The Negative Effects of Computer Hacking
INTRODUCTION Thesis statement: Computer Hacking satisfies obsession for forbidden information and exploitation of skills. I. General Consideration Hacking has been around for more than a century. At first, the term “hacker” was a positive term for a person with a mastery of computers who could push programs beyond what they were designed to do. But because of the exploitation of these knowledge and the obsession to forbidden information, it soon became a threat to computer technology. The root of computer hacking was dated back in the early 1960’s by a group of university students, especially in M.
I. T. and Stanford. II. Statement of the Problem The researcher wants to know the answers to these following inquiries: A. What is hacking? A hacker? B. What are the different types of hackers? C. Why do hackers hack? D. What are the basic principles of a hacker? E. What are the negative effects of hacking in the society? F. What are the ways to minimize potential for hacking? III. Objectives of the Problem A. To know more about hacking and hackers. B. To educate people about the negative effects of hacking. C. To prevent hackers in manipulating private information.
The Negative Effects of Computer Hacking Essay Example
D. To observe the effect of computer hacking in the modern world. IV. Importance of the Problem I choose this topic because as an IT student, this will be very helpful in my studies since this is related to my course and the benefits that I can get from this is I will be knowledgeable about the facts in computer hacking so that I will be able to fight hackers as part of my future occupation. Another reason is so that since I will be knowledgeable, I can educate people about its dangerous effects it can cause us and to find a solution for it. V. Definition of Terms
A, Hacking – intruding into computer systems by stealth and without permission or any crime committed with, by, through, or against a computer. B. Hacker – A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. C, Webpage – A Web page is what you see on the Net. One page with text and graphics. These can be about anything the author of the page wants it to be about. D. Software – Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices.
E. Programming – creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something. F. Cracking – the art of decoding something. G. Cracker – is someone who breaks into someone else’s computer system, often on a network; bypasses passwords or licenses in computer programs; or in other ways intentionally breaches computer security. H. Filters – A program that accepts a certain type of data as input, transforms it in some manner, and then outputs the transformed data. I. Computer System – A set of related but unconnected components (hardware) of a computer or data-processing system. J.
Install – to place or to put something in the computer for use. K. The Pentagon – a five-sided building in Arlington, Va. , in which the main offices of the U. S. Department of Defense are located; hence, the U. S. military establishment. L. Patches – is a quick-repair job for a piece of programming. M. Ethics – A theory or a system of moral values. N. Server – A computer that processes requests for HTML and other documents that are components of web pages. O. Virus – an unsanctioned and self-replicating program which, when activated, corrupts a computer’s data and disables its operating system.
DISCUSSION A. What is hacking? A hacker? Today the term “hacking” is used routinely to mean intruding into computer systems by stealth and without permission or any crime committed with, by, through, or against a computer. Hacking signified the unfettered exploration of computer systems for the sake of the intellectual challenge. It involved both the search for the unknown and forbidden and the joy in the art of programming. (Pipkin : 1997) Computer hacking always involves some degree of infringement on the privacy of others or damage to computer-based property such as files, webpages or software. “Computer Hacking” : http://www. ed. uiuc. edu/up/crime/hacking. htm) Hackers are obsessed with forbidden information. Their interest and ability to access this forbidden information have surrounded hackers with other people who hunger for this information to use for personal gain or social anarchy. (Pipkin : 1997) A Hacker can be defined as: 1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. 2. One who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing it. . A person capable of appreciating hack value. 4. A person who is good at programming quickly. 5. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work on it. 6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example. 7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations. 8. A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. (“Computer Hacking” : http://www. ed. uiuc. edu/up/crime/hacking. htm) B. What are the different types of hackers? a. In-House Hacker is someone who is a valid user on a system but decides for whatever reason to perform unauthorized acts. This is often a dishonest employee and can be anyone from an end user who has access to the company’s data, to a system programmer, who knows the system inside and out and has the ability to turn the system upside down. This type of hacker causes damage to a company’s computers and data. b. Superhacker – does not brag and does not post information on the bulletin boards; rather, he watches what others are doing and absorbs the information about new and different ways to compromise a system.
He moves freely throughout computer systems taking what he wants without leaving a trace. c. Professional Hacker – It is a new breed of hacker. He is professionally trained to gather information from any means available. He has the social skills to get people to give him information and the technical skills to attack systems successfully. Most of them got their training from government intelligence agencies around the globe. What differentiates them from other hackers is that they hack for a very specific target with the value of the information in mind.
Their information gathering maybe for government intelligence or more often corporate espionage. They are often a hacker-for-hire. (Pipkin : 1997) C. Why do hackers hack? Some hackers are anarchists wanting to perform random acts of violence, or wanting to become famous; others have a personal score to settle with someone or some company, while others plan to get rich stealing information on the electronic frontier and hack only for the financial rewards. Still others are classic hackers who just want to learn how systems work and hack for the thrill and excitement. (Pipkin : 1997) D.
What are the basic principles of a hacker? In his book, “Fighting Computer Crime: A New Framework for Protecting Information” (1998), Donn B. Parker lists two basic principles hacker live by: 1. The belief that information sharing is a powerful good and that it is the ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and to computing resources whenever possible. 2. The belief that system cracking for fun and exploitation is ethically OK as long as the cracker commits no theft, vandalism or breach of confidentiality.
Parker differentiates between benign and malicious hackers based on whether damage is performed, though in reality all hacking involves intrusion and a disregard for the efforts, works and property of others. E. What are the negative effects of hacking in the society? Computer hacking has greatly affected our modern society. And one who is greatly affected by these is the youth. As we all have seen, most common reports about hackers who are caught are mostly students. Some of the factors why youth involve in hacking is also because of influence. Most of the movies, especially action films, have hackers as one of the protagonists in the story.
If they portray it that way, people will think of it as cool and not wrong. These hypothetical car thieves would be wrong, of course, in making that argument. They might lack the sensitivity needed to give weight to the victim’s feelings of manipulation, of fear, of anger. They may not understand how the experience of such a random attack can leave a person feeling a profound loss of order and safety in the world. Some adolescents don’t have the empathy to see beyond the issue of loss of property. Some may show empathy in certain situations but not in others. The point is that the computer raises no new issue, ethical or pragmatic.
The password hacker who says “we aren’t hurting anything by looking around” is exactly analogous to the joyrider saying “we aren’t stealing the car permanently. ” The professional car thief and the teenaged joyrider are both social problems, but they’re different problems. To confuse the two–to treat the teenager like a career criminal–would be a disastrously self-fulfilling prophecy. There is also a middle ground between the young person who happens to break unimportant rules in the innocent exercise of intellectual curiosity and the hardened criminal.
Consider the hypothetical case of a young man whose girlfriend moves to Australia for a year, and so he builds himself a blue box (a device used to place long distance telephone calls without paying for them) and uses it to chat with her for an hour every other day. This is not intellectual curiosity, nor is it a deliberate, long-term choice of a life of crime. Instead, this hypothetical adolescent, probably normally honest, has stepped over a line without really noticing it, because his mind is focused on something else.
It would be inappropriate, I think, to pat him on the head and tell him how clever he is, and equally inappropriate to throw him in prison. What we must do is call his attention to the inconsistency between his activities and, most likely, his own moral standards. (“Computer Hacking and Ethics. ” : http://www. cs. berkley. edu/~bh/hackers. html) Another that is greatly affected by the negative effects of computer hacking is the government. Having read an article about Pentagon worries about Chinese hackers, it tells about the Pentagon was sensing some intrusions from there concealed server which they find coming from China.
They also said there were also some intrusions in different countries also coming from China. It was said that base on the infiltration, it is likely to be a preparation for the cyber-warfare from the Chinese military. (“Chinese Hacking worries Pentagon” : http://articles. latimes. com/2008/mar/04/world/fg-uschina4) As what I’ve read, even hacking is used to sabotage confidential files in the military which can be the result of war between countries. And lastly, Also Businesses are also greatly affected by these. Again, I also have read an article about this.
Some companies in UK and also some part of the globe have cost billions for this issue. A problem of the companies is that “Too many companies have waited until an incident hits them before putting counter-measures in place. While awareness of the threats has never been higher, many businesses are still finding their precautions are inadequate,” warned PwC’s information security partner Chris Potter. Unfortunately, no computer software is immune from criminal attacks, warned software giant Microsoft. “The security skills gap illustrated in the survey is an important issue,” said Stuart Okin, Microsoft Europe’s chief security officer. There is a need for the industry to work together to minimise risks to information security. ” Computer Associates, which helped sponsor the survey, also called for an integrated approach to security threats. Without this, it said, companies would continue to play into the hands of the hacking community. By this, it only means that hacking also is being a threat to business men because their companies are being sabotage and if large companies are endangered, it will greatly affect economic status of one’s country. (“Computer hacking ‘costs billions’ ” : http://news. bbc. co. k/2/hi/business/3663333. stm) F. What are the ways to minimize potential for hacking? There are only three aspects of information security: • Protect • Detect • Respond Protect system by keeping the system current with the security patches and valid configurations. Detect intruders by installing and monitoring all prudent detection software. Respond to security incident as you have previously established in your security policy. Security is everyone’s responsibility. Users must select good passwords and current and install security patches, as well as keep aware of current security issues.
System vendors/suppliers must start shipping systems with an operating system that is more secure out of the box and the software suppliers must design their products with security in mind. KEEP THE SYSTEM CURRENT Keeping the system current is extremely important in keeping systems secure. A system that is well managed, with a system manager who keeps current with the activities of his system and its users, is much less likely to become the victim of a successful attack. Install the Most Current Software New versions of software fix known bugs that could have been used to compromise a system, sometimes without any notification of repair.
It is more likely that older versions of software have had their behavior studied and their flaws exploited. Most security incidents are caused by exploiting known security problems, generally with older software. Install Security Patches By the time a security issue has been defined and a repair has been released for it, the hacker community also knows about the problem and how to exploit it. This is why it is imperative that you install all applicable security patches. This will protect you from known problems. Quite often it is these defects that are the basis of tools created to compromise a system that are utilized by unskilled hackers.
As a general rule, if you are not using it, take it off the system. This applies to programs, data, accounts, files everything. Removing these things will not only make it more difficult for the hacker to probe and compromise your system; it will also free up resources, disk space, and processor cycles, which in turn will allow you to back up your system more quickly and on fewer removable media, saving you both time and money. (Pipkin:1997) There are a number of ways for schools to minimize potential for hacking. 1.
Schools need to clearly establish acceptable use policies and delineate appropriate and inappropriate actions to both students and staff. 2. Students and staff need to instructed regarding hacking, the mentality associated with it, the consequences of various hacking actions and possible consequences of interacting and forming online relationships with anonymous individuals who claim to be proficient in invading others’ privacy. 3. The use of filters may be considered in reducing access to unauthorized software serial numbers and hacking-related materials, newsgroups, chatrooms and hacking organizations. 4.
Teachers need to be aware of student activities in the computer labs and pay special attention to things they hear in terms of hacking behavior. Many schools have taken initiative in having teachers work with technology-oriented students who exhibit many of the characteristics which may eventually lead to hacking-type behaviors. Recent web-based activities and competitions, including ThinkQuest, Web to the Edge and ExploraVision, are outstanding opportunities for these and other technologically oriented students to utilize their interests, energies and abilities in a positive way. (“Computer Hacking” : http://www. ed. uiuc. du/up/crime/hacking. htm) CONCLUSION I learned that technology has greatly affected the lives of people and it also has changed my perspective in the impact of technology to people. I learned how hackers attack systems and their motives, the different types of hackers, and some techniques or tips on preventing a hacker to hack your system. RECOMMENDATION I greatly recommend to the people to use anti-viruses and to secure their systems twice as before, reading guides and awareness about prevention of computer hacking. And to parents who should take authority to their children to stop them from involving themselves in hacking.
Works Cited “Chinese hacking worries Pentagon. ” http://articles. latimes. com/2008/mar/04/world/fg-ushina4 “Computer hacking ‘costs billions’. ” http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/business/3663333. stm Harvey, Brian. “Computer Hacking and Ethics. ” http://www. cs. berkeley. edu/~bh/hackers. html Pipkin, Donald L. Halting the Hacker: a practical guide to computer security. Upper Saddle River: A Simon & Schuster Company, 1997. Stone, David M. “Computer Hacking. ” http://www. ed. uiuc. edu/up/crime/hacking. htm ABSTRACT Computer Hacking has long been a threat to the society. But this has not started as what it is right now.
It only became a problem since programmers started abusing their talents. Hacking has affected greatly on people’s lives. It also affects the economy, the society and even the minds of the youth are being poisoned by the effect of computer hacking. As what I’ve read in some articles, even hacking can sabotage large companies and even the secrets of the government and military. Youth nowadays are much hooked up in computer hacking. They find this cool even though they know the negative effects in causes us because I their mindset, when you know how to hack, people find you a cool person, or sometimes people just want to become famous.
But as we all know, every problem has a corresponding solution. The only one who can defeat a hacker is a hacker also. Since a hacker knows what his co-hacker is thinking, he also knows his strategies and plans. There are also a lot of preventive tips on the net to prevent a hacker in intruding your system or your files. I know that we cannot stop this dilemma, but I hope that we can prevent them from increasing by as an individual, to not involve in hacking and better to fight it.