The New England Colonies Essay Sample
The New England Colonies of British America included the settlements of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Connecticut Colony. Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations and Province of New Hampshire. They were portion of the Thirteen Colonies including the Middle Colonies and the Southern Colonies. These were early settlements of what would subsequently be the provinces in New England. [ 1 ] Captain John Smith. of Pocahontas celebrity. was the writer of “The Description of New England” published in 1616. The book was the first to use the term “New England” to coastal lands of North America from the Long Island Sound to Newfoundland. [ 2 ]
Early on seventeenth century
The English royal charters granted land to the North to the Plymouth Company. land to the South to the London Company and the land between could be settled foremost by either company There were several efforts early in the seventeenth century to colonise New England by France. England and other states who were in frequently in contention for lands in the New World. Gallic nobleman Pierre Dugua de Monts ( Sieur de Monts ) established a colony on Saint Croix Island. Maine in June 1604 under the authorization of the King of France. The little St. Croix River Island is located on the northern boundary of contemporary Maine. After about half the colonists perished due to a rough winter and scorbutus. they moved out of New England North to Port-Royal of Nova Scotia ( see symbol “R” on map to the right ) in the spring of 1605. [ 3 ]
King James I of England. acknowledging the demand for a lasting colony in New England. granted viing royal charters to the Plymouth Company and the London Company. The Plymouth Company ships arrived at the oral cavity of the Kennebec River ( so called the Sagadahoc River ) in August 1607 where they established a colony named Sagadahoc Colony or more good known as Popham Colony ( see symbol “Po” on map to the right ) to honour fiscal angel Sir John Popham. The settlers faced a rough winter. the loss of supplies following a depot fire and assorted dealingss with the autochthonal folks.
After the decease of settlement leader Captain George Popham and a determination by a 2nd leader. Raleigh Gilbert. to return to England to take up an heritage left by the decease of an older brother. all of the settlers decided to return to England. It was about August 1607. when they left on two ships. the Mary and John and a new ship built by the settlement named Virginia of Sagadahoc. The 30-ton Virginia was the first English-built ship in North America. [ 4 ]
Conflict over land rights continued through the early seventeenth century. with the Gallic constructing Fort Petagouet near present twenty-four hours Castine. Maine in 1613. The garrison protecting a trading station and a fishing station was considered the first longer term colony in New England. The garrison traded custodies multiple times throughout the seventeenth century between the English. Gallic and Dutch settlers. [ 5 ]
In 1614. the Dutch adventurer Adriaen Block sailed along the seashore of Long Island Sound. and so up the Connecticut River to site of present twenty-four hours Hartford. Connecticut. By 1623. the new Dutch West India Company on a regular basis traded for pelt at that place and ten old ages subsequently they fortified it for protection from the Pequot Indians every bit good as from the spread outing English settlements. They fortified the site. which was named “House of Hope” ( besides identified as “Fort Hoop” . “Good Hope” and “Hope” ) . but infringing English colonisation made them hold to retreat a Treaty of Hartford. and by 1654 they were gone. [ 6 ]
[ edit ] Pilgrims and Puritans ( 1620s )
A group of spiritual dissidents known as the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower from England and the Netherlands early in 1620 to set up Plymouth Colony. which was the first British settlement in New England to last over a twelvemonth and one of the first settlements of British Colonial America following Jamestown. Virginia. About half of the one hundred plus riders on the Mayflower survived that first winter. largely because of diseases contracted on the ocean trip. [ 7 ] A Native American named Squanto taught the settlers how to catch eel and turn maize the undermentioned twelvemonth ( 1621 ) . His aid was singular. sing that the Pilgrims were populating on the site his asleep Patuxet folk had established as a small town before they were wiped out from diseases brought over by earlier bargainers from Europe. [ 8 ]
Although the Plymouth colony faced great adversities and earned few net incomes. it enjoyed a positive repute in England and may hold sown the seeds for farther in-migration. Edward Winslow and William Bradford published an history of their escapades in 1622. called Mourt’s Relation. [ 9 ] This book glossed over some of the troubles and challenges carving a colony out of the wilderness. but it may hold been partially responsible for wipe outing the memory of the Popham Colony and promoting farther colony.
Major boundaries of Massachusetts Bay and neighbouring colonial claims in the seventeenth century and eighteenth century. Modern province boundaries are partly overlaid for context. Learning from the Pilgrims’ rough experiences of winter in the Plymouth Colony. the Puritans first sent smaller groups in mid-1620s from England to set up settlements. edifices and nutrient supplies. In 1623. the Plymouth Council for New England ( replacement to the Plymouth Company ) established a little fishing small town at Cape Ann under the supervising of the Dorchester Company. The first group of Puritans moved to a new town at the nearby Naumkeag. after the Dorchester Company dropped support and fresh fiscal support was found by Rev. John White.
Other colonies were started in nearby countries. nevertheless the overall Puritan population remained little through the 1620s. [ 10 ] A larger group of Puritans arrived in 1630. go forthing England because they were unable to alter the Church of England. by their name to “purify” the church. The Puritans had really different spiritual beliefs compared to the Pilgrims who were Separatists from the Church of England and their settlements were governed independent of each other until the Massachusetts Bay Colony was reorganized in 1691 uniting both settlements as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Prior to the formation of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. the Puritan leaders used the authorities to implement the rigorous spiritual regulations that all Puritans were expected to follow.
Early dissidents of the Puritan Torahs were frequently banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Connecticut Colony was started after a Puritan curate. Thomas Hooker. left Massachusetts Bay with around 100 followings in hunt of greater spiritual and political freedom. Another Puritan curate. Roger Williams ( theologian ) left Massachusetts Bay establishing the Rhode Island Colony. while John Wheelwright left with his followings to a settlement in present twenty-four hours New Hampshire and shortly thenceforth on to present twenty-four hours Maine. The Puritan beliefs of non holding to straight pay for school besides helped determine the public school system today. [ 11 ] Founding ( 1630s )
It was the dead of winter. January 1636. when Salem curate Roger Williams had been banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Puritan leaders pushed him out because he preached that authorities and faith should be separate and besides believed the Wampanoag and Narragansett folks had been treated below the belt. That winter. the folk would assist Williams to last and set up a new settlement in contemporary Rhode Island which he named Providence as in the Divine Providence. for their new settlement was alone in its twenty-four hours in expressly supplying for spiritual freedom and a separation of church from province. Roger Williams returned to England two times to forestall the effort of other settlements to take over Providence and to rent or integrate Providence and other nearby communities into the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
[ 12 ]
A map of the Connecticut. New Haven. and Saybrook settlements. Subsequently in 1636. Thomas Hooker left Massachusetts with one 100 followings and found a new English colony merely north of the Dutch Fort Hoop that would subsequently go Connecticut Colony. The community was foremost named Newtown so shortly afterwards renamed to Hartford to honour the English town of Hertford. One of the grounds Hooker left was because merely admitted members of the church could vote and take part in the authorities. which he believed should include any big male having belongings. The Connecticut Colony was non the first colony ( Dutch were foremost ) . or even the first English colony ( Windsor would be foremost in 1633 ) . Thomas Hooker would obtain a royal charter and set up Cardinal Orders. considered to be one of the first fundamental laws in North America. Other settlements. including New Haven and Saybrook would subsequently be merged into the royal charter for the Connecticut Colony. [ 13 ]
Whaling in little wooden boats with manus harpoons was a risky endeavor. even when runing the “right” giant. The earliest settlements in the New England Colonies were normally angling small towns or farming communities along the more fertile land along the rivers. While the bouldery dirt in the New England Colonies was non every bit fertile as the Middle or Southern Colonies. the land provided rich resources including lumber that was valued for edifice of places and ships. Timber was besides a resource that could be exported back to England. where there was a deficit of lumber. In add-on. the hunting of wild life provided pelts to be traded and nutrient for the tabular array. The New England Colonies were located near the ocean where there was an copiousness of giants. fish and other marketable sea life. Excellent seaports and some inland waterways offered protection for ships and were besides valuable for fresh H2O fishing.
The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony named the colony on the Shawmut Peninsula as Boston. For most of the early old ages. Boston was the largest metropolis in all of the British Colonial America. [ 14 ] By the terminal of the 17th century. New England settlers had tapped into a straggling Atlantic trade web that connected them to the English fatherland every bit good as the West African slave seashore. the Caribbean’s plantation islands. and the Iberian Peninsula. Settlers relied upon British and European imports for glass. linens. hardware. machinery. and other points found around a colonist’s family. In contrast to the Southern Colonies. which could bring forth baccy. rice. and indigo in exchange for imports. New England’s settlements could non offer much to England beyond fish. and pelts. and pound severally. Inflation was a major issue in the economic system.
Indian Slavery in New England
In the position of the Plymouth tribunal. the captivity of indigens that were arising against English authorization was rather lawful. This was a policy that had been traveling on for decennaries in Ireland. peculiarly at least since the clip of Elizabeth I. and during the mid-17th century Cromwell wars in Britain and Ireland where big Numberss of Irish. Welsh and Scots captives were sent as slaves to plantations in the West Indies. particularly to Barbados and Jamaica. [ 15 ]
The income provided by selling Indian prisoners as slaves was helpful financially in covering war costs and in taking indigens from the settlement who were considered potentially unsafe – and in consequence made more native lands available to English colonists.
One individual among the settlement hierarchy who did talk out at that clip against Indian captivity was military leader Benjamin Church. whose militia company ironically was responsible in August 1676 for the violent death of King Philip. He said. in the summer of 1675 sing Indian bondage. “an action so hateful…that ( I ) opposed it to the loss of the good will and esteem of some that before were ( my ) good friends. ” This said. Church. like many Englishmans in the settlement. would be an proprietor of African slaves himself. [ 16 ]
Ships transporting native peoples as slaves began to go forth New England ports for topographic points far off late in 1675. and by the following summer the transporting out of slaves had turned into a regular procedure that removed what was considered unsafe native males by saying that “no male prisoner above the age of 14 old ages should shack in the settlement. ” That autumn. they had King Philip’s nine-year-old boy in their custodies and non known what to make with him – some wanted to put to death the male child – but in the terminal he. as his female parent had been. was shipped off as a slave. [ 17 ]
It is estimated that during King Philip’s War at least a thousand New England Indians were sold as slaves. with over half of those coming from Plymouth. By the terminal of the war. small towns that were one time crowded Indian population centres were empty of dwellers. [ 18 ]
In the New England Colonies. the first colonies of Pilgrims. along with the ulterior Puritans taught their kids how to read and compose for concern and family direction intents. in add-on to following their assorted religions. Depending upon societal and fiscal position. instruction was taught by private governesses. homeschooling and grammar schools. which included some or more topics from reading. composing to Latin and math.