The making of the collection
Although visited now by 1000s of people the Museum traditionally retains the old name of the Hermitage attached to it in the 1760 & # 8217 ; s and intending & # 171 ; a anchorite & # 8217 ; s brooding & # 187 ; , or & # 171 ; a lone topographic point & # 187 ; . The name is due to the fact that the Hermitage was founded as a castle museum accessible merely to the nearest of the close to the tribunal.
A figure of objects of which but a little portion was subsequently incorporated in the museum & # 8217 ; s aggregations were acquired in different states by Peter I. These were antique statues Marine landscapes, land a aggregation of Siberian antediluvian gold buckles. However, the foundation of the Hermitage is normally dated to the twelvemonth 1764 when a aggregation of 225 images was bought by Catherine II from the Prussian merchandiser Gotzkowsky.
A characteristic feature of the eighteenth century accusals was the purchase of big groups of pictures, sometimes of complete galleries, bought en Blok at the gross revenues in Western Europe.Count Bruhl & # 8217 ; s aggregation acquired in Dresden in 1769, the Gallery of Crozat, bought in Paris in 1772 and the gallery of Lord Walpole acquired in London in 1779 were the most outstanding among the acquisitions made in the eighteenth century. Together with legion purchases of single images, they supplied the museum with most outstanding canvases of the European school, including those by Rembraandt, Rubens, Van Dyck and other eminent creative persons, and made the Hermitage rank among the finest art galleries of Europe. Works, commissioned by the Russian tribunal from European painters besides enriched the Picture gallery.By 1785 the Museum numbered 2658 pictures. Prints and drawings, cameos, coins and decorations were similarly represented at the Hermitage.
The acquisition of complete aggregations and of single plants of art was continued in the nineteenth century but on a more modest graduated table than during the old period. Among the most noteworthy acquisitions of the nineteenth century were: Mathew Malmaison Gallery of the Empress Josephine bought in 1814 ; the aggregation of the English banker Coesvelt dwelling chiefly of Spanish pictures, purchased in Amsterdam the same twelvemonth ; every bit good as the pictures from the Barrbarigo Palace inVenice which gave the Museum its best Titians.
As to the single plant of art, the acquisition in 1865 of Leonardo da Vince & # 8217 ; s & # 171 ; Madonna Litta & # 187 ; fromthe Duce of Litta aggregation and the purchase of Raphael & # 8217 ; s & # 171 ; Virgin and Child & # 187 ; from the Con
estebite household in 1870, were of import landmarks in the growing of the hoarded wealths of the Hermitage.
In 1885 the Hermitage received an of import aggregation of objects of applied art of the 12th & # 8211 ; 26th centuries, gathered by Basilevsky ; , together with the Armoury transferred from Tsarskoe Selo, notably enriched the Museum with a new type of stuff
The first decennary of the twentieth century witnessed the acquisition of a brilliant aggregation including 730 canvases by the Dutch and Flemish creative persons, which had been in the ownership of the eminent Russian scientist Semenov-Tienshansky. Another most of import acquisition was Leonardo da Vinci & # 8217 ; s & # 171 ; Madonna and Child & # 187 ; purchased in 1914 from the household of the designer L.Benois.
The Great October Revolution created extremely favorable conditions for the farther growing of the Museum aggregations and their systematic survey. Since October 1917, due to the attention taken by Soviet Government for the saving of art hoarded wealths, the Museum was enriched with a great figure of excellent plants of art. Among these were the best images chosen by the Hermitage the nationalised private aggregations such as those once owned by the Yussupovs, the Shuvalovs, the Stroganovs ; pictures transferred from the imperial castles ; art hoarded wealths, acquired by exchange from other museums within the state.
The policy of planned distribution of art hoarded wealths among the museums carried out by the province, enabled the Hermitage non merely to make full up many spreads and lacks by adding to its image gallery Italian pictures of the 13th-15th centuries, plants of the Netherlandish school, and of the Gallic school of the 19th and twentieth centuries but to organize a museum free from private gustatory sensation, and made it possible to set up the aggregations consistently. The accretion of stuffs which had non been represented in the museum in the pre-Revolutionary period, led to the formation of new sections: the section of the history of civilization and art of the crude society, of the civilization and art of the peoples of the East, and that of the history of Russian civilization.
He immense growing of the aggregations made it necessary to widen the exhibition infinite This is why the edifice of the Winter Palace was placed at the disposal of the Hermitage, the name & # 171 ; The State Hermitage & # 187 ; being now applied to the whole great museum therefore formed.