Card 2. 0 execution and besides for the design of “plus portions” that take advantage of the alone capablenesss afforded by the Crypto iButtons NVRAM. such as the ability to back up a true Java stack and refuse aggregation. With the add-on of the continuously running lithium-powered time-of-day clock and the high-speed. large-integer modular involution engine. the Java iButton execution of Java Card 2. 0 with plus parts promises an exciting new characteristic set for advanced Java Card applications. Keeping your money safe
The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a alone set of particular characteristics expressly designed to forestall private keys and other confidential information from going available to hackers. Figure 1 shows a item of the internal building of the Crypto iButton. The Si dice incorporating the processor. ROM. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal building techniques employed in the Si fiction efficaciously deny entree to the informations stored in the NVRAM. If any effort is made to perforate these barriers. the NVRAM information is instantly erased. This building technique and the usage of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential informations provides a much higher grade of informations security than that afforded by EEPROM memory.
The fact that the communicating way between the Crypto iButton and the outside universe is limited to a individual information line provides extra security against hardware onslaughts by restricting the scope of signals accessible to the hacker. In add-on. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a scope of 10 to 20 MHz. so that the clock frequence of the processor is non changeless and can non be determined by external agencies. This differs from the design of alternate devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is hence precisely determined by the host processor. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. since they can repetitively rhythm such a processor to the same point in its executing merely by using the same figure of clock rhythms. Control of the clock besides affords a agency to bring on a computation mistake and thereby obtain information that can finally uncover secret encoding keys. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to run the time-of-day clock at a changeless and well-controlled frequence that is independent of the processor clock.
The Java Ring are really easy and convenient manner for users. They are more unafraid than utilizing watchwords since watchwords are short or can be guessed. Java Ring provides hallmark to users which is important for many applications. It is easier for decision maker to keep the security. And. it provides existent memory. more power. and a capacity for dynamic scheduling. Java Ring used widely all around the universe for several applications such as Access Control. Asset Management. e-Cash and for many other intent. Asset Management:
The Java Ring provides a simple. unafraid manner of placing a individual or plus. It can function as an electronic consecutive figure that is ne’er duplicated. With a memory up to 32k bytes. Java Ring can besides give the plus their ain individualized database. Each plus will hold the ability to hive away alone information about itself and hold that information for good affixed to the plus. This makes Java Ring perfect for assorted plus direction and informations aggregation maps such as equipment care records and stock list direction. For illustration. The Sun construct car’s security is based on a Java Ring that contains a profile of the user. By linking your Java Ring to a ring receptor in the auto and the auto knows. based on your profile. what you are allowed to make. In a household where both the hubby and married woman drive the auto. each has individualized scenes. so that when they enter the auto. their environments are configured to the profiles on their rings. Java Ring is authorized through Personal Identification Number so that no 1 can steal a person’s ring and run off with the auto.
A Java Ring becomes a individualized key to protected assets and information. By touching the right key to an iButton reader. the coveted event. such as. opening a lock is enabled. Java Ring is perfect for assorted entree control maps like entree to edifices. computing machines. vehicles and equipment.
Java Ring can be a individualized item and Acts of the Apostless like a little alteration bag for one or multiple applications. It enables to finish minutess. like distributing a confect saloon or metering a postpaid volume of H2O. By utilizing Java Ring. it extinguish the demand to transport little sums of hard currency. and it can serve multiple. independent applications. They are perfect for a broad assortment of e-Cash maps like mass theodolite systems. parking metres. bet oning systems. peddling and swift refueling.
In extra. Java Ring can last longer than smart card. The Si bit within the iButton is protected by the ultimate lasting stuff: chromium steel steel. The iButton is wear-tested for 10-year lastingness. Furthermore. the massive bit includes up to 134 K of SRAM that is specially designed so that it will quickly wipe out its contents as a response to an invasion. Rapid erasing of the SRAM memory is known as zeroization. When an iButton detects any invasion. it erases its private keys taking to zeroization. With it zeroization capableness and the private key. Java Ring is one of the least forgery able devices. It will destruct itself instead than uncover its secret when tampered. Decision
Dallas Semiconductor has produced more than 20 million physically-secure memories and computing machines with hard-shell packaging optimized for personal ownership. The Java iButton. therefore. is merely the latest and most complex descendent of a long line of merchandises that have proven themselves to be extremely successful in the market place. With its chromium steel steel armour. it offers the most lasting packaging for a category of merchandises that probably will endure heavy usage and maltreatment as personal ownerships. The iButton signifier factor permits fond regard to a broad assortment of personal accoutrements that includes rings. watchstraps. keyfobs. billfolds. watchbands. and necklaces. so the user can choose a fluctuation that suits his or her lifestyle. With a 32-kilobyte Java Card Environment ( JCE ) and I/O subsystem in mask-programmed ROM. a continuously running true-time clock. and 6 Ks of NVRAM memory with enlargement potency up to 128 Ks. the Java iButton supports a true Java stack. full-length 32-bit Java whole numbers. and garbage aggregation. This feature mix provides support for comparatively high-end Java applets with significant calculating demands.